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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5385 matches for " Jillian Anderson "
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Custom astrocyte-mediated vasomotor responses to neuronal energy demand
Jillian L LeMaistre, Christopher M Anderson
Genome Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-2-209
Abstract: In the brain, astrocyte processes are arranged in coordinated non-overlapping spatial domains such that the vast majority of the surface area of cerebral arterioles and capillaries is contacted by astrocyte endfeet [1]. This makes astrocytes uniquely well positioned to send vasoactive signals to the blood-brain barrier. Several studies now present a consensus view that astrocytes respond to input from glutamate-producing (glutamatergic) neurons by increasing intracellular Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid formation, and metabolism of arachidonic acid to produce either vasodilatory [2-6] or vasoconstrictor [5,7] metabolites. The conditions under which astrocytes elicit vasodilation or vasoconstriction have remained largely confusing, as either domination of one effect over the other [2,4,7,8] or both effects have been reported in various tissue slice models [5]. In addition, it has not been clear how astrocyte participation in functional or hypoxic hyperemia (an increase in blood flow) fits with the involvement of metabolic mediators such as adenosine, lactate, H+, K+ and CO2, all of which have been implicated in this critical neurophysiological process [9,10]. A recent report from the laboratory of Brian MacVicar (Gordon et al. [11]) significantly clarifies both these issues. Here we discuss this work and give an overview of the multiple pathways by which astrocytes influence neuronal energy supply.Zonta et al. [2] provided the first direct demonstration that astrocytes in brain slices sense increased levels of glutamate (due to neuronal activity) via metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and respond with an increase in endfoot Ca2+, activation of PLA2 and metabolism of arachidonic acid by COX-1 to produce vasodilatory prostaglandins (probably PGE2) [2,12]. Subsequent studies confirmed a vasoactive role for astrocyte mGluR activation and Ca2+ elevation, but reported vasoconstriction rather than vasodilation [7]; constriction was attributed
Feasibility, Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of a Pantothenic Acid Based Dietary Supplement in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Facial Acne Blemishes  [PDF]
Jillian L. Capodice
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.23026
Abstract: Objective: It has been suggested that pantothenic acid may have antibacterial and skin softening activity. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, tolerability, safety and preliminary efficacy of oral administration of a dietary supplement containing pantothenic acid in healthy human males and females with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Methods: An open-label, single arm study of healthy adults who had been previously diagnosed with mild to moderate acne vulgaris was performed. Subjects were asked to take the study agent, a dietary supplement containing pantothenic acid, for eight weeks. The primary endpoint of the study was to assess the feasibility of oral administration of the study agent in subjects over an eight week period. Safety and tolerability were measured utilizing the assessment of adverse events by the National Cancer Institute’s Common Criteria for Adverse Event Reporting. Secondary endpoints measuring the efficacy of an oral panthothetic acid dietary supplement for the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne utilized changes in the extent of global facial skin blemishes, assessment of quality of life utilizing the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and analysis of questions about the subject's beliefs and attitudes towards skin care and lifestyle. Results: Eleven subjects were enrolled and ten completed the study (90.9%). There were no reported adverse events. Of the 10 evaluable subjects, the average age (mean ± SD) was 31.8 ± 8. Analysis of the global number of skin blemishes demonstrated a significant mean reduction in lesion count following the use of the study agent at week 8 (endpoint) (11.18 ± 6.38, p = 0.02) compared to the average number of baseline blemishes (20.45 ± 10.44). DLQI scores were significantly lower at week 8 vs. baseline (p = 0.0194). Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that the administration of a pantothenic based dietary supplement in healthy human adults with mild to moderate acne vulgaris is feasible, safe and well tolerated. Secondary analysis shows that administration of the study agent significantly reduced global facial blemishes. Further randomized, placebo-controlled trials are warranted.
Major-Effect Alleles at Relatively Few Loci Underlie Distinct Vernalization and Flowering Variation in Arabidopsis Accessions
Amy Strange,Peijin Li,Clare Lister,Jillian Anderson,Norman Warthmann,Chikako Shindo,Judith Irwin,Magnus Nordborg,Caroline Dean
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019949
Abstract: We have explored the genetic basis of variation in vernalization requirement and response in Arabidopsis accessions, selected on the basis of their phenotypic distinctiveness. Phenotyping of F2 populations in different environments, plus fine mapping, indicated possible causative genes. Our data support the identification of FRI and FLC as candidates for the major-effect QTL underlying variation in vernalization response, and identify a weak FLC allele, caused by a Mutator-like transposon, contributing to flowering time variation in two N. American accessions. They also reveal a number of additional QTL that contribute to flowering time variation after saturating vernalization. One of these was the result of expression variation at the FT locus. Overall, our data suggest that distinct phenotypic variation in the vernalization and flowering response of Arabidopsis accessions is accounted for by variation that has arisen independently at relatively few major-effect loci.
The Role of Speciation in Positive Lowenstein-Jensen Culture Isolates from a High Tuberculosis Burden Country
William Worodria, Jillian Anderson, Adithya Cattamanchi, J. Lucian Davis, Saskia den Boon, Alfred Andama, Samuel D. Yoo, Moses Joloba, Laurence Huang, Midori Kato-Maeda
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027017
Abstract: Objective To determine the need for routine speciation of positive Lowenstein-Jensen mycobacterial cultures in HIV-infected patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage Lowenstein-Jensen mycobacterial culture isolates from consecutive, HIV-infected patients admitted to Mulago Hospital with 2 weeks or more of cough were subjected to IS6110 PCR and rpoB genetic analysis to determine the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Results Eighty (100%) mycobacterial cultures from 65 patients were confirmed to be members of MTBC. Subsequent analysis of the cultures from 54 patients by PCR and sequence analyses to identify co-infection with NTM confirmed the presence of MTBC as well as the presence of Micrococcus luteus (n = 4), Janibacter spp. (n = 1) and six cultures had organisms that could not be identified. Conclusions Presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis on the basis of a positive Lowenstein-Jensen culture is sufficient in HIV-infected Ugandans suspected of having tuberculosis. Routine molecular confirmation of positive Lowenstein-Jensen cultures is unnecessary in this low resource setting.
Peer Influence of Non-Industrial Private Forest Owners in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan  [PDF]
Jillian R. Schubert, Audrey L. Mayer
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23018
Abstract: Understanding how non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners gain and share information regarding the management of their property is very important to policy makers, yet our knowledge regarding how and to what degree this information flows over privately owned landscapes is limited. The work described here seeks to address this shortfall. Widely administered surveys with close-ended questions may not adequately capture this information flow within NIPF owner communities. This study used open-ended questions in interviews of clusters of NIPF owners to determine whether and to what extent owners in-fluence each other directly (through conversations or referrals to sources of advice) or indirectly (through observation of management). We obtained data from thirty-four telephone interviews with owners of NIPF properties in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and analyzed the data using open coding. Roughly half of the forest owners we interviewed were influenced either directly or indirectly by other members of their NIPF communities. Reasons for owning forests (such as privacy, hunting and nature recreation, and economics) also influenced owners’ management behaviors and goals. This peer-to-peer flow of information (whether direct or indirect) has significant implications for how to distribute management and programmatic information throughout NIPF owner communities, and how amenable these communities may be to cooperative or cross-boundary programs to achieve ecosystem and landscapescale goals.
Appreciative Inquiry: An Effective Training Alternative to Traditional Adult Learning?  [PDF]
Jillian Webb Day, Courtney L. Holladay
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A166
Abstract:

While the practice of positive psychology has flourished in the last decade, critics still point to the lack of intervention-based research and empirical evidence as a shortcoming of this field. Appreciative inquiry (AI), an intervention with similar theoretical underpinnings as positive psychology, has the capacity to expand what is known about the impact of positivity in the study of organizations. AI is an intervention that uses reflective questions of positive experiences to create new opportunities. However, there is scant research on its effectiveness in real-world settings. This study extends this line of research by evaluating the effectiveness of AI as an alternative to conventional adult learning methodologies, as well as an applied example of an intervention based on positive psychology to study organizational change. Results from changes in pre- and post-assessments following three AI-based interventions, when compared to those from a control group, suggest AI can lead to significant gains in participants’ perceived attitudinal, behavioral, and cognitive learning similar to traditional adult learning methodologies. In addition, these results suggest AI interventions paired with real-world problem solving opportunities yield greater gains in participants’ perceived confidence to demonstrate positive interpersonal skills. Implications for using AI in the course of adult learning are discussed.

A Full Pharmacological Analysis of the Three Turkey β-Adrenoceptors and Comparison with the Human β-Adrenoceptors
Jillian G. Baker
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015487
Abstract: There are three turkey β-adrenoceptors: the original turkey β-adrenoceptor from erythrocytes (tβtrunc, for which the X-ray crystal structure has recently been determined), tβ3C and tβ4C-receptors. This study examined the similarities and differences between these avian receptors and mammalian receptors with regards to binding characteristics and functional high and low affinity agonist conformations.
Der Schutz von Jugendlichen mit physischen Beeintr chtigungen in kanadischen Schulen: Ethische Leitlinien für eine nicht-diskriminierende Praxis Serving Youth with Physical Deformity in Canadian Schools: Ethical Guidelines for Non-Discriminatory Practice Servicio a la juventud con deformidades físicas en escuelas canadienses: directrices éticas para la práctica no discriminatoria
Kristine Edgington,Jillian Roberts
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Physische Beeintr chtigungen haben eine Reihe von schwerwiegenden Effekten auf das psychologische und soziale Leben der betroffenen Menschen. Um Psycholog(inn)en und andere Professionelle, die mit der Ausbildung von Jugendlichen mit physischen Beeintr chtigungen befasst sind, in ihrer Arbeit zu unterstützen, haben wir die Guidelines for Non-Discriminatory Practice der kanadischen Psychologischen Gesellschaft (CPA) für diese Zwecke zu (re-) interpretieren versucht. Die Guidelines for Non-Discriminatory Practice treffen sich mit dem kanadischen Code of Ethics für Psycholog(inn)en (CPA, 2001) und beinhalten: I. Respekt für die Würde der Person, II. Verantwortliche Pflege, III. Integrit t in Beziehungen und IV. Gesellschaftliche Verantwortung. Zus tzlich werden Beispiele für ethische Dilemmata vorgestellt und diskutiert, die bei der Arbeit mit Jugendlichen mit physischen Beeintr chtigungen entstehen k nnen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0502442 Physical deformity has a number of serious affects on an individuals psychological and social functioning. In order to help psychologists and other professionals involved in the education of youth with physical deformity, we have interpreted the Canadian Psychological Association's (CPA) Guideline's for Non-Discriminatory Practice in this context. The general principles of the Guidelines for Non-Discriminatory Practice are consistent with those of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists (CPA, 2001) and include: I. Respect for the Dignity of Persons, II. Responsible Caring, III. Integrity in Relationships, and IV. Responsibility to Society. In addition, several examples of ethical dilemmas that may arise through involvement with students with physical deformity are presented and discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0502442 La deformidad física afecta seriamente al funcionamiento psicológico individual y social. Para ayudar a los psicólogos y otros profesionales implicados en la educación de jóvenes con deformidades físicas, hemos interpretado las Directrices para la Práctica No Discriminatoria de la Asociación Canadiense Psicológica (CPA) en este contexto. Los principios generales de las Directrices para la Práctica No discriminatoria son compatibles con las del Código Canadiense de ética para Psicólogos (CPA, 2001) e incluyen: I. Respeto para la Dignidad de las Personas, II. Cuidado Responsable, III. Integridad en las Relaciones, y IV. Responsabilidad hacia la Sociedad. Además, se presentan y discuten varios ejemplos de los dilemas éticos que pueden surgir por la participación de estudiantes con deformidades físicas. U
A presentation of the differences between the sheep and goat genetic maps
Maddox Jillian F
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-37-s1-s1
Abstract: The current autosomal version (4.2) of the sheep genetic map comprises 1175 loci and spans ~3540 cM. This corresponds to almost complete coverage of the sheep genome. Each chromosome is represented by a single linkage group, with the largest gap between adjacent loci being 19.8 cM. In contrast the 1998 goat genetic map (the most recently published) is much less well developed spanning 2737 cM and comprising only 307 loci. Only one of the goat chromosomes appears to have complete coverage (chromosome 27), and 16 of the chromosomes are comprised of two or more linkage groups, or a linkage group and one or more unlinked markers. The two maps share 218 loci, and the maps have been aligned using the shared loci as reference points. Overall there is good agreement between the maps in terms of homologous loci mapping to equivalent chromosomes in the two species, with only four markers mapping to non-equivalent chromosomes. However, there are lots of inversions in locus order between the sheep and goat chromosomes. Whilst some of these differences in locus order may be genuine, the majority are likely to be a consequence of the paucity of genetic information for the goat map.
Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction
John Woods,Jillian Isenberg
Methodos : Savoirs et Textes , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/methodos.2387
Abstract: Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique. Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.
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