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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 927 matches for " Jiri Frohlich "
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Statins but not fibrates improve the atherogenic to anti-atherogenic lipoprotein particle ratio: a randomized crossover study
Sammy Y Chan, GB John Mancini, Andrew Ignaszewski, Jiri Frohlich
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-8-10
Abstract: 35 subjects (21 males; 60 ± 12 y) were enrolled in a crossover study. Subjects had baseline lipid profile & apoB. Lipoprotein subclasses, particle numbers and diameters were assessed with NMR spectroscopy. Subjects were randomized to simvastatin 20 mg or fenofibrate 200 mg. Repeat testing was done at 12 weeks. After 6 week washout, subjects were started on alternate drug for 12 weeks with pre/post tests.Both therapies resulted in expected changes in lipids and apoB. Decreases in total cholesterol, LDL and apoB were greater with simvastatin. Fenofibrate led to small increase in HDL. Both therapies decreased LDLP. Reduction in LDLP was greater with simvastatin (32%, p < .001) compared to fenofibrate (17%; p = .036 vs pre; p = .027 vs simvastatin end). Fenofibrate resulted in 17% rise in large LDLP (p = .06 vs pre) and 32% drop in small LDLP (p = .007 vs pre). Simvastatin led to decrease in both LDLP fractions (19% large LDLP; p = .001 vs fenofibrate end; 34% small LDLP, p = .019 vs pre). With fenofibrate, LDLP size increased from 20.4 nm to 20.8 nm (p = .037). There was no change in LDLP size with simvastatin. There was 18% increase in HDL particle number (HDLP) with fenofibrate (p = .05). There were no changes in HDLP with simvastatin. There were no changes in HDLP size with either drug. Pre- and post-therapy LDLP/HDLP ratio was similar with fenofibrate but was reduced by simvastatin (p = .045).Simvastatin reduced LDLP across all subclasses with no effect on size. Simvastatin had no effect on HDLP. Fenofibrate had weak effect on LDLP number but increased LDLP size by raising large LDLP and reducing small LDLP. Fenofibrate had weak effect on HDLP number with no change in size. Importantly, net atherogenic to antiatherogenic lipoprotein ratio (LDLP/HDLP) was reduced by simvastatin but not by fenofibrate.Prospective, placebo controlled primary and secondary prevention trials have shown that cholesterol lowering reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality[1,2]. Most o
Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Participants of a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program
Alejandra Farias Godoy,Andrew Ignaszewski,Jiri Frohlich,Scott A. Lear
ISRN Cardiology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/736314
Abstract:
Coronary artery calcium findings in asymptomatic subjects with family history of premature coronary artery disease
Catalin Taraboanta, Cameron Hague, John G.B. Mancini, Bruce B. Forster, Jiri Frohlich
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-12-53
Abstract: We scanned, using 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography, 57 asymptomatic FDRs (47?±?9?years old; 44% male, 56% female), out of the 111 FDRs previously phenotyped for cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. The controls were 616 individuals (57?±?10?years old; 76% male, 24% female) with no family history of cardiovascular disease, chest pain or diabetes selected out of the 3500 subjects scanned between 2002 and 2007. FDRs had higher risk of abnormal CAC scores compared to controls; odds ratio (OR) for the 75th percentile was 1.96 (95% CI 1.04 – 3.67, p?<?0.05).The frequency of abnormal CAC scores is two-fold higher in asymptomatic FDRs than in controls. CAC scan provides additional information on CV risk assessment in asymptomatic FDRs, particularly for those in the intermediate risk category.NCT00387595
Incidence of pancreatitis, secondary causes, and treatment of patients referred to a specialty lipid clinic with severe hypertriglyceridemia: a retrospective cohort study
Supna Sandhu, Ahmad Al-Sarraf, Catalin Taraboanta, Jiri Frohlich, Gordon A Francis
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-157
Abstract: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients presenting non-acutely to the Healthy Heart Program Lipid Clinic at St. Paul's Hospital with a TG level > 20 mM (1772 mg/dl) between 1986 and 2007. Ninety-five patients with TG > 20 mM at the time of referral were identified, in who follow up data was available for 84. Fifteen patients (15.8%), with a mean outpatient TG level of 38.1 mM, had a history of acute pancreatitis. Among 91 additional patients with less severe HTG, none had a history of pancreatitis when TG were between 10 and 20 mM. Among patients with TG > 20 mM on presentation, 8 (8.5%), with a mean TG level of 67.8 mM, exhibited eruptive xanthomata. A diet high in carbohydrates and fats (79%) and obesity (47.6%) were the two most frequent secondary causes of HTG at initial visit. By 2009, among patients with follow up data 53% exhibited either pre-diabetes or overt Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Upon referral only 23 patients (24%) were receiving a fibrate as either monotherapy or part of combination lipid-lowering therapy. Following initial assessment by a lipid specialist this rose to 84%, and remained at 67% at the last follow up visit.These results suggest hypertriglyceridemia is unlikely to be the primary cause of acute pancreatitis unless TG levels are > 20 mM, that dysglycemia, a diet high in carbohydrates and fats, and obesity are the main secondary causes of HTG, and that fibrates are frequently overlooked as the drug of first choice for severe HTG.Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), classically defined as fasting plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides, TG) > 2.3 mM or 200 mg/dl, or 1.7 mM (150 mg/dl) in the definition of metabolic syndrome [1], is a common laboratory finding. Severe hypertriglyceridemia, e.g., TG > 20 mM (1772 mg/dl), is much rarer and almost always caused by a combination of inherited and secondary factors [2,3]. Genetic disorders leading to hypertriglyceridemia include familial combined hyperlipidemia, familial hypertriglyceridemia,
A randomized controlled trial of an extensive lifestyle management intervention (ELMI) following cardiac rehabilitation: study design and baseline data
Scott A Lear, Andrew Ignaszewski, Wolfgang Linden, Anka Brozic, Marla Kiess, John J Spinelli, P Haydn Pritchard, Jiri J Frohlich
Trials , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1468-6708-3-9
Abstract: Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) were randomized following a standard CRP to the ELMI or to usual care. The ELMI program is a case-managed intervention aimed at individualizing risk factor and lifestyle management based on current treatment guidelines. The program consists of cardiac rehabilitation sessions, telephone follow-up and risk factor and lifestyle counselling sessions. Health professionals work with participants using behavioural counselling and communications with participants' family physicians. Usual care participants return to their family physicians' care, and come to the study clinic only to undergo annual outcomes assessment. The primary outcome is change in IHD global risk after four years. Secondary outcomes include combined cardiovascular events, health care utilization, lifestyle adherence, quality of life and risk factors.Over 28 months, 302 men and women were randomized. This represented 29% of the total population screened. The average age of study participants is 64 years, 18% are women, 53% have had a previous myocardial infarction, 73% have undergone previous revascularization and 20% have diabetes mellitus. Ischemic heart disease risk factors for the entire cohort improved significantly after subjects had gone through previous CRPs. Baseline risk factors, lifestyle behaviours and medications were similar between the groups.This study population is representative of patients completing a standard CRP. Results of the ELMI trial will provide valuable information for the future design of CRPs.Current cardiac rehabilitation programs (CRPs) employ pharmacological management, smoking cessation, nutrition, and exercise and behavioural counselling to effectively manage ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk factors and to promote favourable lifestyle changes. Previous research has demonstrated that CRPs can reduce morbidity and mortality as well as cost of care. [1-5] Studies such as the Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project (SCRIP) and
Political Leadership in German History
Stefan Frohlich
Scienza & Politica : per una Storia delle Dottrine , 1996, DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-9618/2930
Abstract: Political Leadership in German History
Assessment of HIV/AIDS Stigma in a Rural Namibian Community  [PDF]
Penehafo Angula, Busisiwe Purity Ncama, Janet Frohlich
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53023
Abstract: Namibia has been affected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic with infected and affected persons experiencing stigma at different levels. Despite the high level of knowledge?on HIV/AIDS, stigma remains a challenge. It was for this reason that this paper describes and measures the level of HIV/AIDS stigma in a rural community in Namibia. Mixed methods were used to collect data from 224 participants consisting of 93 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who were recruited voluntarily from their support groups, 77 family members nominated by PLWHA participants, 31 community members who were recruited through simple random sampling and 19 opinion leaders who were purposefully selected and four health care workers from an Antiretroviral clinic who were available at the time of this study. Three measurement instruments namely HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWHA (HASI-P), Family & Community Stigma Instrument (F&C-SI) and HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurse (HASI- N) were used. In-depth interviews were conducted to complement the quantitative results. The study found that stigma manifests in different ways and results revealed that verbal abuse (55%, n = 50, PLWHA), social isolation (73%, n = 67), negative self-perception (33%, n = 30), and household stigma (26% n = 19, family members) were the most common form of stigma experienced by PLWHA. Furthermore health care workers reported stigma of association (50%, n = 2) as care providers for people living with HIV/AIDS. The study concluded that stigma exists although some scores such as fear of contagion and workplace stigma were low. Therefore, interventions in knowledge on basic facts of HIV transmission need to be strengthened. Nonetheless the majority of participants confirmed their willingness to care for sick relatives with HIV and AIDS. This study did not explore stigma of association against caregivers with other participants other than the four health care workers from the antiretroviral clinic. Future researchers can take this further.
Ischemia and fibrosis: the risk mechanisms of hypertensive heart disease
Frohlich, E.D.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2000000600010
Abstract: mechanisms underlying risk associated with hypertensive heart disease (hhd) and left ventricular hypertrophy (lvh) are discussed in this report and provide a rationale for understanding this very common and important cause of death from hypertension and its complications. emphasized are impaired coronary hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction, and ventricular fibrosis from increased collagen deposition intramurally and perivascularly. each is exacerbated by aging and, perhaps, also by increased dietary salt intake. these functional and structural changes promote further endothelial dysfunction, altered coronary hemodynamics, and diastolic as well as systolic ventricular contractile function in hhd. the clinical endpoints of hhd include angina pectoris (with or without atherosclerosis of the epicardial coronary arteries), myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, lethal dysrhythmias, and sudden death. the major concept to be derived from these alterations is that not all that is clinically recognized as lvh is true myocytic hypertrophy and structural remodeling. other major co-morbid changes occur that serve to increase cardiovascular risk including impaired coronary hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction, and ventricular fibrosis.
Analyses IR quantitatives des sédiments. Exemple du dosage du quartz et de la calcite Quantitative Ir Analysis of Sediments. Example of Quartz and Calcite Determination
Pichard C.,Frohlich F.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1986048
Abstract: Plus généralement utilisée pour l'étude des phases fluides, la spectrophotométrie d'absorption infrarouge a trouvé un important champ d'application dans l'analyse minéralogique quantitative globale des roches sédimentaires. En s'appuyant sur deux exemples précis de constituants importants des sédiments (quartz et calcite), on montre ici les différentes possibilités analytiques avec échantillon seul, compensation du diluant pur, compensation d'un minéral pur et compensation d'un minéral en mélange artificiel et naturel (roche sédimentaire). On décrit les modifications subies par les spectres et des courbes d'étalonnages sont dressées dans chaque cas. Les données recueillies permettent de vérifier l'utilisation légitime de la loi d'absorption pour ces analyses infrarouges de phases solides impliquant une compensation, et donc un traitement des spectres originaux, l'erreur relative maximale expérimentale ne dépassant pas quelques pourcents dans les cas les plus défavorables. Dans les limites du dosage de minéraux à composition chimique et structure cristalline fixes, l'analyse d'un minéral par sa compensation partielle peut être d'un grand intérêt pour des constituants majeurs de roches, car autorisant l'analyse là où une concentration trop élevée l'aurait interdite. Cette méthode de compensation est plus délicate, voire impossible, pour les solutions solides ou tout minéral à formule chimique variable. D'une manière générale, les principaux constituants des roches sédimentaires peuvent être ainsi quantifiés sur un seul spectre par l'analyse IR qui offre donc la possibilité d'une définition numérique des faciès. Although it is more generally used for analyzing fluid phases, infrared absorption spectrophotometry has found an important area of application in the bulk quantitative mineralogical analysis of sedimentary rocks. On the basis of two specific examples of important constituents of sediments (quartz and calcite), this article shows the different analytical possibilities with a sample alone, with compensation for a pure diluent, with compensation for a single mineral and with compensation for a mineral in an artificial and a natural mixture (sedimentary rock). The changes undergone by the spectra are described, and calibration curves are plotted in each case. The data gathered are used to check the justified use of the absorption law for these solid-phase infrared analysis, involving a compensation, and hence the processing of the original spectra, with the maximum relative experimental error being no more than several percent in the most unfavorable
Ischemia and fibrosis: the risk mechanisms of hypertensive heart disease
Frohlich E.D.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000,
Abstract: Mechanisms underlying risk associated with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are discussed in this report and provide a rationale for understanding this very common and important cause of death from hypertension and its complications. Emphasized are impaired coronary hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction, and ventricular fibrosis from increased collagen deposition intramurally and perivascularly. Each is exacerbated by aging and, perhaps, also by increased dietary salt intake. These functional and structural changes promote further endothelial dysfunction, altered coronary hemodynamics, and diastolic as well as systolic ventricular contractile function in HHD. The clinical endpoints of HHD include angina pectoris (with or without atherosclerosis of the epicardial coronary arteries), myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, lethal dysrhythmias, and sudden death. The major concept to be derived from these alterations is that not all that is clinically recognized as LVH is true myocytic hypertrophy and structural remodeling. Other major co-morbid changes occur that serve to increase cardiovascular risk including impaired coronary hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction, and ventricular fibrosis.
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