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The clinical and functional relevance of microparticles induced by activated protein C treatment in sepsis
Margarita Pérez-Casal, Victoria Thompson, Colin Downey, Ingeborg Welters, Duncan Wyncoll, Jecko Thachil, Cheng Toh
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10356
Abstract: This was an experimental study on clinical samples in an intensive care setting, and included patients with severe sepsis who fulfilled criteria for treatment with rhAPC. The number of CD13+ MPs from the patients were analysed to determine their origin. They were also quantified for endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and APC expression. Clinical relevance of these MPs were ascertained by comparing survival between the group receiving rhAPC (n = 25) and a control group of untreated patients (n = 25). MPs were also incubated with endothelial cells to analyse apoptotic gene expression, cytoprotection and anti-inflammatory effects.rhAPC treatment induced a significant increase in circulating MP-associated EPCR by flow cytometry (P < 0.05) and by quantitative ELISA (P < 0.005). APC expression also showed significant increases (P < 0.05). Numerically, CD13+ MPs were higher in rhAPC-treated survivors versus non-survivors. However, the number of non-survivors was low and this was not significantly different. APC on MPs was demonstrated to induce anti-apoptotic and endothelial barrier effects through the activation of endothelial PAR1.rhAPC treatment in patients with sepsis significantly increases circulating EPCR + MPs. These MPs were noted to express APC, which has specific anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, with a non-significant correlative trend towards survival. This suggests that MPs could disseminate APC function and activate endothelial PAR1 at distal vascular sites.The presence of circulating microparticles (MPs) in septic patients is well recognised [1,2] and is inducible by thrombin [3], cytokines [4], lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [5] and collagen [6]. Derived from cell membrane shedding as a result of activation or apoptosis, circulating MPs constitute a marker of vascular and systemic disease [7]. Rearrangement of membrane phospholipids during MP release can result in increased phosphatidylserine availability with procoagulant activity. In patients wi
Evaluation of Google Glass™ with Camera Adaptor and GoPro™ as Teaching Tools for Endotracheal Intubation in the Austere Medical Environment  [PDF]
Michael Son, David Zimmer, Ross McCauley, Donald Zimmer, Joseph Dynako, Richard Skupski, Bhavesh Patel, Nuha Zackariya, Faadil Shariff, Lovely Nathalie Colas, Gerson Pyram, Marc Edson Augustin, Carmeline Mathurin, Stanley Louis, Patricia Saint Louis, Stanley Loriston, Dan Herbstman, Lucio Cervantes, Shane Kappler, Michael T. McCurdy, Jecko Thachil, Sarah Greve, Mark Walsh
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2018.88024
Abstract: Objective: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a life-saving emergency procedure, but it is a complex skill that is difficult to teach. Recent studies have shown that video laryngoscopy is effective in teaching ETI to learners at various levels of medical expertise; however, it has proven to be costly and provides images of inconsistent quality. In this educational proof of concept feasibility convenience sample pilot study, we aim to explore and compare the effectiveness of using modified Google Glass? (GG) and GoPro? (GP) technologies to visualize and teach ETI to critical care physicians in the austere medical environment of a low-income country. We propose, based on our findings, that this inexpensive technology could teach lifesaving ETI to pre-hospital providers in the austere medical environment, medical students, rural emergency physicians, critical care physicians in low-income countries, far forward military medical providers, and other learners. Methods: A case series of twenty-five patients, five in the United States (US) at Memorial Hospital in South Bend, IN and twenty at Saint Luc’s Hospital in Port Au Prince, Haiti, is presented. These patients were collected from November 1st 2015 through February 1st of 2016. The anesthesiologist and the emergency physicians in the United States utilized GG to intubate five patients in the US prior to the twenty patients intubated during two separate trips to Haiti. On the two separate trips to Haiti, the GG was trialed and modified to obtain better exposure. These adaptations resulted in the final collection of twenty patients studied with the adapted GG system and GP. Physicians graded airway visualization based on LEMON and Cormack-Lehane scores. Previously published parameters for the assessment of failed intubation risk and passage of the cords were used as data points for analysis using a Likert-Scale analysis for each parameter. The data were analyzed by averages of Likert-Scale scoring with their respective standard deviations. Results: The results show that the GP is superior to GG for assessing the LEMON scoring system until visualization of the oropharynx, while the GG is markedly superior for calculation of Cormack-Lehane score (cord visualization) and passing of the endotracheal tube. Conclusion: A review of the twenty-five cases demonstrates that while GP allows for better visualization for the parameters that require a wider view of the patient, the modified GG allows for superior visualization in the parameters that require a
A new proof of the analyticity of the electronic density of molecules
Thierry Jecko
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11005-010-0401-9
Abstract: We give a new, short proof of the regularity away from the nuclei of the electronic density of a molecule obtained in [1,2]. The new argument is based on the regularity properties of the Coulomb interactions underlined in [3,4] and on well-known elliptic technics. [1] S. Fournais, M. Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. Oe stergaard Soerensen: The electron density is smooth away from the nuclei. Comm. Math. Phys. 228, no. 3 (2002), 401-415. [2] S. Fournais, M. Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. Oestergaard Soerensen: Analyticity of the density of electronic wave functions. Ark. Mat. 42, no. 1 (2004), 87-106. [3] W. Hunziker: Distortion analyticity and molecular resonances curves. Ann. Inst. H. Poincar\'e, s. A, t. 45, no 4, 339-358 (1986). [4] M. Klein, A. Martinez, R. Seiler, X.P. Wang: On the Born-Oppenheimer expansion for polyatomic molecules. Comm. Math. Phys. 143, no. 3, 607-639 (1992). The paper is published in Letters in Mathematical Physics 93, number 1, pp. 73-83, 2010. The original publication is available at " www.springerlink.com ".
On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation
Thierry Jecko
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4870855
Abstract: Motivated by a paper by B.T. Sutcliffe and R.G. Woolley, we present the main ideas used by mathematicians to show the accuracy of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for molecules. Based on mathematical works on this approximation for molecular bound states, in scattering theory, in resonance theory, and for short time evolution, we give an overview of some rigourous results obtained up to now. We also point out the main difficulties mathematicians are trying to overcome and speculate on further developments. The mathematical approach does not fit exactly to the common use of the approximation in Physics and Chemistry. We criticize the latter and comment on the differences, contributing in this way to the discussion on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation initiated by B.T. Sutcliffe and R.G. Woolley. The paper neither contains mathematical statements nor proofs. Instead we try to make accessible mathematically rigourous results on the subject to researchers in Quantum Chemistry or Physics.
Neuroplasticity of the Sensorimotor Cortex during Learning
Joseph Thachil Francis,Weiguo Song
Neural Plasticity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/310737
Abstract: We will discuss some of the current issues in understanding plasticity in the sensorimotor (SM) cortices on the behavioral, neurophysiological, and synaptic levels. We will focus our paper on reaching and grasping movements in the rat. In addition, we will discuss our preliminary work utilizing inhibition of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), which has recently been shown necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) (Ling et al., 2002). With this new knowledge and inhibitors to this system, as well as the ability to overexpress this system, we can start to directly modulate LTP and determine its influence on behavior as well as network level processing dependent at least in part due to this form of LTP. We will also briefly introduce the use of brain machine interface (BMI) paradigms to ask questions about sensorimotor plasticity and discuss current analysis techniques that may help in our understanding of neuroplasticity. 1. Introduction Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons, neural circuits, and the brain itself to be modified and to reorganize both physically and functionally. This includes, but may not be limited to, changes in the strength of synaptic connections, the formation and elimination of synapses, dendrites, and axons as well as changes in the synaptic vesicular pool and content. Recent findings have shown that the sensorimotor cortex is very dynamic and is involved not only in motor learning, but also possibly in cognitive events as well [1–6]. An obvious demonstration of the plasticity within the sensorimotor cortices are the changes in neurophysiological properties following injury, for an extensive review please see [7]. Besides injury, there is a growing body of research indicating plasticity in the sensorimotor regions that occurs at different times during sensorimotor learning, from in vitro, in vivo, to behaving animals experiments [8–11]. Plasticity can be induced via several sources, including activity-dependent, use-dependent, or persistent stimulation [9, 12–14]. The sensorimotor cortices appear to encode several types of movement-related parameters, ranging from muscle activation patterns to body kinematics and or dynamics to name a few [15–21]. During sensorimotor learning, the relationship between neural firing and these parameters can be changed via some form of neuroplasticity. One such change is an apparent rotation in the neurons preferred direction (PD) of movement [22, 23], which is simply the direction of hand motion that the given neuron encodes preferentially. This type of
Bandwidth Improvement of EBG Resonator Antennas Using Double-Layer FSS
Lina Moustafa,Bernard Jecko
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/315052
Abstract: A double-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed as a means to enhance the bandwidth of an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antenna. Due to its inverted reflection phase variation and its wide selectivity bandwidth, the structure used in the radiating wall of the resonator allows increasing the radiating bandwidth of the last one. The resonator is fed by a patch feeding source placed inside the cavity at the proximity of its metallic ground. The antenna bandwidth is significantly improved by virtue of employing the double-layer FSS. Modelled results of an antenna working at 5 GHz are shown.
Design and Realization of a Wide-Band EBG Antenna Based on FSS and Operating in the Ku-Band
Lina Moustafa,Bernard Jecko
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/139069
Abstract: EBG antennas are used for directive, omnidirectional, and sectoral applications. Nevertheless, the domain of use of these antennas can be extended to other applications where we can take advantage of their interesting performances notably in terms of directivity and compactness. One of these applications can be the broadband application where the needed bandwidths are much larger than the bandwidths offered by actual EBG antenna designs. Many solutions have been proposed in the literature to widen this bandwidth. This paper deals with the EBG band-widening method based on the use of FSS and focuses on the ability of the EBG resonator to have a broadband behavior if its upper interface is built of FSS chosen and arranged adequately. First, the behavior of the new EBG material formed by combining different FSSs, and the one of the new EBG resonator is briefly described. Then, a prototype operating in the Ku-band is proposed to validate the theoretical concept. Finally, an experimental validation is realized. 1. Introduction In recent years, a new kind of highly directive and compact antennas has been realized using Electromagnetic Band Gap EBG materials [1–5]. In such periodic structures, the wave propagation is forbidden for given frequency bands and incidence angles [6].The insertion of a periodicity defect inside the EBG structure enables the creation of an allowed band within the prohibited frequency band. It has been shown that by exciting such a structure within its allowed band, directive antennas can be obtained. EBG antennas are able to produce gain values higher than??30?dB, thus providing a quasiplanar alternative to the aperture antennas [7, 8]. These gains can be achieved in presence of a simple feeding source; the antenna may then overcome the complexity of the feeding mechanism used to feed an array of patches. However, these antennas present an extremely narrow radiating bandwidth for high directivity values. Therefore, a compromise is to be considered between, on the one hand, the number of patches required to perform the same directivity as an EBG antenna fed by a single source, and, on the other hand, the desired radiation bandwidth. More recently, new surfaces have been proposed to replace the EBG antenna upper interface usually conceived of periodic dielectric layers. These surfaces are known as Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSSs) and they have been used to design different types of EBG antennas with directive [9, 10], sectoral [11, 12], and omnidirectional [13, 14] radiation patterns. The use of the FSS in the EBG antenna has enabled
Weighted Mourre's commutator theory, application to Schr?dinger operators with oscillating potential
Sylvain Golenia,Thierry Jecko
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We present a variant of Mourre's commutator theory. We apply it to prove the limiting absorption principle for Schr\"odinger operators with a perturbed Wigner-Von Neumann potential at suitable energies. To our knowledge, this result is new since we allow a long range pertubation of the Wigner-Von Neumann potential. Furthermore, we can show that the usual Mourre theory, based on differential inequalities and on the generator of dilations, cannot apply to our Schr\"odinger operators.
A new look at Mourre's commutator theory
Sylvain Golénia,Thierry Jecko
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: Mourre's commutator theory is a powerful tool to study the continuous spectrum of self-adjoint operators and to develop scattering theory. We propose a new approach of its main result, namely the derivation of the limiting absorption principle from a so called Mourre estimate. We provide a new interpretation of this result.
Preparation and Characterization of ZnSe/EVA Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Modules  [PDF]
Jose Sebastian, Eby Thomas Thachil, Jobin Job Mathen, Augustine J. Edakkara, Nelson Kuriakose, Ginson P. Joseph, Joby Sebastian
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.34024
Abstract: ZnSe Nanoparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and the particle was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The polymer nanocomposite of 2% and 4% ZnSe/EVA was fabricated by direct sonicator method. The nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The thermal behaviour of the samples was also investigated and we found that the thermal stability of the composites increased with increasing the filler concentrations. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, peel strength and refractive index of the samples were also studied and reported for the first.
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