Abstract:
Background Quantile regression, a robust semi-parametric approach, was used to examine the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) across birthweight quantiles with a focus on maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods Using linked birth certificate, inpatient hospital and prenatal claims data we examined live singleton births to non-Hispanic white (NHW, 135,119) and non-Hispanic black (NHB, 76,675) women in South Carolina who delivered 28–44 weeks gestation in 2004–2008. Results At a maternal BMI of 30 kg/m2 at the 90th quantile of birthweight, exposure to GDM was associated with birthweights 84 grams (95% CI 57, 112) higher in NHW and 132 grams (95% CI: 104, 161) higher in NHB. Results at the 50th quantile were 34 grams (95% CI: 17, 51) and 78 grams (95% CI: 56, 100), respectively. At a maternal GWG of 13.5 kg at the 90th quantile of birthweight, exposure to GDM was associated with birthweights 83 grams (95% CI: 57, 109) higher in NHW and 135 grams (95% CI: 103, 167) higher in NHB. Results at the 50th quantile were 55 grams (95% CI: 40, 71) and 69 grams (95% CI: 46, 92), respectively. Summary Our findings indicate that GDM, maternal prepregnancy BMI and GWG increase birthweight more in NHW and NHB infants who are already at the greatest risk of macrosomia or being large for gestational age (LGA), that is those at the 90th rather than the median of the birthweight distribution.

Abstract:
H. Steinhaus asked in the 1950's whether there exists a set in the plane R^2 meeting every isometric copy of Z^2 in precisely one point. Such a "Steinhaus set" was constructed by Jackson and Mauldin. What about three-space R^3? Is there a subset of R^3 meeting every isometric copy of Z^3 in exactly one point? We offer heuristic evidence that the answer is "no".

Abstract:
Let mu(r) be the Bernoulli measure on the Cantor space given as the infinite product of two-point measures with weights r and 1-r. It is a long-standing open problem to characterize those r and s such that mu(r) and mu(s) are topologically equivalent (i.e., there is a homeomorphism from the Cantor space to itself sending mu(r) to mu(s)). The (possibly) weaker property of mu(r) and mu(s) being continuously reducible to each other is equivalent to a property of r and s called binomial equivalence. In this paper we define an algebraic property called "refinability" and show that, if r and s are refinable and binomially equivalent, then mu(r) and mu(s) are topologically equivalent. We then give a class of examples of refinable numbers; in particular, the positive numbers r and s such that s=r^2 and r=1-s^2 are refinable, so the corresponding measures are topologically equivalent.

BACKGROUND: There is
a developing interest in qualitative research to understand
the perspectives and experiences of people
living with obesity. However, obesity is a stigmatised condition associated
with negative stereotypes. Social contexts emphasizing large body size as a
problem, including research interviews,may amplify obesity
stigma. This study reviews the methodology
employed by qualitative studies in which study participants were obese and data
collection involved face-to-face interviews. METHODS: Database searches
identified qualitative studies meeting inclusion criteria from 1995 to 2012.
Following screening and appraisal data were systematically extracted and analyzed
from 31 studies. RESULTS: The studies included 1206 participants with a mean age of 44 years
and mean BMI of37 kg/m^{2}.
Women (78.8%) outnumbered men (21.2%) by four to one. Socio-economic
background was not consistently reported. The studies employed similar,
typically pragmatic, qualitative methodologies, providing rich textual data
on the experience of obesity derived from face-to-face interviews. The majority
considered quality issues in data collection, analyses and generalizability
of findings. However, the studies were weak as regards researcher reflexivity
in relation to interviewer characteristics and obesity stigma. CONCLUSIONS:
The impact of obesity stigma has not been attended to in the qualitative research. Clear information about
study

Abstract:
We present the main concepts and results for Graph Directed Markov Systems that have a finitely irreducible incidence matrix. We then see how these results change when the incidence matrix is not assumed to be finitely irreducible.

Abstract:
In 1950 Maharam asked whether every disintegration of a $\sigma$-finite measure into $\sigma$-finite measures is necessarily uniformly $\sigma$-finite. Over the years under special conditions on the disintegration, the answer was shown to be yes. However, we show here that the answer may depend on the axioms of set theory in the following sense. If CH, the continuum hypothesis holds, then the answer is no. One proof of this leads to some interesting problems in infinitary combinatorics. If G\"odel's axiom of constructibility $\mathbf{V}=\mathbf{L}$ holds, then not only is the answer no, but, of equal interest is the construction of $\mathbf{\Pi}^1_1$ sets with very special properties.

Abstract:
We solve the following counting problem for measure preserving transformations. For $f\in L_+^1(\mu)$, is it true that $\ds \sup_n\frac{\bN_n(f)(x)}{n} <\infty,$ where $$\ds\bN_n(f)(x)= # {k: \frac{f(T^k x)}{k}>\frac 1 n}?$$ One of the consequences is the nonvalidity of J. Bourgain's Return Time Theorem for pairs of $(L^1, L^1)$ functions.

Abstract:
This paper summarizes recommendations from a selection of international research literature urging teachers to take the initiative in their own classrooms to invite paraeducators to participate fully as team players in collaborative work. In US classrooms paraeducators (teacher aides/teacher assistants) have long been making valuable contributions in providing education services to students with a variety of needs. The literature documents change in their roles. Legislation has influenced their required qualifications—although legislation still refers to them as paraprofessionals. While some researchers have cast doubt on whether paraeducators are truly effective in their assigned roles, others have warned that the education system is over-reliant on them. In response to this changing perspective, teacher educators must revise programs to better prepare teacher candidates to effectively team with paraeducators. Personnel developers and school administrators must provide inservice training for a generation of teachers who have received little if any training in this area.

The purpose of this study was to investigate how kindergarten children’s observational drawings impact their information retention. This research was conducted in an urban school in a large metropolitan area in the southwestern United States. Forty-two kindergarten children participated in this study; approximately 97% of them qualified for free and/or reduced lunch. For this study, children’s retention of factual information was compared using a paired t-test of when they drew and when they didn’t. Children scored higher on all 7 items—descriptions of observation, location, action, color, size, shape, and sound—when they drew than when they didn’t. Findings were statistically significant for descriptions of observation (t = 3.08, p = .00) and location (t = 2.36, p = .02).