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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27194 matches for " Jin-Phang Loh "
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Effectiveness of Pandemic H1N1-2009 Vaccination in Reducing Laboratory Confirmed Influenza Infections among Military Recruits in Tropical Singapore
Vernon J. Lee, Chi Hsien Tan, Jonathan Yap, Alex R. Cook, Pei-Jun Ting, Jin-Phang Loh, Qiuhan Gao, Mark I. Chen, Wee Lee Kang, Boon Huan Tan, Paul A. Tambyah
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026572
Abstract: Background Limited information is available about pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza vaccine effectiveness in tropical communities. We studied the effectiveness of a pandemic H1N1 vaccination program in reducing influenza cases in Singapore. Methods A surveillance study was conducted among military personnel presenting with febrile respiratory illness from mid-2009 to mid-2010. Consenting individuals underwent nasal washes, which were tested with RT-PCR and subtyped. A vaccination program (inactivated monovalent Panvax H1N1-2009 vaccine) was carried out among recruits. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to quantify relative risks in the pre- and post-vaccination periods. An autoregressive generalised linear model (GLM) was developed to minimise confounding. Results Of 2858 participants, 437(15.3%), 60(2.1%), and 273(9.6%) had pandemic H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B. The ratio of relative risks for pandemic H1N1 infection before and after vaccination for the recruit camp relative to other camps was 0.14(0.016,0.49); for H3N2, 0.44(0.035,1.8); and for influenza B, 18(0.77,89). Using the GLM for the recruit camp, post-vaccination weekly cases decreased by 54%(37%,67%, p<0.001) from that expected without vaccination; influenza B increased by 66 times(9–479 times, p<0.001); with no statistical difference for H3N2 (p = 0.54). Conclusions Pandemic vaccination reduced H1N1-2009 disease burden among military recruits. Routine seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered.
A Clinical Diagnostic Model for Predicting Influenza among Young Adult Military Personnel with Febrile Respiratory Illness in Singapore
Vernon J. Lee,Jonathan Yap,Alex R. Cook,Chi Hsien Tan,Jin-Phang Loh,Wee-Hong Koh,Elizabeth A. S. Lim,Jasper C. W. Liaw,Janet S. W. Chew,Iqbal Hossain,Ka Wei Chan,Pei-Jun Ting,Sock-Hoon Ng,Qiuhan Gao,Paul M. Kelly,Mark I. Chen,Paul A. Tambyah,Boon Huan Tan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017468
Abstract: Influenza infections present with wide-ranging clinical features. We aim to compare the differences in presentation between influenza and non-influenza cases among those with febrile respiratory illness (FRI) to determine predictors of influenza infection.
Serological Response in RT-PCR Confirmed H1N1-2009 Influenza A by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Virus Neutralization Assays: An Observational Study
Mark I. Chen,Ian G. Barr,Gerald C. H. Koh,Vernon J. Lee,Caroline P. S. Lee,Robert Shaw,Cui Lin,Jonathan Yap,Alex R. Cook,Boon Huan Tan,Jin Phang Loh,Timothy Barkham,Vincent T. K. Chow,Raymond T. P. Lin,Yee-Sin Leo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012474
Abstract: We describe the serological response following H1N1-2009 influenza A infections confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rapid identification of chloroquine and atovaquone drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum using high-resolution melt polymerase chain reaction
Linda Gan, Jin Loh
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-134
Abstract: Separate PCR-HRM assays were designed for the detection and differentiation of chloroquine and atovaquone drug resistance haplotypes in P. falciparum. PCR was conducted on a thermal cycler and melt curves generated using a LightScanner. These were tested against reference strains of P. falciparum from MR4 as well as 53 local isolates.The PCR-HRM assays are able to detect and differentiate between the various haplotypes consistently. These assays can also be used to detect new variants.PCR-HRM is an inexpensive option for the determination of drug resistance profile in P. falciparum and will see increasing use as an alternative to sequencing and 5'nuclease PCR assays in reference laboratories or once PCR systems that are able to conduct HRM become commonplace.The molecular basis of chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum is still relatively unclear, and the association of point mutations in different genes with CQR has been largely studied in the last decade. In 2000, the pfcrt gene was identified, which appears to play a crucial role in CQR. A lysine to threonine change at position 76 (K76T), which was subsequently found in every in vitro CQR parasite from around the world, was identified as an important mutation associated with CQR [1]. Although this mutation is not the sole requirement for determining of CQR, the absence of the K76T mutation is highly predictive of CQ sensitivity in vitro and CQ efficacy in vivo [2].Similarly, the molecular basis of atovaquone resistance in P. falciparum has been suggested to be due to mutations in the cytochrome bc1 gene of the parasite mitochondrial genome, which prevents binding of atovaquone to the cytochrome [3]. In particular, mutations at codon 268 are associated with atovaquone/proguanil treatment failure in vivo and can be used as possible resistance markers. Both the amino acid changes, Y268N and Y268S, result in extremely high increase in resistance levels [4]. There are also recent reports of Y268C mutant
Simple Procedure for the Designation of Haar Wavelet Matrices for Differential Equations
Phang Chang,Phang Piau
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract:
Haar Wavelet Matrices Designation in Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations
Phang Chang,Phang Piau
IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract:
Matching the 'Knowing what to do' and the 'Doing what you Know' in Ethical Decision-making
Chang-Yuan Loh,Jin Boon Wong
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Corporate events in the past decades have contributed to a continued interest in the ethicaldecision-making of individuals in accounting. Much of the research in ethics and educationhave relied on the assumption that the individual’s level of ethical development is related tohis/her ethical behavior. Adapting a simplified version of Thorne’s (2000)prescriptive/deliberative reasoning in a cheat-to-gain business scenario, a survey of accountingstudents suggest that ethical development may not be related to behavior. In addition,consistent with Thorne (2001), results suggest that even if individuals may ‘know what to do’for the ideal ethical decision, they may not always actually choose that path or ‘doing whatthey know’.
The Distribution of Sedimentary Organic Matter and Implication of Its Transfer from Changjiang Estuary to Hangzhou Bay, China  [PDF]
Fanglu Xu, Zhongqiang Ji, Kui Wang, Haiyan Jin, Pei Sun Loh
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2016.61010
Abstract: In this study, a comparison was made between the Changjiang Estuary and the Hanghzou Bay, in terms of the sources and diagenesis of the sedimentary organic matter (OM). To achieve this purpose, surface sediments from the estuary and bay were analyzed for lignin-derived phenols, stable carbon isotope and TOC/TN (total organic carbon/total nitrogen) molar ratio. The signal of land-derived OM decreased, and the vanillic acid to vanillin ratio, (Ad/Al)v, increased with increasing distance from the Changjiang Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay. These results corresponded with the contribution of the terrigenous OM from the rivers to the coastal zone, and the predominance ofmarine OM farther offshore, and that the land-derived OM underwent decomposition duringtransport along the estuary and bay. It should be noted that besides the Qiantang River, Hangzhou Bay is also receiving more than half of its materials from Changjiang Estuary, which flows into the Hangzhou Bay at the north, and leaves via the southern part of the bay. This important aspect of the hydrological cycle in Hangzhou Bay corresponded to higher Λ (total lignin in mg/100 mg OC), higher TOC and C/N ratios and more elevated (Ad/Al)v and (Ad/Al)s values in the bay than the Changjiang Estuary, thus, rendering the bay as a site for the accumulation and rapid cycling of terrigenous OM.
R and Bioconductor solutions for alternative splicing detection
Tzulip Phang
Human Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-4-2-131
Abstract: Alternative splicing (AS) is a natural biological process that allows genetic materials from a single locus to produce more than one transcript. The functionality of the resulting isoforms can be grossly different, and could potentially change the landscape of the gene expression network [1]. Furthermore, it has been shown that more than 70 per cent of transcripts in the genome undergo AS [2]. As a result, many human diseases have been directly and indirectly affected by a deficiency in these splice forms [3]. The importance of this phenomenon has triggered the development of biological assays to measure the anomaly, and microarray has become one of the common tools.Several issues arise in analysing exon microarray data. First, the algorithm developed to detect AS has to account for different AS types [4]. Secondly, unlike gene-centric expression arrays, where most genes are labelled by one identifier (ID), exon arrays involve tracking all known and predicted exons for a gene. As genomic annotation becomes more sophisticated, this information could change frequently. Therefore, a comprehensive database management system is required as a back-end support for the exon array analysis. Lastly, the complex task of integrating the statistical analysis, database support and visualisation into a single software system is unquestionably challenging. Furthermore, these integrations should take future algorithm development into confederation.In this review, these issues will be discussed, and the R statistical software system introduced as an integrated environment for AS detection analysis. A series of R packages for performing the analysis workflow with example codes will be outlined.This review discusses tools used to analyse the Affymetrix GeneChip 1.0 ST array. At the time of writing, the manufacturer has produced arrays for human, mouse and rat species. Briefly, the array design consists of 5.4 million 5-μm probes, which are assembled into 1.4 million probesets. The majo
In vitro inhibition of human influenza A virus replication by chloroquine
Eng Ooi, Janet Chew, Jin Loh, Robert CS Chua
Virology Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-3-39
Abstract: Antiviral drugs against influenza virus play an important role in the treatment and prevention of human influenza infection. The adamantanes have been used for decades and resistance to this class of drugs has become prevalent in some parts of the world [1]. The neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, is currently regarded as the first line of defence against a pandemic until a suitable vaccine can be produced in sufficient quantities. Emergence of resistance to this drug in human influenza A viruses [2], as well as the H5N1 subtype in Vietnam [3] is thus a cause for concern. Resistance has not been reported for zanamivir, another neuraminidase inhibitor [4]. Expanding the range of antiviral drugs that effectively inhibit influenza A virus replication is thus a matter of urgency.A recent review has suggested that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine, may have antiviral activity [5]. As a lysosomotropic weak base, it impairs replication of some viruses through reducing the efficiency of endosome-mediated virus entry or through inhibiting the low-pH dependent proteases in trans-Golgi vesicles [5]. Its antiviral activities against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [6] and the SARS coronavirus have been demonstrated [7,8]. Previously, chloroquine had been used to study influenza virus replication in vitro [9]. However, the 0.1 mM concentration used was too high to indicate its therapeutic usefulness [9]. We thus carried out an in vitro antiviral assay to determine the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentration (IC50 and IC90, respectively) of chloroquine against influenza A virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2.The in vitro antiviral screening assay was modified from a previously described method [10] and carried out in triplicates. Influenza A viruses H1N1 (ATCC: VR1520) and H3N2 (ATCC: VR544) were used in this study. Briefly, 50 μl of serial 2-fold dilutions of the chloroquine were incubated overnight with 100 μl of MDCK cells giving a final cell count of 30,000 cells per well in
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