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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 673039 matches for " Jesús García-Colunga "
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Nicotine induces intracellular Ca2+ increases in cultured hippocampal astrocytes by nAChR-dependent and -independent pathways  [PDF]
Miriam Hernández-Morales, Jesús García-Colunga
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2014.41005
Abstract:

Nicotine, the major addictive substance in tobacco, interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located in neuronal and glial cells, modulating synaptic transmission and memory. Here, we show that nAChRs agonists, including nicotine, acetylcholine, and choline, increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured hippocampal astrocytes, indicating the involvement of nAChRs. Interestingly, inhibition of nAChRs, with a cocktail of antagonists (mecamylamine, methyllycaconitine plus dihydro-β- erythroidine), does not prevent the astrocytic [Ca2+]i increases generated by nicotine. This last effect would be attributable to inhibition of K+ currents by nicotine in these cells, as previously we showed using patch- clamp recordings. Furthermore, the application of tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of K+ currents, also increases the [Ca2+]i. Together, these results indicate that nicotine increases [Ca2+]i in hippocampal astrocytes through two pathways: by activation of nAChRs, and likely by direct inhibition of K+ currents.

Regional density of glial cells in the rat corpus callosum
Daniel Reyes-Haro,Ernesto Mora-Loyola,Berenice Soria-Ortiz,Jesús García-Colunga
Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Axons and glial cells are the main components of white matter. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter tract in mammals; in rodents, 99% of the cells correspond to glia after postnatal day 5 (P5). The area of the CC varies through life and regional differences related to the number of axons have been previously described. Whether glial cell density varies accordingly is unknown; thus the aim of this study was to estimate glial cell density for the genu, body and splenium -the three main regions of CC-, of P6 and P30 rats. Here we report that the density of CC glial cells reduced by ~10% from P6 to P30. Even so, the density of astrocytes showed a slight increase (+6%), probably due to differentiation of glioblasts. Interestingly, glial cell density decreased for the genu (-21%) and the body (-13%), while for the splenium a minor increase (+5%) was observed. The astrocyte/glia ratio increased (from P6 to P30) for the genu (+27%), body (+17%) and splenium (+4%). Together, our results showed regional differences in glial cell density of the CC. Whether this pattern is modified in some neuropathologies remains to be explored.
Nicotine Uses Neuron-Glia Communication to Enhance Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Memory
Mónica López-Hidalgo, Karla Salgado-Puga, Reynaldo Alvarado-Martínez, Andrea Cristina Medina, Roberto A. Prado-Alcalá, Jesús García-Colunga
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049998
Abstract: Nicotine enhances synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term memory. Now it is known that bi-directional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the physiology of the brain. However, the involvement of glial cells in the effects of nicotine has not been considered until now. In particular, the gliotransmitter D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors, enables different types of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. Here, we report that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity induced by nicotine was annulled by an enzyme that degrades endogenous D-serine, or by an NMDA receptor antagonist that acts at the D-serine binding site. Accordingly, both effects of nicotine: the enhancement of synaptic transmission and facilitation of long-term memory were eliminated by impairing glial cells with fluoroacetate, and were restored with exogenous D-serine. Together, these results show that glial D-serine is essential for the long-term effects of nicotine on synaptic plasticity and memory, and they highlight the roles of glial cells as key participants in brain functions.
La participación de los receptores de acetilcolina nicotínicos en trastornos del Sistema Nervioso Central
Héctor E. López Valdés,Jesús García Colunga
Salud mental , 2003,
Abstract: Los receptores para acetilcolina de tipo nicotínico (R-nic) son canales catiónicos que se abren por la unión del neurotransmisor acetilcolina (AcCo). Estos receptores son proteínas de membrana compuestas por cinco subunidades y son la clave de la transmisión colinérgica nicotínica en la unión neuromuscular, así como en diferentes áreas del Sistema Nervioso Periférico (SNP) y Central (SNC), donde están ampliamente distribuidos. Los R-nic musculares y los del SNP están ubicados postsinápticamente, mediando respuestas excitadoras. En el SNC los R-nic se localizan preferentemente en las neuronas presinápticas, donde modulan la liberación de los neurotransmisores tales como la dopamina, la serotonina, el ácido γ-aminobutírico, la noradrenalina, el AcCo y el glutamato. A la fecha han sido identificados 17 genes diferentes que codifican para subunidades de R-nic. En el músculo esquelético fetal los R-nic están formados por las subunidades α1, β1, γ y δ, mientras que la subunidad γ se cambia por la ε en el músculo adulto. En el sistema nervioso se han identificado las subunidades de los R-nic α2-α10 y las β2-β4, y son α4 y β2 las subunidades predominantes en el cerebro. En el SNC, las diferentes combinaciones de las subunidades producen múltiples subtipos de R-nic, que muestran diferentes propiedades funcionales. Cada subtipo de R-nic podría presentar una distribución regional, celular y subcelular distinta, lo cual podría contribuir a explicar la participación de los R-nic en diferentes procesos fisiológicos y patológicos: la contracción muscular, la memoria, la atención, el aprendizaje, la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la esquizofrenia, la ansiedad y la depresión, entre otros.
Children and Parents’ Perceptions of Family Functioning Relating to Childhood Obesity  [PDF]
Cecilia Colunga Rodríguez, Laura Elizabeth Oliveros Chávez, María de Lourdes Preciado Serrano, Teresita de Jesús Villase?or Cabrera, Mercedes Gabriela Orozco Solis, Mario ángel González, Julio César Vázquez Colunga, Claudia Liliana Vázquez Juárez, Juan Carlos Barrera de León
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.610025
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the perception that children and their parents have about the family functioning relating to childhood obesity. A qualitative study, based on the family systemic theory, was developed. The participants were four children between 10 and 13 years old, with diagnosed obesity, overweight and normal weight, and five of their parents (four females and one male). The techniques used were semi structure interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed to an electronic format. A thematic content analysis was applied, obtaining six categories: communication, beliefs about weight and body image, beliefs about food, family patterns, controlling eating and attempted solutions. The findings suggest the existence of paradox communication in the families, with contradictory and ambiguous instructions about the eating behavior of the child; beliefs about an ideal weight and type of body for children and adults; ideas about the nutritional qualities of the food that classify them as healthy or prejudicial; family norms that differ according to the role of who buys, cooks or allows the ingest of specific foods; children referring difficulties to control the food intake, while the parents point out that someone else is responsible for that lack of control; also, some strategies that the family has tried unsuccessfully to control the children weight were mentioned, such as diet or nutritional treatments. In summary, we conclude that the perception of childhood obesity is shared by parents and children, where the family interactions emerge as an element that maintains the children obesity having a lack of understatement about the necessary actions for the children’s healthy development.
Miguel ángel Martínez Alfaro (23 de octubre de 1942 - 9 de febrero de 2007) el Distrito Federal (México)
Patricia Colunga García Marín,Cristina Mapes Sánchez,Francisco Basurto Pe?a
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México , 2007,
Abstract:
El misionero, las lenguas mayas y la traducción. Nominalismo, tomismo y etnolingüística en Guatemala = Missionaries, Mayan languages and translation. Nominalism, Thomism and ethnolinguistics in Guatemala
Jesús GARCíA RUIZ
1611 : Revista de Historia de la Traducción , 2007,
Abstract: En el siglo XVI, la Inquisición prohibió explícitamente la traducción del evangelio a las lenguas indígenas de América en nombre del trilingüismo (hebreo, griego y latín) defendido a lo largo de la Edad Media; sin embargo, los franciscanos y los dominicos renunciaron a él, lo que los condujo a aprender las lenguas prehispánicas, elaborar diccionarios y traducir los catecismos. La publicación en 1551 del Vocabulario quiché, cakchiquel y tzutuhil y del Catecismo en esas tres lenguas provoca un enfrentamiento ideológico entre franciscanos (escotistas y voluntaristas) y dominicanos (tomistas e intelectualistas) que influirá durante mucho tiempo la reflexión teológica en Guatemala. El franciscano Pedro de Betanzos se negó a utilizar el término qabovil (que significaba ídolo en la tres lenguas) para traducir el concepto de Dios . Los franciscanos, próximos al nominalismo filosófico, consideraban que en ningún caso se debía sustituir una palabra por otra, puesto que el concepto no podía separarse de su expresión terminológica. Los dominicos, en cambio, consideraban que el concepto era autónomo y, por lo tanto, no dependía de la palabra que se suponía que debía expresar. A partir de esta discusión filosófico-teológica, el autor analiza los problemas etnolingüísticos y semánticos planteados en el momento de la evangelización y la traducción del conjunto de los conceptos vinculados con la divinidad, las prácticas rituales, la noción de persona, etcétera. Para ello, el autor utiliza fuentes históricas (crónicas, diccionarios, catecismo), así como los datos del trabajo sobre el terreno obtenidos entre los quiché y los cakchiquel de Guatemala. In the XVlth century, the Inquisition had explicitly prohibited the translation of the gospel into native American languages in the name of 'trilingualism' (Hebrew, Greek and Latin) forbidden all through the Middle Ages, but the Franciscans and Dominicans renounced this, which led them to learn the prehispanic languages, to develop dictionaries and to translate the catechisms. The publication in 1551 of the 'Quiché, Cachiquel and Tzutuhil dictionary' and the 'Catechism' in the three languages, sparked off ideological confrontation between Franciscans (scotists and voluntarists) and Dominicans (tomists and intellectualists) which influenced theological thought during the colonial period in Guatemala for a long time. The Franciscan, Pedro Betanzos, refused to use the term gabovil (which means idol in the three languages) to translate the concept 'God'. The Franciscans, close to philosophical nominalism, considered that un
Los tiempos del cuidado, E l impacto de la dependencia de los mayores en la vida cotidiana de sus fundadores
Jesús Rogero García
Palabras Mayores , 2011,
Abstract: Este documento presenta el marco del cuidado informal a personas mayores con discapacidad, su problemática y contexto social en Espa a. Trata temas como el volumen y distribución del cuidado a mayores, los hogares cuidadores, la dimensión temporal, motivaciones y satisfacciones ante el cuidado informal. Se hacen propuestas para el dise o de políticas públicas y apuntes para investigaciones posteriores en este tema.
Teacher training through the Regression Model in foreign language education
Jesús García Laborda
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: In the last few years, Spain has seen dramatic changes in its educational system. Many of these changes have been rejected by most teachers after their implementation (LOGSE) while others have found potential drawbacks even before starting operating (LOCE, LOE). To face these changes, schools need well qualified instructors. Given this need, and also considering that, although all the schools want the best teachers but, as teachers’ salaries are regulated by the state, few schools can actually offer incentives to their teachers and consequently schools never have the instructors they wish. Apart from this, state schools have a fixed salary for their teachers and private institutions offer no additional bonuses for things like additional training or diplomas (for example, masters or post-degree courses) and, therefore, teachers are rarely interested in pursuing any further studies in methodology or any other related fields such as education or applied linguistics. Although many teachers acknowledge their love to teaching, the current situation in schools (school violence, bad salaries, depression, social desprestige, legal changes and so) has made the teaching job one of the most complicated and undevoted in Spain. It is not unusual to have a couple of instructors ill due to depression and other psychological sicknesses. This paper deals with the development and implementation of a training program based on regressive visualizations of one’s experience both as a teacher as well as a learner.
Rese a de "Portolio Europeo de las Lenguas Académico y Profesional"
Jesús García Laborda
Ibérica , 2010,
Abstract:
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