Abstract:
There are two very common sayings about corpse (dead body). The first common saying is that “the corpse is a silent witness who never lies” and the other common saying is that “the dead body is extremely eloquent and honestly informative, if one exercises patience in listening to it.” Both these sayings were proved in one of our cases. In the present case, decomposed body of an unidentified female individual aged about 25 - 26 years was recovered from the bank of western Yamuna canal in Haryana. The police made the efforts for establishing the identity of the deceased but could not succeed. The body was forwarded to the district hospital for autopsy along with the inquest report. However, the body being in advanced stage of decomposition so it was referred from the district hospital to the department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMS, Rohtak (Haryana) for the examination and the expert opinion regarding the cause of death. The findings observed on examination of the body helped to deduce the cause, time and manner of death whereas certain important objective features of identification were also observed and ultimately proper identity of the deceased could be established beyond the reasonable doubt by DNA profile of the samples preserved at autopsy. The autopsy findings, DNA profile and the results of examination of other materials (exhibits) taken from the body not only revealed the truth from the silent witness—the corpse, but also provided objective and scientific evidence to establish the corpus delicti in this case.

Abstract:
Ad hoc networks are characterized by wireless connectivity, continuous changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenge due to mobility and thus is a current area of research. In context of Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) we can say that Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is collection of multi-hop wireless mobile nodes that communicate with each other without centralized control or established infrastructure. The wireless links in this network are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, interference and less infrastructure. Considering the importance of reactive routing protocols, we have all protocols share similar on- demand behavior, but their internal mechanisms lead to significant difference in their performance of the protocols by various network load and mobility. In recent years, several routing protocols have been proposed for mobile ad hoc networks and prominent among them are DSR, AODV, TORA and RDMAR. This research paper provides an overview of RDMAR protocol by presenting its characteristics, functionality, benefits and limitations.We concentrate on RDMAR routing protocol

Abstract:
Washing is simply bulk removal of the liquor surrounding the pulp fibers. In a laboratory washing cell, the mechanism of the displacement washing of unbleached Kraft pulp was investigated. The efficiency of displacement washing depends on the degree of mixing and also on the rate of desorption and diffusion of dissolved solids and chemicals from the pulp fibers. Using the step function input change method, the washing breakthrough curves obtained experimentally were described by the axially dispersed plug flow model. A correlation between Peclet numbers, Kappa numbers the wash yield, and pH of wash liquid was derived as well.The level of sorbed sodium varies with kappa number and pH. The effect of the superficial wash liquid velocity and of the mobility of displacing and displaced liquids upon the axial dispersion coefficient was discussed.

Abstract:
In order to study the structure of $A^+(B_n)$ -- the affine near-semiring over a Brandt semigroup -- this work completely characterizes the Green's classes of its semigroup reducts. In this connection, this work characterizes the elements of $A^+(B_n)$ and reports the size of $A^+(B_n)$. Further, idempotents and regular elements of the semigroup reducts of $A^+(B_n)$ have also been characterized and studied some relevant semigroups in $A^+(B_n)$.

Abstract:
This work investigates the rank properties of $A^+(B_n)$, the multiplicative semigroup reduct of the affine near-semirings over an aperiodic Brandt semigroup $B_n$. In this connection, the work obtains the small rank, lower rank and large rank of $A^+(B_n)$. Further, the work provides lower bounds for intermediate rank and upper rank of $A^+(B_n)$.

Abstract:
This work investigates the rank properties of $A^+(B_n)$, the additive semigroup reduct of affine near-semiring over Brandt semigroup $B_n$. In this connection, this work reports the ranks $r_1$, $r_2$, $r_3$ and $r_5$ of $A^+(B_n)$ and identifies a lower bound for the upper rank $r_4(A^+(B_n))$. While this lower bound is found to be the $r_4(A^+(B_n))$ for $n \ge 6$, in other cases where $2 \le n \le 5$, the upper rank of $A^+(B_n)$ is still open for investigation.

Abstract:
The \emph{large rank} of a finite semigroup $\Gamma$, denoted by $r_5(\Gamma)$, is the least number $n$ such that every subset of $\Gamma$ with $n$ elements generates $\Gamma$. Howie and Ribeiro showed that $r_5(\Gamma) = |V| + 1$, where $V$ is a largest proper subsemigroup of $\Gamma$. This work considers the complementary concept of subsemigroups, called \emph{prime subsets}, and gives an alternative approach to find the large rank of a finite semigroup. In this connection, the paper provides a shorter proof of Howie and Ribeiro's result about the large rank of Brandt semigroups. Further, this work obtains the large rank of the semigroup of order-preserving singular selfmaps.

Abstract:
The syntactic semigroup problem is to decide whether a given finite semigroup is syntactic or not. This work investigates the syntactic semigroup problem for both the semigroup reducts of $A^+(B_n)$, the affine near-semiring over a Brandt semigroup $B_n$. It is ascertained that both the semigroup reducts of $A^+(B_n)$ are syntactic semigroups.

Abstract:
A highly efficient eco-friendly synthesis of hydrazides directly from carboxylic acids is described under solvent-free conditions using grinding technique.