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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16441 matches for " Jennifer Elizabeth Morgan "
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The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration
Alice Neal, Luisa Boldrin, Jennifer Elizabeth Morgan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037950
Abstract: Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration.
The Nonconventional MHC Class II Molecule DM Governs Diabetes Susceptibility in NOD Mice
Marc A. J. Morgan, Pari S. S. Muller, Arne Mould, Stephen A. Newland, Jennifer Nichols, Elizabeth J. Robertson, Anne Cooke, Elizabeth K. Bikoff
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056738
Abstract: The spontaneous destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provides a valuable model of type 1 diabetes. As in humans, disease susceptibility is controlled by the classical MHC class II genes that guide CD4+ T cell responses to self and foreign antigens. It has long been suspected that the dedicated class II chaperone designated HLA-DM in humans or H-2M in mice also makes an important contribution, but due to tight linkage within the MHC, a possible role played by DM peptide editing has not been previously tested by conventional genetic approaches. Here we exploited newly established germ-line competent NOD ES cells to engineer a loss of function allele. DM deficient NOD mice display defective class II peptide occupancy and surface expression, and are completely protected against type 1 diabetes. Interestingly the mutation results in increased proportional representation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and the absence of pathogenic CD4+ T effectors. Overall, this striking phenotype establishes that DM-mediated peptide selection plays an essential role in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.
Pregnant Women’s Perceptions of Patient-Provider Communication for Health Behavior Change during Pregnancy  [PDF]
Jenn Leiferman, Elizabeth Sinatra, Jennifer Huberty
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.411094
Abstract:

Aim: The primary aim of the project was to conduct focus groups with pregnant women to examine their perceptions on patient and health care provider (HCP) communication during prenatal visits pertaining to health behavioral change. In particular, to determine what types of communication facilitate or prevent patient engagement and adherence to certain health behaviors related to smoking cessation, engagement in physical activity, healthy eating and healthy weight gain, and stress management. Methods: Participants were recruited from the obstetric and midwifery clinics at the University of Colorado Hospital. Twenty-four pregnant, English-speaking women between the ages of 18 and 46 years old, the majority of which had full health insurance coverage, participated in one of three focus groups that were conducted. The transcripts were coded for themes and patterns. Results identified numerous current practices of HCPs, facilitators and barriers in care, and patient recommendations related to effective patient-provider communication. Results: Overall many women received basic information about most health behaviors (i.e. healthy eating, physical activity, and smoking cessation) with the exception of stress management from their HCPs via their introductory information packet. However, typically there was no follow-up beyond receipt of the packet. As a result, women sought information online from numerous sources. Unfortunately, this information often conflicted with HCP provided information, as did the information provided from multiple HCPs in group care settings. A major facilitator of behavioral change pertained to building trust and rapport as it directly enhanced the perceived quality of patient-provider communication on prenatal health behaviors. Across all behaviors, women voiced the need for available resources that were credible and referenced by their HCPs. Conclusions: These findings provide a better understanding of what facilitates and prevents women from engaging in healthy behaviors during their pregnancy, in addition to improving patient and provider communication.

Low Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Radiation in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Review  [PDF]
Misty Gamble, Elizabeth Tocci, Jennifer A. DeSimone
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.514138
Abstract: The treatment of advanced stage MF is especially challenging as single agent overall response rates are in the 35% range and chronic recurrence is the rule. The treatment of CTCL across all stages of disease is aimed at the goal of achieving and sustaining remission. Increasingly, low dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is being utilized as a skin directed component in combination therapy for advanced stage CTCL. Researchers are seeking to better define the utility of low dose TSEBT as a method of debulking skin disease while simultaneously treating other disease compartments and in combination with sustained maintenance therapies of both the skin directed and systemic varieties. Data exists showing the efficacy of low dose TSEBT in early and advanced disease. There is also data documenting prolonged treatment responses with TSEBT plus adjuvant skin directed therapies such as PUVA and topical nitrogen mustard. Emerging data examining the role of low dose TSEBT in the prestem cell transplant preparation is also promising. This brief review summarizes the utility of low dose TSEBT in multiagent treatment regimens in CTCL.
The Safety of Physics Science Activities in a High School Physics Classroom  [PDF]
Jennifer Bolla, Retha Meier, Elizabeth Meyr
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.48017
Abstract: High school physics teachers often turn to various resources, including the Internet, as they search for engaging physics activities for their students. An important question, especially for new physics teachers, concerns the safety of these activities. Have safety issues been adequately addressed within these activities? The purpose of this article is to emphasize potential safety issues involving high school physics projects as well as to provide a checklist for physics teachers to use as they evaluate activities. If the activity is deemed to contain safety issues, physics teachers are encouraged to attempt to modify the activity to make it safe. If the activity cannot be modified for safety purposes, then it is recommended that the physics teacher search for a different activity. The intention of this article is to provide high school physics teachers with safety information that can be used in preparing safe, inquiry-based, hands-on, engaging and topic-appropriate physics activities for their students.
Grafting of a Single Donor Myofibre Promotes Hypertrophy in Dystrophic Mouse Muscle
Luisa Boldrin, Jennifer E. Morgan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054599
Abstract: Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of regeneration following injury. Satellite cells, the principal muscle stem cells, are responsible for this process. However, this regenerative capacity is reduced in muscular dystrophies or in old age: in both these situations, there is a net loss of muscle fibres. Promoting skeletal muscle muscle hypertrophy could therefore have potential applications for treating muscular dystrophies or sarcopenia. Here, we observed that muscles of dystrophic mdx nude host mice that had been acutely injured by myotoxin and grafted with a single myofibre derived from a normal donor mouse exhibited increased muscle area. Transplantation experiments revealed that the hypertrophic effect is mediated by the grafted fibre and does not require either an imposed injury to the host muscle, or the contribution of donor cells to the host muscle. These results suggest the presence of a crucial cross-talk between the donor fibre and the host muscle environment.
Analysis of Fcγ receptor haplotypes in rheumatoid arthritis: FCGR3A remains a major susceptibility gene at this locus, with an additional contribution from FCGR3B
Ann W Morgan, Jennifer H Barrett, Bridget Griffiths, Deepak Subramanian, Jim I Robinson, Viki H Keyte, Manir Ali, Elizabeth A Jones, Robert W Old, Frederique Ponchel, Arthur W Boylston, R Deva Situnayake, Alexander F Markham, Paul Emery, John D Isaacs
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1847
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by a chronic, fluctuating, peripheral, symmetrical and erosive polyarthritis. It has been reported throughout the world, with a prevalence rate of approximately 1% in most populations [1]. Persistent synovial inflammation leads to progressive joint destruction, which in turn produces deformity and significant disability. In addition, RA is a systemic disease and some patients develop subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules, secondary Sj?gren's syndrome, episcleritis and scleritis, interstitial lung disease, pericardial involvement, systemic vasculitis and Felty's syndrome. These extra-articular manifestations of RA appear to be rare in the absence of rheumatoid factor (RF), and IgG RF titres correlate with articular disease severity and with the extra-articular manifestations of RA [2]. In addition to RF, many other IgG autoantibodies are found in RA, most notably anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide [3] and anti-type II collagen antibodies [4].The Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), which bind these IgG autoantibodies and IgG-containing immune complexes, have been shown to play important roles in the initiation and regulation of many immunological and inflammatory processes. In humans, there are three classes of FcγRs (I-III) encoded by eight genes, which produce at least 15 different membrane-bound and soluble isoforms that vary in their cellular distribution and affinity for different IgG isotypes. This molecular and expression diversity restricts specific biological properties to certain cell types. Activating (FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb) and inhibitory (FcγRIIb) FcγRs are frequently coexpressed on the same cell, thus providing a means for regulating signalling thresholds [5,6]. Furthermore, the absolute level of receptor expression is modulated by proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines [7]. Activating functions include uptake and clearance of immune complexes (complement dependent and independent mechanism
Ein Werkzeug für die Analyse von Geschichtslehrbüchern Designing a Tool for History Textbook Analysis Dise ando una herramienta para el análisis del libro de texto de historia
Katalin Eszter Morgan,Elizabeth Henning
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2012,
Abstract: In diesem Beitrag beschreiben wir, wie wir ein fünfdimensionales Werkzeug zur Analyse von Geschichtslehrbüchern in drei Schritten konzipiert und entwickelt haben. In einem ersten Schritt wurde der Inhalt der einbezogenen Kapitel, der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie folgend, induktiv kodiert. Danach wurden die Ergebnisse des Kodierprozesses mit textanalytischen Prinzipien in Beziehung gesetzt, insbesondere mit dem Konzept der semiotischen Mediation nach Lev VYGOTSKY. im dritten und letzten Schritt wurde das Werkzeug selbst entwickelt, das fünf relevante Dimensionen berücksichtigt. Am Ende des Beitrags zeigen wir, wie dieses Analysewerkzeug für andere Disziplinen angepasst werden kann. Worum es uns zusammengefasst in dem Artikel geht, ist die Konzeption und Nutzung systematischer und theoriehaltiger Werkzeuge, mit denen Textbücher als semiotische Mediatoren von Ausbildung/Lehre untersucht werden k nnen. Ein solches Werkzeug kann zugleich von Lehrbuchautor/innen als Leitlinie verwendet werden. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130170 This article describes the process by which a five-dimensional tool for history textbook analysis was conceptualized and developed in three stages. The first stage consisted of a grounded theory approach to code the content of the sampled chapters of the books inductively. After that the findings from this coding process were combined with principles of text analysis as derived from the literature, specifically focusing on the notion of semiotic mediation as theorized by Lev VYGOTSKY. We explain how we then entered the third stage of the development of the tool, comprising five dimensions. Towards the end of the article we show how the tool could be adapted to serve other disciplines as well. The argument we forward in the article is for systematic and well theorized tools with which to investigate textbooks as semiotic mediators in education. By implication, textbook authors can also use these as guidelines. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130170 Este artículo describe el proceso en el cual fue conceptualizada y desarrollada en tres etapas una herramienta de cinco dimensiones para el análisis del libro de texto de historia. La primera etapa consistió en un enfoque de teoría fundamentada para codificar inductivamente el contenido de los capítulos de muestra. Luego, lo que se encontró en este proceso de codificación fue combinado con principios del análisis de texto tal como se deriva de la literatura, específicamente enfocándose en la noción de mediación semiótica tal como es teorizada por Lev VIGOTS
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Large B-Cell Lymphoma: An Underrecognized Aggressive Lymphoma
Elizabeth A. Morgan,Alessandra F. Nascimento
Advances in Hematology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/529572
Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-(ALK-) positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK+ LBCL) is a rare, aggressive tumor characterized by an immunoblastic or plasmablastic morphologic appearance, expression of ALK, CD138, CD45, EMA, and often IgA by immunohistochemistry, and characteristic chromosomal translocations or rearrangements involving the ALK locus. The morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap of this tumor with other hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies may result in misdiagnosis. The tumor has been identified in both pediatric and adult populations and demonstrates a male predominance. Presentation is most often nodal, particularly cervical. No association with immunocompromise or geographic location has been recognized. The most common gene rearrangement is between clathrin and ALK (t(2;17)(p23;q23)), resulting in the CLTC-ALK chimeric protein, although other fusions have been described. Response to conventional chemotherapy is poor. The recent introduction of the small molecule ALK inhibitor, crizotinib, may provide a potential new therapeutic option for patients with this disease. 1. Introduction Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-(ALK-) positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK+ LBCL) was first described by Delsol and colleagues in 1997 [1] and is now listed as a distinct entity in the 2008 WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues [2]. ALK+ LBCL is an aggressive tumor with a poor response to conventional therapies. Although it appears to be very rare, it may in fact be underrecognized due to its morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with other hematologic and nonhematologic entities. Awareness of this diagnosis, particularly in a new era of ALK inhibitor therapies, is necessary for hematopathologists as well as general surgical pathologists. 2. Clinical Features and Epidemiology Fewer than 100 cases of ALK+ LBCL have been described in the literature (reviewed in [3–6], subsequent cases reported in [7–13]). The neoplasm has been diagnosed in both pediatric and adult age groups, ranging in age from 9 to 85 years old, with a median age of 37 to 44.5 years, and with a male predominance of 3–5?:?1. The proportion of patients under age 18 has been found to comprise approximately 15–20% of the total. One confirmed case occurring in a patient with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been reported [12]. In general, patients do not appear to be immunocompromised. Furthermore, patients with this tumor do not appear to be restricted geographically; cases have been reported from Europe, the United States, and Asia. Our institution
Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Fast Food Restaurants  [PDF]
Carissa J. Morgan, Nicole Olynk Widmar, Elizabeth A. Yeager, W. Scott Downey, Candace C. Croney
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.76074
Abstract: In this study, U.S. resident’s perceptions of social responsibility of prominent fast food restaurants were investigated. A survey conducted in April 2015 collected information from a sample targeted to be representative of the U.S. population. In total, 302 completed participant’s responses were analyzed (n = 302). Using a best-worst choice experiment question, participant’s choices for “most” and “least” socially responsible fast food restaurants were analyzed, resulting in individual’s relative perceptions of social responsibility amongst the restaurants studied. Results indicate that of the fast food restaurants studied, Panera Bread was perceived to be the most socially responsible restaurant, followed by Subway and Chick-fil-A. In contrast, McDonald’s, KFC, and Taco Bell were perceived to be the least socially responsible of the fast food restaurants studied. Additionally, relationships amongst participant’s perceptions of social responsibility in fast food, demographic factors, consumption practices, and knowledge of fast food business practices were analyzed. Significant relationships were found amongst “being female” and “self-reported knowledge of fast food business practices” with “perceptions of the social responsibility of fast food restaurants”.
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