Abstract:
We study a competition dynamics, based on the minority game, endowed with various substrate network structures. We observe the effects of the network topologies by investigating the volatility of the system and the structure of follower networks. The topology of substrate structures significantly influences the system efficiency represented by the volatility and such substrate networks are shown to amplify the herding effect and cause inefficiency in most cases. The follower networks emerging from the leadership structure show a power-law incoming degree distribution. This study shows the emergence of scale-free structures of leadership in the minority game and the effects of the interaction among players on the networked version of the game.

Abstract:
Arteriovenous graft (AVG) is artificially made with graft for hemodialysis in the patients with renal failure. Stenosis in the arterial or venous anastomosis of AVG results in its malfunction. Here, we made an AVG hemodynamic model with three different anastomotic angles (20°, 30°, 40°) and analyzed hemodynamic parameters such as velocity vectors, WSS and OSI in the arterial and venous anastomosis to find what helps in developing new surgical techniques to reduce stenosis in the anastomosis. Recirculation flow, low WSS and high OSI in the venous anastomosis were demonstrated in 30° and 40° models, and recirculation flow, high WSS and high OSI in the arterial anastomosis were shown in all models. Conclusively, higher anastomosis angle in the venous anastomosis cause stenosis, but stenosis in the arterial anastomosis happens irregardless of anastomosis angle.

Anticholinesterase does not allow
adequate reversal of the deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) achieved using high
doses of relaxants. A 71-year-old female patient (weight 70 kg, height 169 cm)
was scheduled for a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor under general anesthesia. We
administered rocuronium 30 mg (0.43 mg/kg) for tracheal intubation due to an estimated short
surgical time. During the operation, an additional rocuronium 10 mg was
injected. The surgical procedure ended abruptly 10 minutes after receiving the
last dose of rocuronium. At the end of surgery, the patient received
pyridostigmine as a reversal. However, residual NMB persisted, and
neuromuscular monitoring did not show the expected degree of recovery.
Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was used, and the patient experienced complete reversal from
NMB in just 2 min.

Abstract:
We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

Abstract:
We calculate the nucleon self-energies in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rules. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express the potential part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. We find that the scalar (vector) self-energy part gives a negative (positive) contribution to the nuclear symmetry energy which is consistent with the results from relativistic mean-field theories. Moreover, we find that an important contribution to the negative contribution of the scalar self-energy comes from the twist-4 matrix elements, whose leading density dependence can be extracted from deep inelastic scattering experiments. This suggests that the twist-4 contribution partly mimics the exchange of the $\delta$ meson and that it constitutes an essential part in the origin of the nuclear symmetry energy from QCD. Our result also extends an early success of QCD sum rule method in understanding the symmetric nuclear matter in terms of QCD variables to the asymmetric nuclear matter case.

Abstract:
A conjecture proposed by J. Tripp in 2002 states that the crossing number of any knot coincides with the canonical genus of its Whitehead double. In the meantime, it has been established that this conjecture is true for a large class of alternating knots including $(2, n)$ torus knots, $2$-bridge knots, algebraic alternating knots, and alternating pretzel knots. In this paper, we prove that the conjecture is not true for any alternating $3$-braid knot which is the connected sum of two torus knots of type $(2, m)$ and $(2, n)$. This results in a new modified conjecture that the crossing number of any prime knot coincides with the canonical genus of its Whitehead double. We also give a new large class of prime alternating knots satisfying the conjecture, including all prime alternating $3$-braid knots.

Abstract:
For a family $\mathcal{F}$ of graphs, a graph $G$ is called \emph{$\mathcal{F}$-universal} if $G$ contains every graph in $\mathcal{F}$ as a subgraph. Let $\mathcal{F}_n(d)$ be the family of all graphs on $n$ vertices with maximum degree at most $d$. Dellamonica, Kohayakawa, R\"odl and Ruci\'nski showed that, for $d\geq 3$, the random graph $G(n,p)$ is $\mathcal{F}_n(d)$-universal with high probability provided $p\geq C\big(\frac{\log n}{n}\big)^{1/d}$ for a sufficiently large constant $C=C(d)$. In this paper we prove the missing part of the result, that is, the random graph $G(n,p)$ is $\mathcal{F}_n(2)$-universal with high probability provided $p\geq C\big(\frac{\log n}{n}\big)^{1/2}$ for a sufficiently large constant $C$.

Abstract:
For any given integer $r \geq 1$ and a quasitoric braid $\beta_r=(\sigma_r^{-\epsilon} \sigma_{r-1}^{\epsilon}...$ $ \sigma_{1}^{(-1)^{r}\epsilon})^3$ with $\epsilon=\pm 1$, we prove that the maximum degree in $z$ of the HOMFLYPT polynomial $P_{W_2(\hat\beta_r)}(v,z)$ of the doubled link $W_2(\hat\beta_r)$ of the closure $\hat\beta_r$ is equal to $6r-1$. As an application, we give a family $\mathcal K^3$ of alternating knots, including $(2,n)$ torus knots, 2-bridge knots and alternating pretzel knots as its subfamilies, such that the minimal crossing number of any alternating knot in $\mathcal K^3$ coincides with the canonical genus of its Whitehead double. Consequently, we give a new family $\mathcal K^3$ of alternating knots for which Tripp's conjecture holds.

Abstract:
Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with enormous amount of contents. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is unstable and unreliable sources; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the edit number without consideration of real-time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through the systematic analysis using the entire history of 34,534,110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real-time, we find the existence of various growth patterns that are unobserved in terms of the number of edits as the time step. To account these results, we present a mechanistic model that adopts both the article editing dynamics based on editor-editor and editor-article interactions. The model successfully generates some key properties of the real Wikipedia articles such as distinct types of articles for the editing patterns characterized by the interrelationship between the numbers of edits and editors, and the article size. In addition, the model indicates that infrequently referred articles tend to grow faster than frequently referred one, and articles attracting high motivation of edit counterintuitively reduce the number of participants. We suggest that this decay of participants eventually brings inequality among the editors, which will be more severe with time.

Abstract:
Strategy evaluation schemes are a crucial factor in any agent-based market model, as they determine the agents' strategy preferences and consequently their behavioral pattern. This study investigates how the strategy evaluation schemes adopted by agents affect their performance in conjunction with the market circumstances. We observe the performance of three strategy evaluation schemes, the history-dependent wealth game, the trend-opposing minority game, and the trend-following majority game, in a stock market where the price is exogenously determined. The price is either directly adopted from the real stock market indices or generated with a Markov chain of order $\le 2$. Each scheme's success is quantified by average wealth accumulated by the traders equipped with the scheme. The wealth game, as it learns from the history, shows relatively good performance unless the market is highly unpredictable. The majority game is successful in a trendy market dominated by long periods of sustained price increase or decrease. On the other hand, the minority game is suitable for a market with persistent zig-zag price patterns. We also discuss the consequence of implementing finite memory in the scoring processes of strategies. Our findings suggest under which market circumstances each evaluation scheme is appropriate for modeling the behavior of real market traders.