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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466402 matches for " Jeffrey A. Welge "
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HIV Infection of Hepatocytes Results in a Modest Increase in Hepatitis C Virus Expression In Vitro
Ling Kong, Jeffrey A. Welge, Eleanor A. Powell, Jason T. Blackard
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083728
Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate that soluble HIV proteins impact both hepatocyte function and HCV replication in vitro. It has also been reported that HIV can productively infect hepatocytes. We therefore investigated the impact of HIV infection of hepatocytes on HCV expression. The Huh7.5JFH1 cell line that constitutively expresses infectious HCV was infected with the lab-adapted strains HIVNL4-3 or HIVYK-JRCSF. HCV expression was quantified via HCV core antigen ELISA, Western blot, and strand-specific real-time PCR for positive-sense and negative-sense HCV RNA. After HIVNL4-3 infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells, positive-sense and negative-sense HCV RNA levels were elevated compared to HIV uninfected cells. Increased HCV RNA synthesis was also observed after infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells with HIVYK-JRCSF. HIV-induced HCV core production was decreased in the presence of the anti-HIV drugs AZT, T20, and raltegravir, although these medications had a minimal effect on HCV expression in the absence of HIV. HCV core, NS3, and NS5A protein expression were increased after HIV infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells. Chemically inactivated HIV had a minimal effect on HCV expression in Huh7.5JFH1 cells suggesting that ongoing viral replication was critical. These data demonstrate that HIV induces HCV RNA synthesis and protein production in vitro and complement previous in vivo reports that HCV RNA levels are elevated in individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection compared to those with HCV mono-infection. These findings suggest that HIV suppression may be a critical factor in controlling liver disease, particularly if the underlying liver disease is not treated.
Re-establishment of olfactory and taste functions
Welge-Lüssen, Antje
GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery , 2005,
Abstract: The incidence of olfactory disorders is appoximately 1-2% and they can seriously impact on the quality of life. Quantitative disorders (hyposmia, anosmia) are distinguished from qualitative disorders (parosmia, phantosmia). Olfactory disorders are classified according to the etiology and therapy is planned according to the underlying pathophysiology. In ENT patients olfactory disorders caused by sinonasal diseases are the most common ones, followed by postviral disorders. Therapy consists of topical and systemic steroids, whereas systemic application seems to be of greater value. It is very difficult to predict the improvement of olfactory function using surgery, moreover, the long term - success in surgery is questionable. Isolated taste disorders are rare and in most often caused by underlying diseases or side effects of medications. A meticulous history is necessary and helps to choose effective treatment. In selected cases zinc might be useful.
Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detectors in Nuclear Security for Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Materials―Part B  [PDF]
Jeffrey A. Webster, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2011.13011
Abstract: This paper (constituting Part B) addresses active interrogation for detecting Special Nuclear Materials (SN- Ms) and includes description of the transformational Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) based method for optimal monitoring. One of the greatest difficulties in detection of SNMs by active interrogation is the task of distinguishing between the probing particles and the secondary particles that indicate the presence of SNMs. The TMFD’s selective insensitivity and γ photon blindness features are advantageous for alleviating this problem. The working principle of the TMFD is discussed along with its applications for security. The experimental work to date involving detection of small quantities of uranium with conventional detectors is discussed along with results of fission neutron detection. Statistically significant detection was achieved within 5 minutes of counting to ascertain and measure conclusive evidence for the presence of a 55g sample of uranium containing < 0.1g of 235U. Results of simulations of three active detection techniques utilizing a TMFD system are presented. The process for using the TMFD to discriminate active source particles using timing and energy are described. These simulations indicate that it should be possible to utilize the TMFD system for optimal neutron-based interrogation of SNMs.
Atrial Fibrillation Induction in a Pediatric Patient during Adenosine Administration  [PDF]
Jeffrey A. Robinson, Christopher S. Snyder
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2017.73006
Adenosine by rapid intravenous bolus is frequently utilized in clinical practice as both a pharmacologic treatment for supraventricular (reentrant) tachycardia and in provocative testing for the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. This is a case report of an otherwise healthy adolescent female who received adenosine during a provocative test for WPW syndrome. Immediately after receiving adenosine, the patient had a self-limited episode of atrial fibrillation. When administering adenosine, teams should be aware of the potential adverse effects and be prepared to treat appropriately.
Equivalence results for discrete Abel means
Jeffrey A. Osikiewicz
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171202109264
Abstract: We present theorems showing when the discrete Abel mean and the Abel summability method are equivalent for bounded sequences and when two discrete Abel means are equivalent for bounded sequences.
The Ontology of Biological Groups: Do Grasshoppers Form Assemblages, Communities, Guilds, Populations, or Something Else?
Jeffrey A. Lockwood
Psyche , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/501983
Abstract: Acridologists have used a variety of terms to describe groups of grasshoppers, including assemblage, community, guild, and population. This terminological diversity has raised the question of whether one of these descriptors is the correct one. I take the position that these terms pick out different features of the natural world such that there is no unconditionally or uniquely correct term. By adopting the framework of constrained perspectivism—a form of philosophical pragmatism—it is argued that a term is correct if it accurately reflects the conceptual framework of the investigator and effectively communicates this perspective to others. Such an approach gives rise to terminological pluralism that avoids the problems of relativism (the subjectivist's view that any term can be used) and absolutism (the objectivist's view that there is a single correct term). I describe the contexts in which the most common terms are appropriate. 1. Introduction: The Problem Acridologists have used various terms to describe the groups of grasshoppers that are the focus of their work. The terms most often used are assemblage, community, guild, and population. Using the Google Scholar [1] to analyze how frequently scientists have used these terms revealed that of 1,459 hits: “grasshopper assemblage” appeared 65 times (4%), “grasshopper community” 413 times (28%), “grasshopper guild” 1 time (<1%), and “grasshopper population” 980 times (67%). One might respond to the assortment of terms by asserting that such variety does not imply a problem or confusion. In fact, this view was expressed by three reviewers of this paper. These scientists tacitly agreed that the ecological terms were well defined (we will see that this is demonstrably not the case in the discussion of “population” and to some extent with “community” and “guild”) or at least there was no confusion among acridologists. But their explications revealed a conceptual morass with various contradictions. The first reviewer maintained that “the only issue is the occasional sloppy individual who calls a grasshopper assemblage a community.” For this scientist, there is a single, correct term for groups of grasshoppers, which is “assemblage” (for the moment, let us set aside the fact that the supposedly sloppy use of “community” occurs far more often than the putatively correct term of “assemblage”—and “population” is more commonly used than either of these). By this account, all right-thinking acridologists know that groups of grasshoppers are called “assemblages,” so the case is closed. In an ironic twist, the
A Single-Stranded DNA Aptamer That Selectively Binds to Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B
Jeffrey A. DeGrasse
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033410
Abstract: The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a common foodborne pathogen capable of secreting a cocktail of small, stable, and strain-specific, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) results when improperly handled food contaminated with SEs is consumed. Gastrointestinal symptoms of SFP include emesis, diarrhea and severe abdominal pain, which manifest within hours of ingesting contaminated food. Immuno-affinity based methods directly detect, identify, and quantify several SEs within a food or clinical sample. However, the success of these assays depends upon the availability of a monoclonal antibody, the development of which is non-trivial and costly. The current scope of the available immuno-affinity based methods is limited to the classical SEs and does not encompass all of the known or emergent SEs. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers are short nucleic acids that exhibit high affinity and specificity for their targets without the high-costs and ethical concerns of animal husbandry. Further, researchers may choose to freely distribute aptamers and develop assays without the proprietary issues that increase the per-sample cost of immuno-affinity assays. This study describes a novel aptamer, selected in vitro, with affinity to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) that may be used in lieu of antibodies in SE detection assays. The aptamer, designated APTSEB1, successfully isolates SEB from a complex mixture of SEs with extremely high discrimination. This work sets the foundation for future aptamer and assay development towards the entire family of SEs. The rapid, robust, and low-cost identification and quantification of all of the SEs in S. aureus contaminated food is essential for food safety and epidemiological efforts. An in vitro generated library of SE aptamers could potentially allow for the comprehensive and cost-effective analysis of food samples that immuno-affinity assays currently cannot provide.
Listening to Raindrops
Jeffrey A. Nystuen
Solstice : Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics , 1999,
Abstract: The link to the fulltext on a current website is given below. Should that link fail to work, please go to this persistent URL and download the associated file for this issue. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/58219While you are there, take a look around and see if there are other issues and documents that are related to your interests!
Factors that Significantly Impact the Implementation of an Agile Software Development Methodology
Jeffrey A. Livermore
Journal of Software , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.3.4.31-36
Abstract: The Internet economy has altered the current rules of software engineering. Traditional development methodologies have proven too cumbersome to meet the rapidly changing requirements and short product cycles demanded by business today. To meet these rapidly changing requirements, software developers have developed agile software development methodologies (SDMs) utilizing iterative development, prototyping, templates, and minimal documentation requirements. This research project investigated agile SDM implementation using an online survey sent to software development practitioners worldwide. This survey data was used to identify factors related to agile SDM implementation. The factors that significantly impacted agile methodology implementations included training, management involvement, access to external resources, and corporation size. Other factors such as using models, having an implementation plan, collocating the development team, and developing software for Internet or intranet use did not significantly impact the implementation of an agile software development methodology. A number of the factors that impact the implementation of an agile development methodology are completely under the control of management. Organizations that are considering implement ting an agile methodology are able to manipulate some of these factors to increase the opportunities for success of their methodology.
Magnetic Monopoles, Duality, and Supersymmetry
Jeffrey A. Harvey
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: These notes present a pedagogical introduction to magnetic monopoles and exact electromagnetic duality in supersymmetric gauge theories. They are based on lectures given at the 1995 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology and at the 1995 Busstepp Summer School at Cosener's House.
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