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Study on the Production Technology, Elasticities and Market Structure Impact on Profit Formation  [PDF]
Jian Wang, Xuejun Zheng
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36094
Abstract: The size of the profit in a firm or a production system not only depends on the quantity of inputs and outputs, but also depends on the market structure that means the market is perfect competition or imperfect competition. In general, the relationship between output and inputs can be defined as the production structure, which is usually decided by production technology. Therefore, under the market economy system, the production structure regulation has to follow the market structure variation. Here we assume that production technology is a C-D function, and then to determine the effects of different market structures, which we find, they are in close contacted with both production and market structures, especially some variations of elasticities. Through out a series of deduction and equilibrium analysis, the restricted conditions of the maximum profit have been found. Therefore, the consequences show that the values of elasticities have taken an important role in profit obtained for producer, the profits in a perfect competition market hardly depends on market demand elasticity, in which production elasticity requires rather small. However, in the imperfect competition market, monopoly make both price of demand and production elasticities impact on the profit. Those also prove that market monopoly factors make production lose efficiency, or lead to the market failure. In the actual process of production and management, production elasticities and related market information should be strengthened for measurement, which will be useful for analysis price fluctuation risk and management decision.
The Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by CRH3 Train’s Head Surface  [PDF]
Fanguo Kong, Jian Wang
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.58049
Abstract: In order to solve the increasingly serious problem of railway noise which caused by the train’s speed-up, especially the problem of the dominant aerodynamic noise of the high-speed train, it’s necessary to have a numerical simulation analysis for the CRH3 train’s three dimensional flow model. Setting monitoring points in the positions that the surface curvature changes significantly, using the Large Eddy Simulation Method (LES) to have a transient simulation for the CRH3 train which is in the speed of 300 km/h and 350 km/h, applying the acoustics theory of Lighthill-Curle to predict the aerodynamic noise caused by the head of the CRH3 train. The generation and distribution of the train’s aerodynamic noise are analyzed, so as to provide some reasonable suggestions for the design of the train body.
Progress on Research for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China  [PDF]
Jian Wang, Bi Yan Liang
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.13016
Abstract: The mortality rate associated with HIV/AIDS has decreased dramatically after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, issues such as viral reservoirs, drug resistance and side effects have led to a significant crisis in the management of HIV/AIDS. It has become evident that HAART does not offer a complete solution to the problem. Therefore, additional and alternative therapeutic strategies urgently need to be explored. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the mainstays of complementary and alternative medicine, and its use has aroused increasing attention. This paper reviews the recent progress in the use of TCM, from single herbs, herbal ingredients, compound Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and medical care, for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in China. We also review evaluation systems that assess the efficacy of TCM.
Leaf morphological variation among paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) genotypes across Canada  [PDF]
Anjala Pyakurel, Jian R. Wang
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.34033
Abstract:

Variations in leaf morphological characteristics have been extensively studied at both interand intraspecific levels although not explicitly on paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh). Paper birch populations might have considerable genotypic and leaf morphological variations that have allowed them to inhabit wide environmental gradients. In this study, we analyzed variations in leaf morphological characteristics in 23 paper birch populations collected across Canada and grown in a greenhouse. Furthermore, we examined whether the variations in leaf morphological characteristics observed were related to the climate of the population’s origin. We found significant genotypic differences in all leaf morphological characteristics (p < 0.05) measured among the birch populations. Thus, we expected that the morphological variations in birch might be related to natural diversity in birch populations due to environmental differences at habitat origin. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced thirteen leaf morphological variables to five principal components (PC) explaining 84.74% of the total variance in the original data. PCs accumulated with specific leaf area, petiole and leaf width were positively related to latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevational gradients at the population’s origin. Unpredictably, these PCs were significantly negatively correlated to precipitation and aridity index at the origin. Thus, we analyzed if correlations within leaf morphological characteristics had supported the birch populations to acclimate and produce unpredictable relations with the environment of origin. Our results showed that the populations originated in limited precipitation (during growing season) had large leaf width and petiole size but low leaf hairs on adaxial surface. Thus, all these leaf morphological features provide a basis for the birch to reduce water loss from leaves and balance water use efficiency in reduced precipitation. Furthermore, the leaf characteristics measured may also

Interactive Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Soil Water Stress on Leaf Morphological and Anatomical Characteristic of Paper Birch Populations  [PDF]
Anjala Pyakurel, Jian R. Wang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55084
Abstract:

The leaf morphological and stomatal characteristics of four paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) populations, grown at four treatment conditions of carbon dioxide [CO2] and soil water levels were investigated to determine whether future increases in atmospheric [CO2] and water deficit affected the leaf characteristics. The populations from Cussion Lake, Little Oliver, Skimikin and Wayerton were grown for 12 weeks under ambient (360 ppm) and elevated (720 ppm) [CO2] at both high and low water levels. The populations significantly differed in leaf area and stomatal characteristics due to the interaction effects of [CO2], water levels and population differences. Most leaf morphological characteristics and stomatal density varied due to the effects of [CO2] and/or populations, but not due to the effect of water levels. Although elevated [CO2] alone barely affected stomatal area of the birch populations, simultaneous elevated [CO

Leaf Morphological and Stomatal Variations in Paper Birch Populations along Environmental Gradients in Canada  [PDF]
Anjala Pyakurel, Jian R. Wang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511166
Abstract:


Variations in leaf morphology and stomatal characteristics have been extensively studied at both inter- and intraspecific levels although not explicitly in the context of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) populations. The birch populations might have developed the leaf variations that allowed them to adapt to a wide climatic gradient. Therefore, in this study we examined variations in the leaf morphological and stomatal characteristics of sixteen paper birch populations collected across Canada and grown in a common garden. We also examined the relationship between these leaf characteristics and the climate of the population’s origin. Significant genotypic differences were found in the leaf characteristics measured among the birch populations. Thus, we expected that the observed leaf variations may be partly explained as natural diversity in the birch due to differences in environment of origin. We noticed that along mean annual precipitation and aridity gradients, hair density on leaf adaxial surface had decreased whereas stomatal density increased significantly. Our results showed that the populations with larger leaf area and specific leaf area had higher hair density but low stomatal density. These leaf characteristics provided a structural basis in reducing water loss through leaves and increasing water use efficiency. A trade-off between stomatal area and density resulted in this study might be a strategy of the birch to balance stomatal conductance in decreased precipitation.


Radial Growth Responses of Four Deciduous Species to Climate Variables in Central Ontario, Canada  [PDF]
Martin Kwiaton, Jian R. Wang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.614226
Abstract: To address the central question of how climate change influences tree growth within the context of climate will become warmer and drier in central Ontario, we used dendroclimatological analysis to understand the radial growth responses of four co-occurring hardwood species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to climatic variables in central Ontario, Canada. Ring width chronologies were developed for the target species within three regions (Algonquin Park, Haliburton, and North Bay) of the study area. Seven of the eleven chronologies exceeded the 0.85 expressed population signal (EPS) and were used for further analysis. Mean sensitivity and standard deviation values of the Ontario chronologies indicated lower sensitivity to climate fluctuations than in southern North America. Positive correlations with precipitation variables from the current and prior growing season supported previous studies in sugar maple, while a positive response to growing degree days suggested the importance of warmer temperatures and a longer growing season at the northern limit of the distribution range of sugar maple. Yellow birch ring width was correlated with precipitation from the previous growing season and from the end of the current growing season also suggesting that mature trees with deep root systems might utilize moisture from deep soil. Radial growth of American beech positively correlated to precipitation of the previous season, suggesting that the amount of moisture reserves stored in the previous year might affect growth in the following year. Drought stress at the start of the growing season for red oak had negative correlations with precipitation in August indicating possible cessation of cambial activity. This decline in growth process would also affect ring width of red oak the following year as expressed by negative correlations with mean annual temperature from the previous year. Abnormally, warm seasonal temperatures may be indicative of drought stress in red oak.
The additive approximation on a four-variate Jensen-type operator equation
Jian Wang
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171203210486
Abstract: We study the Hyers-Ulam stability theory of a four-variate Jensen-type functional equation by considering the approximate remainder ϕ and obtain the corresponding error formulas. We bring to light the close relation between the β-homogeneity of the norm on F∗-spaces and the approximate remainder ϕ, where we allow p,q,r, and s to be different in their Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability.
A Novel Anonymity Algorithm for Privacy Preserving in Publishing Multiple Sensitive Attributes
Jian Wang
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Publishing the data with multiple sensitive attributes brings us greater challenge than publishing the data with single sensitive attribute in the area of privacy preserving. In this study, we propose a novel privacy preserving model based on k-anonymity called (α, β, k)-anonymity for databases. (α, β, k)- anonymity can be used to protect data with multiple sensitive attributes in data publishing. Then, we set a hierarchy sensitive attribute rule to achieve (α, β, k)-anonymity model and develop the corresponding algorithm to anonymize the micro data by using generalization and hierarchy. We also design experiments to show the application and performance of the proposed algorithm.
A Novel K-NN Classification Algorithm for Privacy Preserving in Cloud Computing
Jian Wang
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: We can only enjoy the full benefits of Cloud computing if we can address the privacy disclosure problem about individual or company. As large amounts of data which are stored in the cloud contain private information and are in non-aggregate format, sharing the data with third-party service providers in the cloud without strict restriction will cause great danger to data privacy. Although increased awareness of the privacy issues in the cloud, little work has been done in privacy-preserving data classification based cloud environment. To solve this problem, we explore a novel algorithm named PPKC (Privacy Preserving K-NN Classification) for mining data in the cloud without the disclosure of sensitive information.
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