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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144765 matches for " Jidda B. Umar "
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Infection of Wounds by Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Resistogram  [PDF]
Isyaka M. Tom, Muhammad M. Ibrahim, Askira M. Umoru, Jidda B. Umar, Musa A. Bukar, Ali B. Haruna, Abdullahi Aliyu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105528
Abstract:
The major innate barrier to the establishment of infections in internal tissues is the skin, the disruption of which leads to wound formation. Such wounds can be contaminated by bacterial pathogens thereby hampering the healing process and its management becomes resource demanding. Here, we assess the diversity of potential bacterial pathogens in the infection of different types of wounds among hospitalized patients. Three hundred and twenty wound swab samples were collected and processed via microscopy, and cultured on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate Agar. Isolates were further confirmed using biochemical tests and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. 87.5% of samples collected yielded bacterial growth comprising of single bacterial isolates (52.17%) and polymicrobial/mixed growth (47.82%). Staphylococcus aureus (32.61%) was the most prevalent bacterial specie identified. Gram-negative bacteria (62.33%) were the most pervasive group, chief among which were E. coli (23.64%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.13%). Rate of infection was highest among Wound sepsis and Burns wound where Enterobacter spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent respectively. Differences in wound type in relation to rate of infection with Gram-negative bacteria was statistically significant (f = 5.9592; df = 29; p-value = 0.001645; p < 0.01; Mean ± SD = 7.633 ± 6.3706). Resistivity profile of isolates has shown that the most significant resistance rate was against Amoxicillin and Ampicillin, among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria identified respectively. This suggests that wounds can be infected by potential bacterial pathogens which can exacerbate the progression of the wound and complicate the healing process.
Characterisation of Temperate Urban Lacustrine Surface-Sediments for Minerals and Metals in Comparison with Geochemical Indices and Sediment Quality Criteria  [PDF]
Umar Nazir, Anisa B. Khan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.910068
Abstract: The present surface sediment assessment in two temperate lacustrine ecosystems in the region of anthro-urban intensification in less than a century of progressive human history identifies ecosystem responses through space-time monitoring of variable spectrum and their gradients. Sediments have almost no outliers in box-plots across the select sites that suggest their tranquil nature. But temporal fluctuations in pH, bicarbonates, conductivity, OC, OM, TN and C/N can be visualised during Ca-Si dominance. The estimated percentage elemental composition of surface sediments on dry weight basis revealed the order Si > Ca > Mg > K > Na > P > S > Cl. Besides, the micro and trace element quantification represent the descending series of Fe > Al > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co > As > Sn > Pb > Cd while Hg and Se remained below detection level (BDL). Sediment pH remained on the basic side but slight acidic nature is noticed during late summer. Significant correlation occurs for conductivity with organic C and organic matter (p < 0.01) as the latter serves an established source for nutrient ions. Similar is the case with sediment organic C, organic matter and total N as being complementary to one another. A general slight gradual decline in nutrient concentration till culmination of active macrophytic growth phase can be associated with active/passive bioaccumulation or anoxic release from sediments. The Enrichment Factor classifies each trace element into “No Enrichment” class to “Very High Enrichment” category. The Geochemical Index (Igeo) scale labels “Unpolluted” to “Highly Polluted” element groups in sediments. The construal of Contamination Factor differentiates between “Contaminated” and “Uncontaminated” score of elements. Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) also categorize the sites and lakes. Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG’s) when compared to observed mean values for various elements point to pollution status and associated ecological risks involved.
Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Show Variation in β-Lactamase Production and Are More Susceptible to Antibiotics Conjugated with β-Lactamase Inhibitors  [PDF]
Uzal Umar, Umar Ahmed Faruk, Damoroem M. Tanko, Mohammed B. Yerima
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2016.64019
Abstract: β-Lactam antibiotics are a cornerstone in the treatment of bacterial infections on account of its high therapeutic index and selective toxicity—they act by inhibiting the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, a key component in bacterial cell wall. Ninety (90) clinical specimens obtained from the microbiology unit Specialist Hospital Bauchi were screened for S. aureus, positive isolates were examined for β-Lactamase expression by using two Penicillin G concentrations (5000 IU/ml and 25,000 IU/ml) in acidometric agar technique with phenol red as indicator, and the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to β-Lactam antibiotics was also determined. S. aureus prevalence of 31% (28/90) was obtained, of which 96% (27/28) of strains were β-Lactamase positive in the standard test, while 63% (17/27) were able to hydrolyze penicillin G concentration of 25,000 IU/ml (5X the concentration in the standard test), and a strain was found to be β-Lactamase negative. The resistance to five β-Lactams, ampicillin, cephalexin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and flucloxaillin, were 100%, 96%, 89
Experiences of Violence among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Clinics in Selected Hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria
OS Arulogun, KA Jidda
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Anecdotal records have shown that there is increasing prevalence of gender based violence in Nigeria. Little is known about the extent and magnitude of this phenomenon as it affects pregnant women. This study described the experiences of violence among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in Abuja, Nigeria using a cross-sectional design. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select 300 participants from six hospitals in the three out of the six Local Government Areas in the region. Data was collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Forty three percent of the respondents had experienced at least one form of violence and 15.0% were experiencing violence in their current relationships. Main forms of violence ever experienced were psychological (38.0%) and physical (36.4%). Partners/husbands (70.2%) and partner/husband relatives (29.8) were the perpetrators. Of the partner/husband’s relatives, sisters-in-law (57.1%) and partners’ cousins (21.5%) were the main perpetrators of the forms of violence experienced. Strategies employed to resolve violence conflict included dialogue with spouse (46.7%), ignoring the experience (30.3%), making up with sex (16.7%), providing gifts and special dishes (5.0%) and mediation by family members (1.3%). Health promotion and education intervention strategies such as counselling, male involvement in sexual and reproductive health programs, advocacy for the promotion of women’s health and right as well as use of appropriate culturally sensitive conflict resolution strategies are needed to ameliorate the situation.
Assessment of healthcare waste generated by some selected public hospitals in Katsina State, Nigeria
A Umar, A Yaro, B Abdukarim
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Healthcare wastes include anatomical, pathological and clinical infectious/ hazardous organic and inorganic waste. The waste is disposed off in unscientific manner. The study has been conducted in the government hospitals only to reveal the per day waste generation on each patient, present mode of waste management within the units bed, our suggestions which will help the units to improve their waste management practices, in Katsina State, Nigeria.
Hyperglycemic effect and hypertotoxicity studies of stem bark of Khaya senegalensis and leaf extract of Camellia sinesis
A Gadanya, B Umar, M Atiku
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Hepatotoxic properties of the aqueous leaves of highland tea (Camellia sinesis) and aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis were studied in rats. This was done by assaying the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose and bilirubin in rats administered with 6.5mg/Kg (group A), 4.35mg/Kg (group B) and 3.0mg/Kg (group C) of the extract for seven (7) days respectively. The serum AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, bilirubin (total) and bilirubin (direct) in the control rats (group D) were found to be 7.62 + 1.78U/L, 11.2 + 0.38U/L , 144.9 + 23.90U/L , 4.39 + 0.08mmol/l, 0.14 + 0.03mg/dl and 0.18 + 0.04mg/dl respectively. The serum AST, ALT, glucose, bilirubin (total) and bilirubin (direct) in group A rats showed significant increase (P<0.05) compared to the levels in control rats. Serum AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, bilirubin (total and direct) showed significant increase (P<0.05) in groups B and C rats but were lower than those of group A. The results indicate that the extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark and highland (green) tea leaves caused increased activity of the liver enzymes studied which is an important biochemical symptoms of cytolysis and hepatotoxicity.In addition, administration of the extract led to increase in serum glucose in rats, indicating hyperglycemic effect.
Pattern of eclampsia in a tertiary health facility situated in a semi-rural town in Northern Nigeria
Tukur J,Umar B,Rabi′u A
Annals of African Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background / Objective : To determine the pattern of eclampsia and its contribution to maternal mortality at the Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State in Northern Nigeria. Method : A 4-year retrospective review of the case records of all women who presented with eclampsia at the center. All the case records were retrieved from the medical record department and analyzed. Results : There were 207 cases of eclampsia out of 2197 deliveries during the period giving an incidence of 9.42%. 171(82.6%) of the patients were unbooked. Majority (58.5%) of the patients were aged less than 20 years. The highest frequency (78.3%) was recorded in the primigravida. Delay before reaching the hospital was established in 116(56%) of patients. The condition was antepartum in 68(32.9%), intrapartum in 112(54.1%) and postpartum in 27(13%). 107(51.7%) of the patients were delivered by cesarean section. Twenty two (10.6%) of the mothers died. Eclampsia was the commonest cause of maternal mortality and contributed 43.1% of all maternal deaths. 180(87%) of the babies were delivered alive while 27(13%) died. Conclusion : Eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality. There is need for health education on the need for patients to avail themselves of antenatal care.
Hypertrophic Osteoathropathy without Pachyderma in a Nigerian: A Case Report  [PDF]
Adamu G. Umar, Philip B. Adebayo, Abdullahi A., Ibok I. Okon, Umenze Ikenna
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.56019
Abstract: Hypertrophic osteoathropathy is characterized by triad of digital clubbing, periostosis, and pachyderma. We report the case of a young male Nigerian with asymptomatic idiopathic digital clubbing with neither skin changes nor periosteal reaction. He presented to our hospital with swelling of fingers and toes of about six years’ duration. All his fingers and toes were clubbed with drumstick appearance, no swelling or tenderness of the wrists, elbows, ankles or knees and no skin changes. The laboratory findings were normal. Primary hypertrophic osteoathropathy without pachydermia was entertained when neither skin changes nor periostosis were found. Although primary hypertrophic osteoathropathy without skin involvement is rare, effort should be made to search for secondary causes.
Incidence of dermatophilosis (kirchi) in sheep from livestock markets in Jigawa State
B.B.J. George, Aliyu Ben-Umar
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2002,
Abstract: A survey was conducted between October 1995 and September 2000 in which a total of 475 sheep with clinical manifestations of dermatitis were examined for the presence of Dermatophilus congolensis. Results obtained from samples carried out during the dry season (October to May) showed that only 24(5.25%) were positive for this organism. In samples collected during the wet season (June to September), a total of 49 (10.7%) positive cases were recorded. These figures compared favorably with earlier reports from infections in cattle in which 4-6% infection rate was reported during the dry season and 10-12% in the wet season. It is strongly suggested that sheep are equally susceptible to infection as are cattle and therefore should merit the same attention given to this infection in terms of control in cattle. KEY WORDS: Sheep, Dermatophilosis, Incidence. (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2002 23(2): 46-50)
PERFORMANCE OF BIODIESEL COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL DIESEL FUEL IN STATIONARY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
B.K. HIGHINA,I.M. BUGAJE,B. UMAR
Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: In this study, the technical specification of an internal combustion engine designed for diesel fuel was used for biodiesel. The changes in engine performance, and cycle by cycle (CBC) variations were observed, and their causes were studied. When biodiesel was used as the fuel, acceptable changes occurred in the performance values. The maximum brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) obtained with the biodiesel was slightly higher than that obtained with the diesel fuel, with the difference being just slight under maximum power. While biodiesel increase the maximum engine power, it reduces the brake specific fuel consumption. Changes of maximum cylinder pressure have occurred at the same magnitude for both fuels for the same engine speeds. The best engine performance for biodiesel operates at the engine speed of 2000 rpm to 2500 rpm. The overall analysis has shown that biodiesel has potential as an alternative fuel in conventional internal combustion engines.
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