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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 229891 matches for " Jo L Barton "
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The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all
Valerie F Gladwell, Daniel K Brown, Carly Wood, Gavin R Sandercock, Jo L Barton
Extreme Physiology & Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2046-7648-2-3
Abstract: Most discussions of human interactions with the environment concern the potential challenges they place on one another. These usually concern the extreme environmental demands such as those seen at high altitude, at depth or in extremes of temperature. Alternatively, they express the growing human population’s ongoing tendency to negatively influence the delicate balance of nature, which developed for millions of years prior to our evolutionary invasion.With the multiplicity of the ‘great outdoors’ including forests, seaside, countryside, parks, local green areas and even gardens, another conversation considers the role of environment in benefiting human health. Green or natural spaces have been considered to be advantageous for health for many years. For example, in the UK during the 19th century Industrial Revolution, wealthy philanthropists developed urban parks for the benefit of the public’s health, and hospital gardens were considered an important addition for their believed healing properties [1,2]. A study in the early 21st century has further supported this belief, demonstrating an association between improved health outcomes and amount of surrounding ‘green space’ [3,4]. Subsequently, how and why the great outdoors may elicit health benefits has become a focal point for research.Our hunter-gatherer ancestors existed with the outdoor natural environment for thousands of years, and it is hypothesised that this provides present day humans with an innate affiliation with nature [5]. In addition, nature provides an environment that does not require our direct attention, giving nature restorative properties therefore allowing recovery from mental fatigue [6] and attention restoration [7]. Although in the Western world, less people are involved in the natural environment on a daily basis, in particular reduced numbers working on the land, many people seek out nature and undertake outdoor recreational activities. Currently, there is an increasing trend for people
Se-Bearing Colloidal Particles Produced by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria: TEM Study  [PDF]
Huifang Xu, Larry L. Barton
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.32031
Abstract:

As determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the reduction of selenate and selenite by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, produces spherical (Se, S) sub-micro particles outside the cell. The particles are crystalline or amorphous, depending on medium composition. Amorphous-like Se-rich spherical particles may also occur inside the bacterial cells. The bacteria are more active in the reduction of selenite than selenate. The Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacterium is able to extract S in the (S, Se) solid solution particles and transform S-rich particles into Se-rich and Se crystals. Photoautotrophs, such as Chromatium spp., are able to oxidize sulfide (S2-). When the bacteria grow in sulfide- and selenide-bearing environments, they produce amorphous-like (S, Se) globules inside the cells. TEM results show that compositional zonation in the (S, Se) globules occur in Chromatium spp. collected from a top sediment layer of a Se-contaminated pond. S2- may be from the products of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Both the sulfate-reducing bacteria and photosynthetic Chromatium metabolize S preferentially over Se. It is proposed that the S-rich zones are formed during photosynthesis (day) period, and the Se-rich zones are formed during respiration active (night) period. The results indicate that both Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Chromatium spp. are able to immobilize the oxidized selenium (selenate and/or selenite) in the forms of elemental selenium and (Se, S) solid solutions. The bacteria reduce S in the (Se, S) particles and further enrich Se in the crystalline particles. The reduced S combines with Fe2+ to form amorphous FeS.

Patient preferences and satisfaction in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologic therapy
Jennifer L Barton
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S5835
Abstract: tient preferences and satisfaction in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologic therapy Review (5709) Total Article Views Authors: Jennifer L Barton Published Date November 2009 Volume 2009:3 Pages 335 - 344 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S5835 Jennifer L Barton Division of Rheumatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Significant advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been made over the past 10 years with the introduction of biologic therapies, such as the TNF inhibitors. With these medications, many patients with RA have seen significant improvement in symptoms, function, and quality of life. However, with the introduction of the biologics, decision-making for this chronic disease that affects up to 1% of the population has become even more complex. Patient preferences for mode and frequency of administration, and for certain risks vs benefits as well as medication beliefs are central to uptake and adherence to these medications. This review examines the current literature on patient satisfaction, adherence, and preference for biologic therapy in RA.
Patient preferences and satisfaction in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologic therapy
Jennifer L Barton
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2009,
Abstract: Jennifer L BartonDivision of Rheumatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USAAbstract: Significant advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been made over the past 10 years with the introduction of biologic therapies, such as the TNF inhibitors. With these medications, many patients with RA have seen significant improvement in symptoms, function, and quality of life. However, with the introduction of the biologics, decision-making for this chronic disease that affects up to 1% of the population has become even more complex. Patient preferences for mode and frequency of administration, and for certain risks vs benefits as well as medication beliefs are central to uptake and adherence to these medications. This review examines the current literature on patient satisfaction, adherence, and preference for biologic therapy in RA.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, patient preference, adherence, biologics
Adenoviral Vectors in Veterinary Vaccine Development: Potential for Further Development  [PDF]
Olasumbo L. Ndi, Mary D. Barton, Thiru Vanniasinkam
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2013.33016
Abstract: Vaccines are an integral part of veterinary disease prevention. However there are still a significant number of veterinary diseases for which vaccines do not currently exist or where currently available vaccines do not provide adequate immunity. Adenoviruses have transitioned from tools for gene replacement therapy to bona fide vaccine delivery vehicles because of their ability to elicit potent cell-mediated and humoral responses making them ideal for use against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. Adenoviral vector based vaccines are likely to play a significant role in overcoming these problems in the future. However, this vector is under utilized in veterinary vaccine development at this time. This review focuses on adenoviral vector based vaccines developed to date and explores the potential for veterinary vaccine development based upon this platform: advantages and potential disadvantages of this technology are discussed as well as the potential for developing efficacious commercial veterinary adenoviral vector based vaccines.

Parabolic-Dish Solar Concentrators of Film on Foam
Sean A. Barton,Ian L. Winger
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Parabolic and spherical mirrors are constructed of aluminized PET polyester film on urethane foam. During construction, the chosen shape of the mirror is created by manipulating the elastic/plastic behavior of the film with air pressure. Foam is then applied to the film and, once hardened, air pressure is removed. At an f-number of 0.68, preliminary models have an optical angular spread of less than 0.25 degrees, a factor of 3.3 smaller than that for a perfectly spherical mirror. The possibility exists for creating large-lightweight mirrors with excellent shape and stiffness. These "film-on-foam" construction techniques may also be applicable to parabolic-trough solar concentrators but do not appear to be suitable for optical imaging applications because of irregularities in the film.
Diabetes, minor depression and health care utilization and expenditures: a retrospective database study
Lori Nichols, Phoebe L Barton, Judith Glazner, Marianne McCollum
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-5-4
Abstract: Among adult 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey respondents, diabetes was identified by diagnosis code and self-report. Depression was identified by diagnosis code plus ≥ one antidepressant prescription. Odds of having depression was estimated in people with diabetes and the general population, adjusted for sociodemographic variables (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity). Multivariate regressions evaluated factors associated with utilization and log-transformed expenditures for ambulatory care, hospitalizations, emergency visits, and prescriptions.In 2003, 1932 respondents had diabetes, 435/1932 had diabetes and minor depression. Adults with diabetes were more likely than the general population to have depression (adjusted OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.56, 2.09). People with diabetes with versus without comorbid depression were more likely to be women, have lower incomes and health status, and more diabetes complications (all p < 0.05). In unadjusted analyses, ambulatory care visits were higher for those with versus without depression (17.9 vs. 11.4, p = 0.04), as were prescriptions (60.7 vs. 38.1, p = 0.05). In adjusted analyses, depression was not associated with increased resource use or higher expenditures in any category. Increased number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased resource use in all categories, and increased expenditures for ambulatory care and prescriptions.People with diabetes are twice as likely to have depression as the general population. Screening for and treatment of depression is warranted, as is additional research into a causal relationship between diabetes and depression.Diabetes and depression are costly chronic medical conditions, suffered by millions of Americans every year. The American Diabetes Association estimates that 20.8 million people had diabetes in 2005.[1] In 2002, total expenditures for people with diabetes in the U.S. (including all inpatient care, outpatient care and pharmaceuticals for all health conditions – not only d
Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex
Patrik Lindenfors, Charles L Nunn, Robert A Barton
BMC Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-20
Abstract: The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size.Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on physical conflicts, but no traces of increased demands on sociocognitive tasks. Conversely, female sociality is indicated to have driven the evolution of socio-cognitive skills. Primate brain architecture is therefore likely to be a product of ecological and species-specific social factors as well as different sex-specific selection pressures. Our results also highlight the need for acquisition and analysis of sex-specific brain components in mammals.Primate brain architecture has been shown to correlate with both ecological [1-3] and social [4-9] factors. Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes, however, which should leave predictable marks in the relative sizes of key brain structures [4,8-11]. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between selection in relation to sex and the evolution of brain architecture in primates, and to draw attention to this largely neglected aspect of mammalian brain evolution.Selection in relation to sex occurs whenever any genetically influenced morphological trait or behavior increases the fitness of one sex, but not the other. One well-known instance of this process in mammals is male-male competition for sexual access to females, which has resulted in a diverse array of characters important for males in conflict situations [1
Phase diagram of a generalized ABC model on the interval
John Barton,Joel L. Lebowitz,Eugene R. Speer
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s10955-011-0279-7
Abstract: We study the equilibrium phase diagram of a generalized ABC model on an interval of the one-dimensional lattice: each site $i=1,...,N$ is occupied by a particle of type $\a=A,B,C,$ with the average density of each particle species $N_\a/N=r_\a$ fixed. These particles interact via a mean field non-reflection-symmetric pair interaction. The interaction need not be invariant under cyclic permutation of the particle species as in the standard ABC model studied earlier. We prove in some cases and conjecture in others that the scaled infinite system $N\rw\infty$, $i/N\rw x\in[0,1]$ has a unique density profile $\p_\a(x)$ except for some special values of the $r_\a$ for which the system undergoes a second order phase transition from a uniform to a nonuniform periodic profile at a critical temperature $T_c=3\sqrt{r_A r_B r_C}/2\pi$.
The grand canonical ABC model: a reflection asymmetric mean field Potts model
John Barton,Joel L. Lebowitz,Eugene R. Speer
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/44/6/065005
Abstract: We investigate the phase diagram of a three-component system of particles on a one-dimensional filled lattice, or equivalently of a one-dimensional three-state Potts model, with reflection asymmetric mean field interactions. The three types of particles are designated as $A$, $B$, and $C$. The system is described by a grand canonical ensemble with temperature $T$ and chemical potentials $T\lambda_A$, $T\lambda_B$, and $T\lambda_C$. We find that for $\lambda_A=\lambda_B=\lambda_C$ the system undergoes a phase transition from a uniform density to a continuum of phases at a critical temperature $\hat T_c=(2\pi/\sqrt3)^{-1}$. For other values of the chemical potentials the system has a unique equilibrium state. As is the case for the canonical ensemble for this $ABC$ model, the grand canonical ensemble is the stationary measure satisfying detailed balance for a natural dynamics. We note that $\hat T_c=3T_c$, where $T_c$ is the critical temperature for a similar transition in the canonical ensemble at fixed equal densities $r_A=r_B=r_C=1/3$.
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