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The aim of this paper is to analyse for a multi-country large emerging market sample the choice between debt and equity simultaneously with the decision between short- and long-term debts. In order to investigate the joint decision among leverage and maturity, we examine an unique sample of 986 firms and 13,490 firm-year observations from Latin America and 686 firms and 7919 firm-year observations from Eastern Europe for the period 1990-2003. We employ dynamic panel data analysis using Generalized Method of moments. The empirical results support three main findings. First, the cross-effects between leverage and maturity behave exactly the opposite between Latin America and Eastern Europe sub-samples. Capital structure and debt maturity are policy complements in Latin America and substitutes in Eastern Europe. Second, there is a significant dynamic effects component in the determination of leverage and maturity. Finally, adjustment to the target, maturity is by no means costless and instantaneous with firm’s facing moderate adjustment costs.
The anther culture technical was applied to
produce haploid lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The hybrids (K/ A92VM061, K/A92VM067, K/A92VM0611, K/A92VM719,
K/A92VM720 and K/A92VM721) were obtained in order to generate new varieties
from Indica and Japonica cultivars. Morphometric parameters of the grains were
evaluated by image analysis. Flours were prepared from the whole rice grains
and physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties, X-ray diffraction
pattern and evaluation of color using the CIELAB system were assessed. The
hybrids lines showed long (061, 611, 721), medium (719 and 720) and short (067)
grains. The rice samples presented lipids
(2.6% - 3.2%), protein (11% - 15%), total dietary fiber (8.4% - 10.2%),
total starch (65% - 74%) and apparent amylose (5% - 32%) contents.
Gelatinization temperature (Tp) was found in the range of 66.1℃ - 79.4℃ with enthalpy (ΔH)
value between 3.4 - 8.1 J/g. The retrogradation parameters
(temperature and ΔH) were lower than those for gelatinization in all
samples. The rice samples presented A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Rice
pastes showed a non-Newtonian behavior and the brightness (L*) characterize the color of the samples. Hybrid rice
grains presented morphometric properties more similar to Japonica than Indica variety. Rice hybrid had higher protein content than Indica variety. Apparent amylose, viscosity and gelatinization
temperature varied significantly among hybrids and varieties.