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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 61686 matches for " Jerry Yu "
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An Efficient and Robust Fall Detection System Using Wireless Gait Analysis Sensor with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) Algorithms  [PDF]
Bhargava Teja Nukala, Naohiro Shibuya, Amanda Rodriguez, Jerry Tsay, Jerry Lopez, Tam Nguyen, Steven Zupancic, Donald Yu-Chun Lie
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor (OJAB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojab.2014.34004
Abstract: In this work, a total of 322 tests were taken on young volunteers by performing 10 different falls, 6 different Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 7 Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) tests using a custom-designed Wireless Gait Analysis Sensor (WGAS). In order to perform automatic fall detection, we used Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the 6 features extracted from the raw data. The WGAS, which includes a tri-axial accelerometer, 2 gyroscopes, and a MSP430 microcontroller, is worn by the subjects at either T4 (at back) or as a belt-clip in front of the waist during the various tests. The raw data is wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time fall classification. The BP ANN is optimized by varying the training, testing and validation data sets and training the network with different learning schemes. SVM is optimized by using three different kernels and selecting the kernel for best classification rate. The overall accuracy of BP ANN is obtained as 98.20% with LM and RPROP training from the T4 data, while from the data taken at the belt, we achieved 98.70% with LM and SCG learning. The overall accuracy using SVM was 98.80% and 98.71% with RBF kernel from the T4 and belt position data, respectively.
Evaluating Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Computational Models in Supporting Cumulative Risk Assessment
Yu-Mei Tan,Harvey Clewell,Jerry Campbell,Melvin Andersen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8051613
Abstract: Simultaneous or sequential exposure to multiple chemicals may cause interactions in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or pharmacodynamics (PD) of the individual chemicals. Such interactions can cause modification of the internal or target dose/response of one chemical in the mixture by other chemical(s), resulting in a change in the toxicity from that predicted from the summation of the effects of the single chemicals using dose additivity. In such cases, conducting quantitative cumulative risk assessment for chemicals present as a mixture is difficult. The uncertainties that arise from PK interactions can be addressed by developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to describe the disposition of chemical mixtures. Further, PK models can be developed to describe mechanisms of action and tissue responses. In this article, PBPK/PD modeling efforts conducted to investigate chemical interactions at the PK and PD levels are reviewed to demonstrate the use of this predictive modeling framework in assessing health risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures.
Caspase Activation of p21-Activated Kinase 2 Occurs During Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells and in SH-SY5Y Cell Culture Models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
Jerry W. Marlin, Yu-Wen E. Chang and Rolf Jakobi
Journal of Cell Death , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/JCD.S4611
Abstract: p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK-2) appears to have a dual function in the regulation of cell survival and cell death. Activation of full-length PAK-2 by the p21 G-proteins Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival. However, PAK-2 is unique among the PAK family because it is also activated through proteolytic cleavage by caspase 3 or similar caspases to generate the constitutively active PAK-2p34 fragment. Caspase activation of PAK-2 correlates with the induction of apoptosis in response to many stimuli and recombinant expression of PAK-2p34 has been shown to stimulate apoptosis in several human cell lines. Here, we show that caspase activation of PAK-2 also occurs during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cell culture models for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I or of ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation, which both appear to be involved in Parkinson’s disease, induce apoptosis and caspase activation of PAK-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein, which results in accumulation and aggregation of β-amyloid peptide, the main component of β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease, also induces apoptosis and caspase activation of PAK-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of the PAK-2 regulatory domain inhibits caspase-activated PAK-2p34 and prevents apoptosis in 293T human embryonic kidney cells, indicating that caspase activation of PAK-2 is directly involved in the apoptotic response. This is the first evidence that caspase activation of PAK-2 correlates with apoptosis in cell culture models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and that selective inhibition of caspase-activated PAK-2p34 could prevent apoptosis.
Caspase Activation of p21-Activated Kinase 2 Occurs During Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells and in SH-SY5Y Cell Culture Models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
Jerry W. Marlin,Yu-Wen E. Chang,Rolf Jakobi
Journal of Cell Death , 2010,
Abstract: p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK-2) appears to have a dual function in the regulation of cell survival and cell death. Activation of full-length PAK-2 by the p21 G-proteins Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival. However, PAK-2 is unique among the PAK family because it is also activated through proteolytic cleavage by caspase 3 or similar caspases to generate the constitutively active PAK-2p34 fragment. Caspase activation of PAK-2 correlates with the induction of apoptosis in response to many stimuli and recombinant expression of PAK-2p34 has been shown to stimulate apoptosis in several human cell lines. Here, we show that caspase activation of PAK-2 also occurs during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cell culture models for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I or of ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation, which both appear to be involved in Parkinson’s disease, induce apoptosis and caspase activation of PAK-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein, which results in accumulation and aggregation of β-amyloid peptide, the main component of β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease, also induces apoptosis and caspase activation of PAK-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of the PAK-2 regulatory domain inhibits caspase-activated PAK-2p34 and prevents apoptosis in 293T human embryonic kidney cells, indicating that caspase activation of PAK-2 is directly involved in the apoptotic response. This is the first evidence that caspase activation of PAK-2 correlates with apoptosis in cell culture models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and that selective inhibition of caspase-activated PAK-2p34 could prevent apoptosis.
A Statistical-Based Framework for Predicting Supplier’s Behavior to Quality Requirement Changes in Supply Chain  [PDF]
Ekaterina Koromyslova, Jerry Visser
iBusiness (IB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2015.74016
Abstract: Companies-manufacturers have to deal with demand and supply uncertainties. They need to adjust to changing customer needs and to be able to pass new quality requirements through the supply chain. Even if suppliers’ performance is satisfactory in stable environment, they can behave differently in dynamic situation. Some suppliers can fail to meet new quality requirements or even quit the supply chain. Underestimation of suppliers’ motivation can lead to loss of sales, customers, and can face the situation of need of new supplier search. The goal of this paper is to highlight an importance of consideration of informal factors in relationships with supply chain and to discuss a methodology of approach to predict high risk suppliers for changing quality requirements.
Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum as a Feedstock by Multiple Harvests for Sustainable Bioenergy Production  [PDF]
Mingli Wang, Zhanguo Xin, Brandon Tonnis, Glenn Farrell, David Pinnow, Zhenbang Chen, Jerry Davis, Jianming Yu, Yen-Con Hung, Gary A. Pederson
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.24019
Abstract:

Sweet sorghum has become an important feedstock for bioethanol production. Total sugar yield and multiple harvests can directly affect ethanol production cost. Little is known about stem traits and multiple harvests that contribute to sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Stem traits were evaluated from 25 sweet and grain sorghum accessions. Stems were harvested twice at the soft-dough stage and the stems were pressed with a hydraulic press. Sugars in the stem juice were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Sweet sorghum produced five times more fresh stem weight and dry stem mass (830 gand164 g) than grain sorghum (150 gand27g). Sweet sorghum produced a much higher volume of juice and higher yield of sugars (366 ml and42 g) per stem than grain sorghum (70 ml and4 g). Significant variability in fresh stem weight (72 - 1837 g), juice volume (31 - 753 ml), sugar yield (3 - 81 g), dry stem mass (14 - 383 g), and sugar yield/dry stem mass ratio (0.11 - 0.53) per stem was detected among sweet sorghum accessions. Stem sugar yield was significantly correlated with stem fresh weight and juice volume. Sorghum was harvested twice within one growing season resulting in some sweet sorghum accessions producing double amount of sugars. Sweet sorghum produced three times more dry mass weight (bagasse) than fermentable sugar weight. To reduce feedstock cost, methods have to be developed for efficiently utilizing bagasse. Our results showed high fresh stem weight, high ratio of sugar yield to dry stem mass, and double harvests are prime traits to boost sugar yield. Sweet sorghum may be suitable for multiple harvests in certain regions of theU.S.TheU.S.sweet sorghum collection needs to be screened for acces- sions that can be harvested twice with an extended feedstock-production season and used as a feedstock for sustainable and renewable bioenergy production.

Comparison of Stem Damage and Carbohydrate Composition in the Stem Juice between Sugarcane and Sweet Sorghum Harvested before and after Late Fall Frost  [PDF]
Ming Li Wang, Marsha Cole, Brandon Tonnis, David Pinnow, Zhanguo Xin, Jerry Davis, Yen-Con Hung, Jianming Yu, Gary A. Pederson, Gillian Eggleston
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2014.43015
Abstract:

A late fall frost may significantly affect sugar crops’ stem sugar composition, yield and juice quality for biofuel and bioproduct manufacture. Research on the effects of late fall frost in sugarcane is well documented, but information is lacking for sweet sorghum. Three and six commercial cultivars of sugarcane and sweet sorghum, respectively, were selected and evaluated for exposure to a late fall frost (-2.8°C) in Griffin, Georgia, USA. Under the same controlled environmental conditions in a screen house, the late fall frost induced more damage to sugarcane than sweet sorghum stems. The frost caused damage to sugarcane tissue and for juice to exude from stems, whereas similar behavior was not observed for sweet sorghum. In both sugarcane and sweet sorghum, the glucose/fructose ratio was significantly reduced, but this change may not be totally directly related to the frost effect. Overall, these initial results suggest that sweet sorghum may have a better tolerance to fall frost than sugarcane. Two sweet sorghum cultivars, Grassl and M81E, responded well to the late fall frost, and they can possibly be used as feedstocks for biofuel/bioproduct manufacture in areas susceptible to frosts including northern regions of the Southeastern US.

Interaction of Carbon Dioxide Enrichment and Soil Moisture on Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water Use Efficiency of Soybean  [PDF]
Madegowda Madhu, Jerry L. Hatfield
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.55043
Abstract:

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important oil and protein sources in the world. Interactive effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and soil water availability potentially impact future food security of the world under climate change. A rhizotron growth chamber experiment was conducted to study soil moisture interactions with elevated CO2 on gaseous exchange parameters of soybean under two CO2 concentrations (380 and 800 μmol·mol-1) with three soil moisture levels. Elevated CO2 decreased photosynthetic rate (11.1% and 10.8%), stomatal conductance (40.5% and 36.0%), intercellular CO2 concentration (16.68% and 12.28%), relative intercellular CO2 concentration (17.4% and 11.2%), and transpiration rate (43.6% and 39%) at 42 and 47 DAP. This down-regulation of photosynthesis was probably caused by low leaf nitrogen content and decrease in uptake of nutrients due to decrease in stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased under elevated CO2 because increase in total dry weight of plant was greater than that of water use under high CO2 conditions. Plants under normal and high soil moisture levels had significantly higher photosynthetic rate (7% to 16%) favored by optimum soil moisture content and high specific water content of soybean plants. Total dry matter production was significantly high when plants grown under elevated CO2 with normal (74.3% to 137.3%) soil moisture level. Photosynthetic rate was significantly and positively correlated with leaf conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration but WUE was significantly negatively correlated with leaf conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate. However, the effect of high CO2 on plants depends on availability of nutrients and soil moisture for positive feedback from CO2 enrichment.

Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Soil Moisture on Early Growth Response of Soybean  [PDF]
M. Madhu, Jerry L. Hatfield
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.62027
Abstract:

Interactions between elevated [CO2] and soil water availability have the potential impact on crops and future food security of the world. The study was conducted to investigate vegetative growth response of soybeans under two [CO2] (380 and 800 μmol mol-1) with three soil moisture levels in controlled environment. Slow growth rate and altered crop phenology of soybeans were observed under elevated [CO2] at early stage (V-3/V-4), but showed positive physiologically response at later stage (R3) indicating adoptive mechanism of plants to high [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] decreases the number of leaves by 23% and 14% and reduces in leaf areas by 11.7% and 9.7% compared with ambient [CO2] at 29 and 44 days after planting (DAP), respectively. Adaptive mechanism of plants to high [CO2] produced 39% and 83.7% greater leaf number and leaf areas, respectively at later stage (R3) of the crop growth (59 DAP). There was a reduction in a specific leaf area (SLA) at 29 DAP (22.2%) but an increase at 44 DAP (1.4%) and 58 DAP (8.5%) under elevated [CO2]. Dry matter production of plants was increased significantly for elevated [CO2]. Increase in leaf C (<1%) and reduction in N concentration (6.0% - 9.5%) increased the C:N ratio of soybean leaves (4.4% - 12.98%) under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] with normal soil moisture condition produced a maximum number of pods (54.8% - 122.4%) and an increase in dry weight of pods (29.8% - 56.6%). Plants under elevated [CO2] produced significantly greater numbers of root nodules per plant by 114% compared with plants under ambient [CO2] at 44 DAP. These results show a direct and interactive effect of elevated [CO2] and soil moisture on plant growth that will affect not only the global food security but also nutritional security.

CD91-Dependent Modulation of Immune Responses by Heat Shock Proteins: A Role in Autoimmunity
Robert J. Binder,Yu Jerry Zhou,Michelle N. Messmer,Sudesh Pawaria
Autoimmune Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/863041
Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been known for decades for their ability to protect cells under stressful conditions. In the 1980s a new role was ascribed for several HSPs given their ability to elicit specific immune responses in the setting of cancer and infectious disease. These immune responses have primarily been harnessed for the immunotherapy of cancer in the clinical setting. However, because of the ability of HSPs to prime diverse immune responses, they have also been used for modulation of immune responses during autoimmunity. The apparent dichotomy of immune responses elicited by HSPs is discussed here on a molecular and cellular level. The potential clinical application of HSP-mediated immune responses for therapy of autoimmune diseases is reviewed. 1. Introduction: HSPs in Immunity Expression of HSPs is generally upregulated in cells in response to a variety of stressful conditions including nonphysiological temperature, nutrient deprivation, and hypoxia [1]. It is the inherent chaperoning function of HSPs that allows them to provide their cytoprotective function in assisting correct protein/polypeptide folding and preventing further protein denaturation. It has become evident over the past two decades that the chaperoning function of HSPs also plays a key role in several processes during the development of immune responses [2]. Within the cell, several HSPs act as chaperones of peptides that are ultimately presented by MHC I and MHC II molecules. Thus, the HSPs in the cytosol and in the endoplasmic reticulum form a relay line for the transport of peptides from their formation by the proteasome to the MHC I heavy chain (HC). This is discussed in the next subheading. As the HSPs are some of the most abundant proteins in cells, their liberation into the extracellular environment has been shown to be a key indicator of loss of cellular integrity and they are rapidly recognized by the cellular sentinels of the immune system. Such recognition allows for cross-priming of the potential antigens that the HSPs chaperone. The efficiency of this pathway predicted a cell surface receptor on the cross-presenting cells and that receptor has now been shown to be CD91. These events are discussed in the next two subheadings. The isolation of HSPs (and the associated peptides) from tumor cells or cells infected with pathogens therefore provides a single entity that primes immune responses specific for the chaperoned peptides and thus for the cell that harbored these antigens. This application has been tested in a vast number of rodent models of cancer and
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