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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26444 matches for " Jean-Nicolas Despland "
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Efficacy of an adjunctive brief psychodynamic psychotherapy to usual inpatient treatment of depression: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial
Gilles Ambresin, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Martin Preisig, Yves de Roten
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-182
Abstract: The study is a one-month randomized controlled trial with a two parallel group design and a 12-month naturalistic follow-up. A sample of 130 consecutive adult inpatients with unipolar depression and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score over 18 will be recruited. The study is carried out in the university hospital section for mood disorders in Lausanne, Switzerland. Patients are assessed upon admission, and at 1-, 3- and 12- month follow-ups. Inpatient therapy is a manualized brief intervention, combining the virtues of inpatient setting and of time-limited dynamic therapies (focal orientation, fixed duration, resource-oriented interventions). Treatment-as-usual represents the best level of practice for a minimal treatment condition usually proposed to inpatients. Final analyses will follow an intention–to-treat strategy. Depressive symptomatology is the primary outcome and secondary outcome includes measures of psychiatric symptomatology, psychosocial role functioning, and psychodynamic-emotional functioning. The mediating role of the therapeutic alliance is also examined. Allocation to treatment groups uses a stratified block randomization method with permuted block. To guarantee allocation concealment, randomization is done by an independent researcher.Despite the large number of studies on treatment of depression, there is a clear lack of controlled research in inpatient psychotherapy during the acute phase of a major depressive episode. Research on brief therapy is important to take into account current short lengths of stay in psychiatry. The current study has the potential to scientifically inform appropriate inpatient treatment. This study is the first to address the issue of the economic evaluation of inpatient psychotherapy.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12612000909820)Depression is the largest contributor to the burden of disease in high-income countries, with further increase expected [1]. Depression may not respond to out
Genome of antibiotic-producing Streptomyces revealed
Jean-Nicolas Volff
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-8-reports0044
Abstract: The streptomycete chromosome is very large for a bacterium (about 8 mega base pairs, Mbp), with an extremely high G+C content (72-73%) and a large number of genes. It is also one of the very rare examples of a linear bacterial chromosome (although circular forms exist, which can also replicate). It ends in inverted repeats carrying covalently bound proteins involved in the termination of replication. A large (1 Mbp) subtelomeric region is dispensable under laboratory conditions. The genome sequence of the model streptomycete Streptomyces coelicolor has now been completed in a collaborative project involving the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Hinxton, UK), the John Innes Institute (Norwich, UK) and the Institute of Genetics of the National Yang-Ming University (Taipei, Taiwan). The project was headed by the pioneer of Streptomyces genetics and molecular biology, David Hopwood.Outstanding features of the S. coelicolor chromosome were confirmed by complete sequencing of a set of ordered cosmids: its large size (at 8,666 kilobases the largest completely sequenced bacterial genome to date), high G+C content (72.12%) and the highest number of genes so far found for a bacterium (7,825). The replication origin is located roughly in the middle of the linear chromosome. Coding density is largely uniform across the chromosome, even in the dispensable subtelomeric regions. Essential genes for cell division, replication, transcription or amino-acid biosynthesis, for example, are located in a central non-dispensable core region comprising about half the chromosome. Genes coding for functions that are not essential under laboratory conditions, such as secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes, are on the chromosome arms. The core region of the S. coelicolor chromosome, but not its arms, shows syntenies with the genomes of M. tuberculosis and C. diphtheriae. Fourteen regions possibly acquired by horizontal transfer were identified, one of them containing as many as 148 genes.S
Rice genome revealed II: the japonica sequence
Jean-Nicolas Volff
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-7-reports0036
Abstract: Using the whole-genome shotgun strategy, Goff et al. determined 390 million bases (Mb) of high-quality genomic sequence disrupted by about 42,000 gaps. The estimated number of genes was between 32,000 and 50,000. Goff et al. make a distinction between predicted genes (minimal length 300 bp) with high (34.3%), medium (27.0%) and low (38.7%) confidence scores on the basis of similarity to known genes, protein motifs and predicted genes from other species. As observed in Arabidopsis thaliana, numerous paralogous genes (duplicates) are present in the rice genome. About 22% of genes with high and medium confidence scores were present as duplicates on the same chromosome (local duplications). There is also evidence of larger chromosome/genome duplications having arisen after the separation of the Arabidopsis and rice lineages. Of Arabidopsis genes, 85% have at least one homolog in rice. Putative 'plant-specific' genes - that is, those present in both rice and Arabidopsis but apparently absent from the genomes of animals and microorganisms - were identified in Arabidopsis (8,000, or approximately 30% of predicted genes) and O. sativa ssp. japonica (13,000, approximately 20% of predicted genes with a minimal length of 300 bp). A substantial number of rice genes were not present in Arabidopsis or other organisms. The fact that most of these were classified as 'hypothetical' or 'unknown', or presented low confidence scores in rice, suggests that they may have been inaccurately predicted or may correspond to genes specific to particular plant lineages. Several classes of genes encoding families of proteins identified in other sequenced genomes (for example, nuclear steroid receptors, and the JAK and STAT signaling molecules) were not found in either the rice or Arabidopsis genomes. This study confirmed that gene content and order are highly conserved between rice and other cereals, but that conservation is much more limited between rice and Arabidopsis.The research papers, new
The compact pufferfish genome
Jean-Nicolas Volff
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-11-reports0059
Abstract: The genome of Fugu rubripes was sequenced to over 95% coverage using a whole-genome shotgun strategy, and assembled into 12,381 scaffolds longer than 2 kb (745 scaffolds longer than 100 kb). A total of 31,059 gene loci covering about one third of the genome and encoding 33,609 peptides/proteins were predicted from the assembled sequences, and the upper bound for gene number was estimated to be around 38,000. Hence, pufferfish and human have roughly the same number of genes. Importantly, 961 novel human putative genes were predicted on the basis of Fugu/human comparisons. The genome of Fugu contains much less repetitive DNA than the human genome, but surprisingly recent activity was detected for at least 40 different families of transposable elements. The number of introns is roughly the same in Fugu and human, but differential gain and loss of introns were observed. In particular, some genes are intronless in Fugu but have multiple introns in human, and vice versa. Introns are generally shorter in Fugu, but 'giant' genes with average coding sequence lengths (1-2 kb) covering a genomic region larger than those for homologs in other organisms were detected too. Conservation of chromosomal segments was observed between the Fugu and human genomes but there was also considerable gene scrambling. No evidence was found for frequent recent duplications, but numerous examples of ancient duplication events were detected, which might have been generated either by an ancient fish-specific whole genome duplication or by more local events. Comparative study of the Fugu and human predicted proteomes revealed that about 25% of predicted human proteins (8,109) apparently do not have a homolog in pufferfish; homologs of 5% of these were detected in fruit fly, nematode or yeast, suggesting that they have been lost from Fugu. Conversely, about 6,000 predicted proteins from Fugu did not show any homology to human proteins, highlighting the dynamics of protein evolution in the fish and h
Rice genome revealed I: the indica sequence
Jean-Nicolas Volff
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-7-reports0035
Abstract: Using the whole-genome shotgun strategy, a method based mainly on random sequencing that has already been successfully applied to the fly and human genomes, Yu et al. estimated the size of the rice genome at 466 Mbp and succeeded in determining 362 Mbp of genomic sequence disrupted by about 100,000 gaps. The predicted number of genes (46,022-55,615) indicates that rice has more genes than Arabidopsis (estimated at 25,498 genes). This can be explained by additional duplication events in the rice lineage after its separation from the Arabidopsis lineage about 150-200 million years ago. The extreme divergence of some of the resulting duplicates might explain why 50% of the rice genes predicted by Yu et al. have no obvious homologs in Arabidopsis and other organisms. The mean gene size in rice was 4.5 kb, as compared to 2.4 kb in Arabidopsis and 72 kb in humans. In contrast to the situation in the human genome, transposon sequences in rice were mainly found in intergenic regions rather than in introns. Yu et al. observed a gradient in both GC content and codon usage in protein-coding rice sequences, with the 5' end being typically up to 25% richer in GC than the 3' end.Some commentaries on the sequencing of the rice genome are available free of charge from The rice genome index page at the Science website. The draft sequence of the genome of O. sativa ssp. indica reported by Yu et al. can be downloaded freely from Rice GD and is also available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Oryza sativa (rice) genome view, along with other rice sequences in the public domain. The Myriad Genetics/Syngenta draft sequence of O. sativa ssp. japonica Nipponbare is available to academic researchers under certain conditions from the Torrey Mesa Research Institute - the rice genome page. Information about the Japanese-led public International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) with links to the different institutions involved and to sequences deposited in p
Sex determination in fish
Jean-Nicolas Volff
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-9-reports0052
Abstract: In most mammalian species, the male-inducing master sex-determining gene, SRY, is located on the Y chromosome and is therefore absent from XX females. SRY is presumed to be specific to mammals. No master sex-determination gene has yet been unambiguously identified in fish or other nonmammalian vertebrates. Matsuda et al. have described an outstanding candidate for the first master sex-determining gene in fish, from Oryzias latipes.Sex determination in the teleost fish O. latipes (medaka) involves simple male heterogamety. In contrast to the situation observed in humans, the medaka Y chromosome is very similar to the X; there is no cytogenetic difference between X and Y, and X-Y pairing occurs along almost the complete chromosome length. This suggests that the male-determining region on the Y chromosome should be relatively small. Using a positional cloning strategy, Matsuda et al. restricted this region to 530 kb encompassed by four bacterial artificial chromosome genomic clones. Sequencing of about 422 kb from this region led to the identification of 52 putative genes. Deletion analysis of the Y chromosome of an XY congenic female further shortened the region to 250 kb, containing 27 candidate genes. Only three of these were expressed in embryos; and only one gene, called DMY, was expressed exclusively in XY embryos and was present on the Y but not on the X chromosome. The DMY gene spans six exons and encodes a putative protein of 267 amino acids containing a DNA-binding domain called DM, which is also present in some proteins involved in sex determination in nematodes and flies. Interestingly, DMY is very similar to DMRT1, a transcription factor that is also involved in male development in other vertebrates, including humans. DMY was shown to be essential for male medaka development, as a spontaneous XY female (sex reversal) produced a truncated DMY protein as a result of a single insertion in exon 3. A second XY female presented a very low level of expression of
L'apport de la sociolinguistique à la lexicographie: l'exemple récent des belgicismes dans l'édition du Nouveau Petit Robert 2008
Jean-Nicolas De Surmont
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/19--430
Abstract: Résumé: Cet article souhaite analyser le contenu de l'inclusion des 48 nouveaux belgicismes dans le Nouveau Petit Robert 2008 (dorénavant NPR 2008). Il retrace les antécédents de collabora-tions entre différents linguistes et les éditions Robert pour l'inclusion de belgicismes et évoque le processus qui a conduit à la décision de mettre à jour la nomenclature des belgicismes dans le NPR 2008. Il fait aussi le point sur ces belgicismes en comparant, tableau à l'appui, la présence des belgi-cismes récemment ajoutés à l'aide d'autres dictionnaires fran ais. à partir de cette comparaison et des données sociolinguistiques fournies dans le cadre du projet de recherche Valibel, il s'interroge enfin sur la pertinence de l'inclusion de ces belgicismes. Mots-clés: FRAN AIS DE BELGIQUE, METALEXICOGRAPHIE, SOCIOLINGUISTIQUE Abstract: The Contribution of Sociolinguistics to Lexicography: The Recent Exam-ple of Belgicisms in the Edition of the Nouveau Petit Robert 2008. This article aims to ana-lyse the nature of the 48 new Belgicisms included in the Nouveau Petit Robert 2008 (henceforth NPR 2008). It traces the history of the collaboration between different linguists and the Robert editions regarding the inclu-sion of Belgicisms and touches on the process leading to the decision to include the list of Belgicisms in the NPR 2008. It also takes stock of these Belgicisms by comparing them with the aid of a table to the Belgicisms recently added by means of other French dictionaries. Lastly, proceeding from this comparison and the socio-linguistic evidence furnished by the research project Valibel, it questions the relevance of the inclusion of these Belgicisms. Keywords: BELGIAN FRENCH, METALEXICOGRAPHY, SOCIOLINGUISTICS
L'ingénierie lexicale ou la description d'un objet entre l'invention et la découverte
Jean-Nicolas De Surmont
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-139
Abstract: RéSUMé: Résoudre des problèmes théoriques constitue également résoudre des problèmes lexicaux. C'est ce que nous avons baptisé l'ingénierie lexicale, processus d'évaluation et de description d'une activité ou d'une discipline et de création de termes ou de lexies pouvant satisfaire les besoins théoriques du chercheur. La nécessité de recourir à l'ingénierie lexicale peut appara tre dans différents contextes scientifiques notamment les études transdisciplinaires, les études diachroniques, l'harmonisation interlinguistique, etc. Nous présentons donc différents cas de figures notamment dans le cadre de nos travaux sur la poésie vocale. Mots-clés: INGE NIERIE LEXICALE, RE SOLUTION DE PROBLE ME (LEXIQUE), LEXICOLOGIE, TERMINOLOGIE, E PISTE MOLOGIE ABSTRACT: Lexical Engineering or the Description of an Object between Invention and Discovery. Solving theoretical problems also involves solving lexical problems. This we have named lexical engineering, a process of evaluation and description of an activity or a discipline and the creation of terms or lexical items, which have to satisfy the theoretical needs of the researcher. The necessity to resort to lexical engineering becomes apparent in different scientific contexts, notably transdisciplinary studies, diachronic studies, interlinguistic harmonization, etc. We therefore present different kinds of figurative senses notably as part of our work on vocal poetry.
Jean Pruvost (éditeur). Dictionnaires et mots voyageurs: les 40 ans du Petit Robert, de Paul Robert à Alain Rey.
Jean-Nicolas De Surmont
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/19--455
Abstract: Au moment où nous effectuions nos études en lexicographie avec le couple Corbin, Danièle et Pierre à Lille, Jean Pruvost lan ait ce qui est devenue la Journée des dictionnaires de Cergy et devenait grace à l'amitié qu'il vouait à Bernard Quemada, l'universitaire qu'il est devenu. Depuis qu'il l'organise, cette journée re oit chaque année des visiteurs venus d'ailleurs et des conférenciers pour parler de ce vaste domaine d'étude qu'est la métalexicographie. La sélec-tion des conférenciers se fait à l'interne et ce sont souvent les mêmes personnes qui sont amenées à parler d'années en années ce qui enlève le caractère inter-national que pourrait avoir ces journées si l'on y acceptait des personnes en dehors des réseaux d'amitiés interuniversitaires qui se suivent d'années en années. Les journées des dictionnaires que ce soit à Montréal, à Bari, en Alle-magne procèdent toutes de la même manière.
Un vent nouveau pour les éditions Robert
Jean-Nicolas De Surmont
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--494
Abstract: Après la réédition de ses produits électroniques (Petit Robert électronique 2007 paru en septembre 2006 et le Grand Robert électronique paru en 2005) mentionnons la récente parution de deux ouvrages: Le Dictionnaire des combinaisons de mots: les synonymes en contexte (collection les Usuels, 2007, 1011 pages) et le Robert Van Dale Dictionnaire fran ais–néerlandais; néerlandais–fran ais. Il convient néanmoins de signaler que l'une des particularités des récentes éditions Robert consistera en l'ajout de 48 belgicismes s'appuyant en partie sur un travail que nous avons effectué au Centre de recherche Valibel en 2003 et 2004. Cette nouveauté belge dans le Petit Robert fait suite à notre suggestion aux éditions Robert en 2003 de revoir la nomenclature des belgicismes dans les dictionnaires Robert. En outre, à la demande de Madame Durand, récemment nommée à la direction des éditions Robert, et qui voulait se mettre au go t du jour en vue du festival de la Francophonie de 2006 en France, le Centre de recherche Valibel a été prié de livrer le fruit de ses recherches entamées depuis 2003 et qui a fait l'objet de rencontres nombreuses. Le Festival de la Francophonie constituait en quelque sorte une réaction contre des commentaires selon lesquels la France s'excluerait du mouvement de la Francophonie. (Voir notre article paru sur http://www.lianes.org). Le Petit Larousse illustré a tenté de renverser la tendance en incluant la France dans les activités de la Francophonie en 2006.
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