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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 42 matches for " Jem Rashbass "
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Correction: PREDICT: a new UK prognostic model that predicts survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer
Gordon C Wishart, Elizabeth M Azzato, David C Greenberg, Jem Rashbass, Olive Kearins, Gill Lawrence, Carlos Caldas, Paul DP Pharoah
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2480
PREDICT: a new UK prognostic model that predicts survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer
Gordon C Wishart, Elizabeth M Azzato, David C Greenberg, Jem Rashbass, Olive Kearins, Gill Lawrence, Carlos Caldas, Paul DP Pharoah
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2464
Abstract: Using the Eastern Cancer Registration and Information Centre (ECRIC) dataset, information was collated for 5,694 women who had surgery for invasive breast cancer in East Anglia from 1999 to 2003. Breast cancer mortality models for oestrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative tumours were derived from these data using Cox proportional hazards, adjusting for prognostic factors and mode of cancer detection (symptomatic versus screen-detected). An external dataset of 5,468 patients from the West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit (WMCIU) was used for validation.Differences in overall actual and predicted mortality were <1% at eight years for ECRIC (18.9% vs. 19.0%) and WMCIU (17.5% vs. 18.3%) with area under receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) of 0.81 and 0.79 respectively. Differences in breast cancer specific actual and predicted mortality were <1% at eight years for ECRIC (12.9% vs. 13.5%) and <1.5% at eight years for WMCIU (12.2% vs. 13.6%) with AUC of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Model calibration was good for both ER positive and negative models although the ER positive model provided better discrimination (AUC 0.82) than ER negative (AUC 0.75).We have developed a prognostication model for early breast cancer based on UK cancer registry data that predicts breast cancer survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer and includes mode of detection for the first time. The model is well calibrated, provides a high degree of discrimination and has been validated in a second UK patient cohort.Accurate prediction of survival is an essential part of the decision making process following surgery for early breast cancer and allows clinicians to determine which patients will benefit from adjuvant therapy. At present these decisions are largely based on known pathological prognostic factors that retain independent significance on multivariate analysis including tumour size, tumour grade and lymph node status in addition to the efficacy of any adjuvant thera
The JEM-EUSO Mission: Contributions to the ICRC 2013
The JEM-EUSO Collaboration
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Contributions of the JEM-EUSO Collaboration to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (The Astroparticle Physics Conference) Rio de Janeiro, July, 2013.
A Class Coupler for Perfect Sampling from Continuous Distributions With and Without Atoms
Wenjin Mao,Jem Corcoran
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: We consider the simulation of distributions that are a mixture of discrete and continuous components. We extend a Metropolis-Hastings-based perfect sampling algorithm of Corcoran and Tweedie to allow for a broader class of transition candidate densities. The resulting algorithm, know as a "class coupler", is fast to implement and is applicable to purely discrete or purely continuous densities as well. Our work is motivated by the study of a composite hypothesis test in a Bayesian setting via posterior simulation and we give simulation results for some problems in this area.
Genetic Evidence for Inhibition of Bacterial Division Protein FtsZ by Berberine
Jaroslaw M. Boberek,Jem Stach,Liam Good
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013745
Abstract: Berberine is a plant alkaloid that is widely used as an anti-infective in traditional medicine. Escherichia coli exposed to berberine form filaments, suggesting an antibacterial mechanism that involves inhibition of cell division. Berberine is a DNA ligand and may induce filamentation through induction of the SOS response. Also, there is biochemical evidence for berberine inhibition of the cell division protein FtsZ. Here we aimed to assess possible berberine mechanism(s) of action in growing bacteria using genetics tools.
The Jem-Euso Mission
Yoshiyuki Takahashi,the JEM-EUSO Collaboration
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/6/065009
Abstract: JEM-EUSO is a space science mission to explore extreme energies and physics of the Universe. Its instrument will watch the dark-side of the earth and will detect UV photons emitted from the extensive air shower caused by an Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs above 10^18 eV), or Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray (EHECR) particle (e.g., above about 10^20 eV). Such a high-rigidity particles as the latter arrives almost in a straight-line from its origin through the magnetic fields of our Milky Way Galaxy and is expected to allow us to trace the source location by its arrival direction. This nature can open the door to the new astronomy with charged particles. In its five years operation including the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will detect at least 1,000 events with E>7x10^19 eV with the GZK cutoff spectrum. It can determine the energy spectrum and source locations of GZK to super-GZK regions with a statistical accuracy of several percent. JEM-EUSO is planned to be deployed by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and will be attached to the Japanese Experiment Module/ Exposure Facility (JEM/EF) of International Space Station. JAXA has selected JEM-EUSO as one of the mission candidates of the second phase utilization of JEM/EF for the launch in early-to-mid 2010s.
Physics Goals and Status of JEM-EUSO and its Test Experiments
Andreas Haungs,JEM-EUSO Collaboration
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/632/1/012092
Abstract: The JEM-EUSO mission aims to explore the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs) through the observation of air-shower fluorescence light from space. The superwide-field telescope looks down from the International Space Station onto the night sky to detect UV photons (fluorescence and Cherenkov photons) emitted from air showers. Such a space detector offers the remarkable opportunity to observe a huge volume of atmosphere at once and will achieve an unprecedented statistics within a few years of operation. Several test experiments are currently in operation: e.g., one to observe the fluorescence background from the edge of the Atmosphere (EUSO-Balloon), or another to demonstrate on ground the capability of detecting air showers with a EUSO-type telescope (EUSO-TA). In this contribution a short review on the scientific objectives of the mission and an update of the instrument definition, performances and status, as well as status of the test experiments will be given.
The JEM-EUSO Mission
Toshikazu Ebisuzaki,for the JEM-EUSO Collaboration
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.7529/ICRC2011/V03/0120
Abstract: The JEM-EUSO mission explores the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs) above 100 EeV and explores the limits of the fundamental physics through the observations of their arrival directions and energies. It is designed to achieve an exposure larger than 1 million km^2 sr year to open a new particle astronomy channel. This super-wide-field (60 degrees) telescope with a diameter of about 2.5 m looks down from space onto the night sky to detect near UV photons (330-400nm, both fluorescent and Cherenkov photons) emitted from the giant air showers produced by EECRs. The arrival direction map with more than five hundred events will tell us the origin of the EECRs and allow us to identify the nearest EECR sources with known astronomical objects. It will allow them to be examined in other astronomical channels. This is likely to lead to an understanding of the acceleration mechanisms, perhaps producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The comparison of the energy spectra among the spatially resolved individual sources will help to clarify the acceleration/emission mechanism, and also finally confirm the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min process for the validation of Lorentz invariance up to {\gamma}~10^{11}. Neutral components (neutrinos and gamma rays) can also be detected as well, if their fluxes are high enough. The JEM-EUSO mission is planned to be launched by a H2B rocket about JFY 2015-2016 and transferred to ISS by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV). It will be attached to the Exposed Facility external experiment platform of "KIBO".
An Efficient Search Strategy for Aggregation and Discretization of Attributes of Bayesian Networks Using Minimum Description Length
Jem Corcoran,Daniel Tran,Nicholas Levine
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Bayesian networks are convenient graphical expressions for high dimensional probability distributions representing complex relationships between a large number of random variables. They have been employed extensively in areas such as bioinformatics, artificial intelligence, diagnosis, and risk management. The recovery of the structure of a network from data is of prime importance for the purposes of modeling, analysis, and prediction. Most recovery algorithms in the literature assume either discrete of continuous but Gaussian data. For general continuous data, discretization is usually employed but often destroys the very structure one is out to recover. Friedman and Goldszmidt suggest an approach based on the minimum description length principle that chooses a discretization which preserves the information in the original data set, however it is one which is difficult, if not impossible, to implement for even moderately sized networks. In this paper we provide an extremely efficient search strategy which allows one to use the Friedman and Goldszmidt discretization in practice.
Disability and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia
Jeanine A Verbunt, Dia HFM Pernot, Rob JEM Smeets
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-8
Abstract: The objectives of the study are: Firstly, to investigate contributing factors for disability in fibromyalgia. Secondly, to study psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to other nonspecific pain syndromes. And finally, to explore the impact of fibromyalgia on a patient's quality of life.In this cross sectional study, explaining factors for disability were studied based on a regression analysis with gender, mental health, physical and social functioning as independent variables. For the assessment of disability in fibromyalgia the FIQ was used. The levels of psychological distress in patients with fibromyalgia, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) were compared based on scores on the Symptom Checklist (SCL90). Quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia was compared with scores (SF36) of both patients with fibromyalgia and other health conditions as derived from the literature.Disability in fibromyalgia seemed best explained by a patients mental health condition (β = -0.360 p = 0.02). The level of psychological distress was higher in patients with fibromyalgia as compared to patients with CRPS or CLBP (p < 0.01). The impact of fibromyalgia on quality of life appeared to be high as compared to the impact of other health conditions.Patients with fibromyalgia report a considerable impact on their quality of life and their perceived disability level seems influenced by their mental health condition. In comparison with patients with other pain conditions psychological distress is higher.Musculoskeletal diseases are a major public health problem in western society with a high impact on both health care and total societal costs [1]. 41% of the male and even 48% of the female Dutch population aged over 25 years reported to have at least one musculoskeletal disease [2]. Within this survey, localized pain problems, such as "tendinitis" or "capsulitis" were most frequently reported. Fortunately, the impact of these lo
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