Abstract:
The incidence of accidental injection or catheterization of the subdural space during performance of a neuroaxial block has recently increased. It can occur even when an experienced practitioner performs the neuraxial procedure. The presentation of numerous unexplainable clinical signs in the process of continuous epidural anesthesia, which do not fit the clinical picture of subarachnoid or intravascular injection, should envoke a high suspicion for unintentional subdural block. We report two cases of patients who achieved prolonged labor analgesia via epidural technique with only half the initial loading dose of local anesthetic. Both patients also had short episodes of hypotension. Additionally, one patient presented with severe hypoxemia and mild motor block of both upper and lower extremities. The other patient presented with transit unresponsiveness without motor block. Both patients rapidly responded to vasopressors. Desaturation in one patient, however, was persistent lasting for more than four hours. Her bedside chest X-ray was inconclusive “possible pulmonary edema” and the follow up Chest CT Scan on the second day revealed aspiration pneumonia. Based on the clinical findings, these two cases were suggestive of subdural block with cranial nerve involvement.

In this paper, we consider a SVIR-B cholera model with imperfect vaccination. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local asymptotically stability of a disease-free equilibrium and an endemic equilibrium is established. We calculate the certain threshold known as the basic reproduction number R_{v}. If R_{v} < 1, we obtain sufficient conditions for the global asymptotically stability of the disease- free equilibrium, the diseases will be eliminated from the community. By comparison arguments, it is proved that if R_{v} > 1, the unique endemic equilibrium is local asymptotically stable. We perform sensitivity analysis of R_{v} on the parameters in order to determine their relative importance to disease control and show that an imperfect vaccine is always beneficial in reducing disease spread within the community.

Abstract:
The development of sensor technology promotes the transformation of the intelligent learning environment. Through the research of the sensor technology application, this paper described the intelligent learning environment application system of the sensor technology and the management functions, conference organization, a library building, information collection, monitoring and equipment sharing function the role of sensor technology played in the intelligent learning environment.

Abstract:
Among all the issues that restrict the application of Li-air battery, poor power performances of O_{2} cathode comes first. In this paper, we establish carbon (Super P)/LiM_{x}O_{y} (LiMn_{2}O_{4}/LiFePO_{4}/LiNi_{1/3}Co_{1/3}Mn_{1/3}O_{2}) hybrid cathode to promote the power output of conventional carbon cathode through continuous Li^{+}-insertion reaction of LiM_{x}O_{y} and Li^{+} transportation in bulk LiM_{x}O_{y} during the discharging process. Weight and volume specific power performances of the hybrid cathode are much higher than those of traditional Super P carbon cathode. The mechanism of improving power performance of O_{2} cathode has also been discussed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry method in this paper.

Abstract:
The purpose of the present paper is to establish some new criteria for the classification of the sublinear differential equation as of the nonlinear limit circle type or of the nonlinear limit point type. The criteria presented here generalize some known results in the literature. 1. Introduction In 1910, Weyl [1] published his now classical paper on eigenvalue problems for second-order linear differential equations of the form He classified this equation to be of the limit circle type if each solution is square integrable (denoted by ), that is, and to be of the limit point type if at least one solution does not belong to , that is, Weyl showed that the linear equation (1.1) always has at least one square integrable solution if Im . Thus, for second-order linear equations with Im , the problem reduces to whether (1.1) has one (limit point type) or two (limit circle type) linearly independent square integrable solutions. This is known as the Weyl Alternative. Weyl also proved that if (1.1) is of the limit circle type for some , then it is of the limit circle type for all . In particular, this is true for , that is, if we can show the following equation is of limit circle type, then (1.1) is of the limit circle type for all values of . There has been considerable interest in this problem over the years (see [1–10] and references cited therein). The analogous problem for nonlinear equations is relatively new and not as extensively studied as the linear cases. For a survey of known results on the linear and nonlinear problems as well as their relationships to other properties of solutions such as boundedness, oscillation, and convergence to zero, we refer the reader to the recent monograph [10]. In this paper, we will discuss the equation with damping term where and are continuous, , , , , and , , say , and are positive integers, we can write , where . When , then (1.5) turns into the following equation which is widely researched by many authors (see [10] and references cited therein). Definition 1.1 (see [2]). A nontrivial solution of (1.5) is said to be of the nonlinear limit circle type if and it is of the nonlinear limit point type otherwise, that is, there exists a nontrivial solution satisfying Equation (1.5) is said to be of the nonlinear limit circle type if all its solutions satisfy (1.7), and it is said to be of the nonlinear limit point type if there is at least one solution satisfying (1.8). In this paper, we will give sufficient and necessary conditions to guarantee the nonlinear limit circle type or nonlinear limit point type for (1.5). 2.

Abstract:
This paper, for the first time to our knowledge, provides theoretical insight on the drawback of the double filtering procedure. We show that fold change assumes all genes to have a common variance while t statistic assumes gene-specific variances. The two statistics are based on contradicting assumptions. Under the assumption that gene variances arise from a mixture of a common variance and gene-specific variances, we develop the theoretically most powerful likelihood ratio test statistic. We further demonstrate that the posterior inference based on a Bayesian mixture model and the widely used significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) statistic are better approximations to the likelihood ratio test than the double filtering procedure.We demonstrate through hypothesis testing theory, simulation studies and real data examples, that well constructed shrinkage testing methods, which can be united under the mixture gene variance assumption, can considerably outperform the double filtering procedure.With the development of microarray technologies, researchers now can measure the relative expressions of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, the number of replicates per gene is usually small, far less than the number of genes. Many statistical methods have been developed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes. The use of fold change is among the first practice. It can be inefficient and erroneous because of the additional uncertainty induced by dividing two intensity values. There are variants of Student's t test procedure that conduct a test on each individual gene and then correct for multiple comparisons. The problem is, with a large number of tests and a small number of replicates per gene, the statistics are very unstable. For example, a large t statistic might arise because of an extremely small variance, even with a minor difference in the expression.The disadvantage of fold-change approach and t test has been pointed out by a number of autho

Abstract:
As data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been developed both in theory and application, the calculation of models become more and more important. Although many DEA software tools have been built for the calculation of the DEA models, there are some deficiencies in embedding them into enterprise management information system (MIS). As an extension of this work, an idea was generated in this paper, which could both calculate the DEA and further support the decision making for decision making units (DMUs), i.e., the organizations, in the information environment. This is an attempt to bridge between DEA and MIS. And we could demonstrate this approach for building efficiency evaluation information system. Furthermore, an efficiency evaluation information system of company A, which was built by ourselves, was shown to illustrate our purpose.

Abstract:
The first part (Sections 1-6) of this paper is a survey of some of the recent developments in the theory of Dirac cohomology, especially the relationship of Dirac cohomology with (g,K)-cohomology and nilpotent Lie algebra cohomology; the second part (Sections 7-12) is devoted to understanding the unitary elliptic representations and endoscopic transfer by using the techniques in Dirac cohomology. A few problems and conjectures are proposed for further investigations.

Abstract:
A new filtering algorithm — PSO-UPF was proposed for nonlinear dynamic systems. Basing on the concept of re-sampling, particles with bigger weights should be re-sampled more time, and in the PSO-UPF, after calculating the weight of particles, some particles will join in the refining process, which means that these particles will move to the region with higher weights. This process can be regarded as one-step predefined PSO process, so the proposed algo-rithm is named PSO-UPF. Although the PSO process increases the computing load of PSO-UPF, but the refined weights may make the proposed distribution more closed to the poster distribution. The proposed PSO-UPF algorithm was compared with other several filtering algorithms and the simulating results show that means and variances of PSO-UPF are lower than other filtering algorithms.

Abstract:
Particle filtering (PF) has been widely used in solving nonlinear/non Gaussian filtering problems. Inferring to the target tracking in a wireless sensor network (WSN), distributed PF (DPF) was used due to the limitation of nodes’ computing capacity. In this paper, a novel filtering method—asynchronous DPF (ADPF) for target tracking in WSN is proposed. There are two keys in the proposed algorithm. Firstly, instead of transferring value and weight of particles, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to approximate the posteriori distribution, and only GMM parameters need to be transferred which can reduce the bandwidth and power consumption. Secondly, in order to use sampling information effectively, when target moving to the next cluster head region, the GMM parameters are transfer to the next cluster head, and combine with the new local GMM parameters to compose the new GMM parameters incrementally. The ADPF can also deal with the situation of different number of nodes in different cluster when using the dynamic cluster structure. The proposed ADPF is compared to some other DPF for WSN target tracking, and the experimental results show that not only the precision is improved, but also the bandwidth and power is reduced.