Abstract:
Bone-like nanohydroxyapatite powders (b-nanoHA) were synthesized in simulated body fluid (SBF). The b-nanoHA, gelatin (Gel) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were used to prepare bone-like composites (b-nanoHA/ Gel/PVA) at room temperature. Characterizations of b-nanoHA powders and b-nanoHA/Gel/PVA composites were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bending strength and compressive strength of the composite were tested. It was found that microstructure of the b-nanoHA powders was whisker shape and its crystalline degree was low similar to natural bone, bending strength and compressive strength of the b-nanoHA/Gel/PVA composite depended on the mixing ratio of HA, Gel and PVA, and also PVA could induce the network formation in the b-nanoHA/Gel/ PVA composite.

Abstract:
The Riemann hypothesis is part of Hilbert’s eighth problem in David Hilbert’s list of 23 unsolved problems. It is also one of the Clay Mathematics Institute’s Millennium Prize Problems. Some mathematicians consider it the most important unresolved problem in pure mathematics. Many mathematicians made a lot of efforts; they don’t have to prove the Riemann hypothesis. In this paper, I use the analytic methods to deny the Riemann Hypothesis; if there’s something wrong, please criticize and correct me.

The consequences of sharp
rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide
concentration ([CO_{2}]) and global warming on vascular plants have
raised great concerns, but researches focusing on non-vascular epiphytes remain
sparse. We transplanted nine common cryptogamic epiphyte species (3 bryophytes,
6 lichens) from field sites to growth chambers (control, elevated [CO_{2}],
elevated temperature, elevated [CO_{2}] and temperature) and monitored
their growth and health at regular intervals in a subtropical montane forest in
Ailao Mountains in southwestern China. Our results implied a dim future for
nonvascular epiphytes, especially lichens, in a warming world. The initial rise
in temperature and decrease in water availability from field sites to the
control chamber had remarkable negative impacts on growth and health of nonvascular epiphytes, many of which
turned brown or died back. Although elevated [CO_{2}] in chambers had no significant
effects on growth of any of the experimental species, further warming caused significant negative impacts on growth of Lobaria retigera (Bory) Trev. In
addition, elevated [CO_{2}] and temperature have a significant interaction
on growth of four experimental lichens. Considering
the ecological importance of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens for the
subtropical montane forest ecosystems and high sensitivity to environmental
changes, people may underestimate global change impacts to nonvascular
epiphytes, or even the whole forest ecosystems.

Abstract:
We consider the existence and multiplicity of concave positive solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equation with -Laplacian operator , , , , , where , , , denotes the Caputo derivative, and is continuous function, , ,？？ . By using fixed point theorem, the results for existence and multiplicity of concave positive solutions to the above boundary value problem are obtained. Finally, an example is given to show the effectiveness of our works. 1. Introduction As we know, boundary value problems of integer-order differential equations have been intensively studied; see [1–5] and therein. Recently, due to the wide development of its theory of fractional calculus itself as well as its applications, fractional differential equations have been constantly attracting attention of many scholars; see, for example, [6–15]. In [7], Jafari and Gejji used the adomian decomposition method for solving the existence of solutions of boundary value problem: In [9], by using fixed point theorems on cones, Dehghani and Ghanbari considered triple positive solutions of nonlinear fractional boundary value problem: where is the standard Riemann-Liouvill derivative. But we think that Green’s function in [9] is wrong; if , then, Green's function cannot be decided by . In [11], using fixed point theorems on cones, Zhang investigated the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions of the following problem: where is the Caputo fractional derivative. In [12], by means of Schauder fixed-point theorem, Su and Liu studied the existence of nonlinear fractional boundary value problem involving Caputo's derivative: To the best of our knowledge, the existence of concave positive solutions of fractional order equation is seldom considered and investigated. Motivated by the above arguments, the main objective of this paper is to investigate the existence and multiplicity of concave positive solutions of boundary value problem of fractional differential equation with -Laplacian operator as follows: where , , , denotes the Caputo derivative, and is continuous function, , , , By using fixed point theorem, some results for multiplicity of concave positive solutions to the above boundary value problems are obtained. Finally, an example is given to show the effectiveness of our works. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we will introduce some lemmas and definitions which will be used later. In Section 3, the multiplicity of concave positive solutions for the boundary value problem (1.5) will be discussed. 2. Basic Definitions and

Abstract:
We consider the existence and uniqueness of positive solution to nonzero boundary values problem for a coupled system of fractional differential equations. The differential operator is taken in the standard Riemann-Liouville sense. By using Banach fixed point theorem and nonlinear differentiation of Leray-Schauder type, the existence and uniqueness of positive solution are obtained. Two examples are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the obtained results. 1. Introduction Fractional differential equation can describe many phenomena in various fields of science and engineering such as control, porous media, electrochemistry, viscoelasticity, and electromagnetic. There are many papers dealing with the existence and uniqueness of solution for nonlinear fractional differential equation; see, for example, [1–5]. In [1], the authors investigated a singular coupled system with initial value problems of fractional order. In [2], Su discussed a boundary value problem of coupled system with zero boundary values. By means of Schauder fixed point theorem, the existence of the solution is obtained. The nonzero boundary values problem of nonlinear fractional differential equations is more difficult and complicated. No contributions exist, as far as we know, concerning the existence of positive solution for coupled system of nonlinear fractional differential equations with nonzero boundary values. In this paper, we consider the existence and uniqueness of positive solution to nonzero boundary values problem for a coupled system of nonlinear fractional differential equations: where , are given functions, and is the standard Riemann-Liouville differentiation. By using Banach fixed point theorem and nonlinear differentiation of Leray-Schauder type, some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of positive solution to the above coupled boundary values problem are obtained. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we introduce some basic definitions and preliminaries used in later. In Section 3, the existence and uniqueness of positive solution for the coupled boundary values problem (1.1) will be discussed, and examples are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the obtained results. 2. Basic Definitions and Preliminaries In this section, we introduce some basic definitions and lemmas which are used throughout this paper. Definition 2.1 (see [6, 7]). The fractional integral of order of a function is given by provided that the right side is pointwise defined on . Definition 2.2 (see [6, 7]). The fractional derivative of order of a

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is first to introduce the concept of total quasi--asymptotically nonexpansive mapping which contains many kinds of mappings as its special cases and then to use a hybrid algorithm to introduce a new iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions for a system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems and the set of common fixed points for a countable family of total quasi--asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Under suitable conditions some strong convergence theorems are established in an uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach space with Kadec-Klee property. The results presented in the paper improve and extend some recent results.

Abstract:
The velvet protein, VeA, is involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes. In this study, we explored functions of FgVeA in the wheat head blight pathogen, Fusarium graminearum,using a gene replacement strategy. The FgVEA deletion mutant exhibited a reduction in aerial hyphae formation, hydrophobicity, and deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis. Deletion of FgVEA gene led to an increase in conidial production, but a delay in conidial germination. Pathogencity assays showed that the mutant was impaired in virulence on flowering wheat head. Sensitivity tests to various stresses exhibited that the FgVEA deletion mutant showed increased resistance to osmotic stress and cell wall-damaging agents, but increased sensitivity to iprodione and fludioxonil fungicides. Ultrastructural and histochemical analyses revealed that conidia of FgVeA deletion mutant contained an unusually high number of large lipid droplets, which is in agreement with the observation that the mutant accumulated a higher basal level of glycerol than the wild-type progenitor. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in the FgVEA mutant confirmed that FgVeA was involved in various cellular processes. Additionally, six proteins interacting with FgVeA were identified by yeast two hybrid assays in current study. These results indicate that FgVeA plays a critical role in a variety of cellular processes in F. graminearum.

Abstract:
Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. seedlings grown in nutrient solution were subjected to increasing concentrations of Cd2+ (0, 1, 10, 100 μM). Variation in tolerance to cadmium toxicity was studied based on chromosome aberrations, nucleoli structure and reconstruction of root tip cells, Cd accumulation and mineral metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and changes in the antioxidative defense system (SOD, CAT, POD) in leaves and roots of the seedlings. Cd induced chromosome aberrations including C-mitoses, chromosome bridges, chromosome fragments and chromosome stickiness. Cd induced the production of some particles of argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and even extruded from the nucleoli into the cytoplasm after a high Cd concentration or prolonged Cd stress, and nucleolar reconstruction was inhibited. In Cd2+-treated Allium cepa var. agrogarum plants the metal was largely restricted to the roots; very little of it was transported to aerial parts. Adding Cd2+ to the nutrient solution affected mineral metabolism. For example, at 100 μM Cd it reduced the levels of Mn, Cu and Zn in roots, bulbs and leaves. Malondialdehyde content in roots and leaves increased with treatment time and increased concentration of Cd. Antioxidant enzymes appear to play a key role in resistance to Cd under stress conditions.

Abstract:
An iron-catalyzed oxidative C-C bond formation by the reactions of simple toluene derivatives with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is developed. A benzylic radical addition to a benzoylmethanato iron species is proposed for the transformation.