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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 43156 matches for " Jean-Fran?ois;Carvalho "
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An Ethnomethodological Perspective on the Conflict between Magistrates and Journalists in Cameroon  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Nguegan, Thomas Essono
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.34013
Abstract: The report of the magistrate profession to that of a journalist in Cameroon can be studied from the perspective both of the sociology of professions and sociology of the conflict; the actors, who belong to different territories, are usually against the quality, legitimacy and competence required to deal with media information, and judicial control, individual freedom. This relationship is mainly studied in this research in terms of symbolic interactionism, to emphasize first of all on the importance that judges and journalists themselves give to their profession and secondly on the rationality of their game in the construction and the demarcation of their respective territories. This article is a contribution to the study of the discourse of these two groups of professionals who compete with each other.
Adipocytes modulate vascular smooth muscle cells migration potential through their secretions  [PDF]
Souhad El Akoum, Isabelle Cloutier, Jean-Franois Tanguay
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.34035

Impairment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is recognized as a predisposition factor for atherosclerosis development. We hypothesize that the metabolic syndrome has a direct impact on VSMC migration and phenotypic switching, which may increase the incidence of atherosclerotic events. Aortic VSMC were extracted from 10 weeks old C57BL6 mice and incubated for 24 hr in adipocytes conditioned cell culture medium. Adipocytes were extracted from diabetic C57BL6 male mice fed with either a vegetal or an animal High-Fat-Diet (HFD) for 20 weeks. Migration of VSMC in response to conditioned media stimulations was significantly modulated compared to control. The most extended effects on VSMC were triggered by adipocytes from mice fed with animal HFD. These effects were concurrent with increased leptin concentrations and decreased adiponectin levels in conditioned media. A significant up-regulation of CD36 mRNA level was found in VSMC treated with adipocytes from HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, we have shown that the development of adipocyte-induced VSMC alterations is linked to diet fatty acid composition and the degree of metabolic alterations. The modulation of adipokine secretions in the adipose tissue that is linked to metabolic alterations may alter the physiology of VSMC and thus accelerate the development of metabolic-related vascular diseases.

Universality in Statistical Measures of Trajectories in Classical Billiard Systems  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Laprise, Ahmad Hosseinizadeh, Helmut Kr?ger
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.68132
Abstract: For classical billiards, we suggest that a matrix of action or length of trajectories in conjunction with statistical measures, level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity, can be used to distinguish chaotic from integrable systems. As examples of 2D chaotic billiards, we considered the Bunimovich stadium billiard and the Sinai billiard. In the level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity, we found GOE behaviour consistent with predictions from random matrix theory. We studied transport properties and computed a diffusion coefficient. For the Sinai billiard, we found normal diffusion, while the stadium billiard showed anomalous diffusion behaviour. As example of a 2D integrable billiard, we considered the rectangular billiard. We found very rigid behaviour with strongly correlated spectra similar to a Dirac comb. These findings present numerical evidence for universality in level spacing fluctuations to hold in classically integrable systems and in classically fully chaotic systems.
Oxytocin and Collective Bargaining: Propositions for a New Research Protocol  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Tremblay, Sébastien Rivard, Eric Gosselin
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.77063
Abstract: This paper contributes to collective bargaining research by providing a causal theoretical biological link path between negotiation behaviors and their substantive and relational results. Specifically, the role of oxytocin is described in light of the scientific knowledge that comes from organizational neurosciences, neuroeconomics and, psychology fields. The properties of the hormone, its place in neuroeconomics research and, their links with the psychology of the collective bargaining processes are discussed to determine guidelines for a new experimental protocol meant to study decision-making processes during collective bargaining. In addition, the conceptual model of strategic negotiations serves as a theoretical framework to consolidate the propositions that can be deduced from the results of the interaction processes in collective bargaining according to two dimensions of the outcome of the negotiations. Finally, the parameters of a new experimental protocol derived from the trust game are presented for the first time. This new game presents a more ecological perspective and is developed to offer a better fit with the specific domain of collective bargaining.
Intervalo e intensidade de desfolha o nas taxas de crescimento, senescência e desfolha o e no equilíbrio de gramíneas em associa o
Groff Andréa Machado,Moraes Anibal de,Soussana Jean-Franois,Carvalho Paulo César de Faccio
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2002,
Abstract: O experimento foi realizado no INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) em Theix, Fran a. Duas gramíneas (azevém perene e festuca)foram semeadas em caixas (0,13 m2) e submetidas a três intervalos (3,5, 7 e 14 dias) e três intensidades (160, 320 e 640 bocados.m-2 a cada desfolha o) de desfolha o, com quatro repeti es por tratamento. Quatro meses após a semeadura, a cada data de desfolha o, as caixas foram oferecidas, individualmente, a quatro ovelhas secas e retiradas após a realiza o de um determinado número de bocados. Para cada gramínea foram estudadas as taxas de crescimento, senescência e desfolha o. Os resultados mostraram que o intervalo e a intensidade de desfolha o tiveram efeitos diferenciados nas taxas de crescimento, senescência e desfolha o e no equilíbrio da associa o.
L’influence des agents virtuels sur la confiance des internautes vis-à-vis d’un site Web
Jean-Franois Lemoine,Jean-Franois Notebaert
Communications of the IBIMA , 2009,
Abstract: This research studies the influence of a virtual agent on web site trust. Starting from an empirical study concerning 242 subjects, we show that a web site with agent creates more trust than a web site without agent. Likewise, we show that a web site with agent influences more web site patronage intentions than a web site without agent.
Attributable cost of methicillin resistance: an issue that is difficult to evaluate
Jean-Franois Timsit
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc4994
Abstract: In the previous issue of Critical Care, Shorr and coworkers [1] provided new data on the morbidity and cost burden attributable to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated early-onset pneumonia (EOP). Based on the data recorded by 42 US hospitals, those investigators found methicillin resistance to be associated with a significant 4- to 6-day excess in mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital days. It was associated with a nonsignificant increase of about US$8000 in total costs, after controlling for case mix and severity. The authors made particular effort to select monomicrobial pneumonias and to adjust the calculations based on underlying illness, and on the severity and duration of ICU stay before EOP. However, this estimated increase in costs should be regarded with caution because of a number of potential biases associated with this type of analysis.First, the observed incidence of EOP was very low. The overall risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is between 9.7% and 22.8% [2]. EOP represents at least one-third of cases. Consequently, the rate of EOP should be higher than 3.2% [3]. Because Shorr and coworkers found that only 499 episodes were recorded in 42 hospitals over 2 years, this suggests that the incidence was unusually low or that EOP was largely under-reported. This could have introduced bias because unrecognized episodes might be different (probably less severe) than reported ones. Any under-recognition of EOP might have resulted from the known lack of reproducibility of ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition) [4]. Moreover, MRSA VAP has been reported to occur mainly late in the ICU stay [5-8]; MRSA represents fewer than 5% of micro-organisms encountered in EOP episodes [9]. The factors that impact on outcomes of EOP may be different from those in late-onset pneumonia [9,10]. For example, EOP is associated a shorter ICU stay, with significantly fewer days of mechanica
Role of clinical evaluation committees in sepsis trials: from 'valid cohort' assessment to subgroup analysis
Jean-Franois Dhainaut
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7686
Abstract: The study from Laterre and colleagues [1], published in this issue of Critical Care, offers suggestions for the role of clinical evaluation committees (CECs) in future sepsis trials. From 1990 to 2000, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated a variety of potential therapeutic interventions for severe sepsis. Despite some encouraging results in phase II trials, all RCTs have failed to show survival benefit based upon intention-to-treat analyses [2]. The reasons for these disappointing results might not only reflect the possible lack of efficacy of each new therapy, but may also be related to RCT-related factors that inevitably occur within a heterogeneous septic patient population. Other variables that might occur include variability of medical management strategies and the frequency of protocol violations. Phase II trials use a small number of highly motivated and experienced centers that are less susceptible to confounding events brought about by variations in clinical practices than international RCTs.A patient population free from confounding events and studied in full compliance with the protocol, including strict adherence to entry criteria, would seem to provide the most suitable platform upon which to judge the therapeutic effect of a new intervention for sepsis. To solve this issue, CECs have been introduced into RCTs in sepsis [3-7] to ensure uniform data for analysis and to identify such 'optimal cohorts' for which the therapy was initially designed to treat. As an example, Sprung and colleagues [8] showed that the reduction of mortality was higher in the pre-specified valid cohort than in the overall intent-to-treat study population (26.5 versus 14.5%) when using anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies for sepsis.More recently, some RCTs have reported positive results in sepsis [9,10], although these results remain the subject of much debate [11]. Consequently, the role of CECs has shifted to become a more integral part of the detailed analysis o
Re-establishing organ function in severe sepsis: targeting the microcirculation
Jean-Franois Dhainaut
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3752
Abstract: Microcirculatory dysfunction has been identified as a key component in the pathophysiology of sepsis. If not corrected, microvascular dysfunction can progress to organ dysfunction and subsequent mortality. This suggests that targeting the microcirculation when treating sepsis might be an important step in increasing patient survival. However, in order to successfully restore microcirculatory dysfunction, it is necessary to understand how it occurs, how it contributes to organ dysfunction, and how various therapies act on the microvasculature.This supplement begins with a series of three articles by Ellis and colleagues, Vincent and De Backer, and Ince that discuss the physiology of the microcirculation and how its monitoring system, which includes the endothelium and the erythrocytes, allows the regulation of oxygen delivery. In sepsis, this regulatory system fails, leading to tissue hypoxia despite adequate oxygen supply. Experimental and clinical data are available showing that reduced microcirculatory flow and increased heterogeneity of microvessel perfusion play an important part in organ dysfunction, and that the higher the degree of such disruption, the poorer the outcome. Indeed, it is possible that, even if systemic hemodynamic variables are corrected, microcirculatory distress can persist in a condition that has been termed microcirculatory and mitochondrial distress syndrome. This accentuates the need for techniques that are specifically designed to monitor microcirculatory function, such as orthogonal polarized spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, in order to ensure that the correct therapeutic options are employed to help improve microvascular function.Articles by Trzeciak and Rivers, and Bateman and Walley show that such experimental techniques are also extremely important in the study of the clinical manifestations of disordered microcirculatory perfusion in severe sepsis, and have allowed visualization of the microcirculatory response t
Open the intensive care unit doors to HIV-infected patients with sepsis
Jean-Franois Timsit
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3923
Abstract: In recent years, several papers have noted important modifications in the epidemiology of sepsis and septic shock [1,2]. In the USA, the annual incidence of sepsis increased 8.7% [2], with sepsis more frequent among non-white people and men. Possible reasons for the real increase in the incidence of sepsis include the increased number of immunocompromised patients; HIV infected patients represent more than 10% of patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals with severe sepsis and 6% of patients hospitalized with septic shock [1].In industrialized countries, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection [3,4]. The combination of a stable rate of new HIV cases with the longer survival of HIV-infected patients has increased the prevalence of HIV/AIDS [5]. Although the rate of hospital admissions has decreased in the HIV-infected population, the proportion of hospitalized patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) did not change [6] or increased [7,8].Between 1990 and 1996 (the beginning of HAART therapy), in-ICU mortality [6-9] improved moderately or did not change, but the three-month [7] and long-term outcome [10] of HIV/AIDS patients admitted to the ICU improved dramatically. For example, in the Claude-Bernard Bichat experience, in-ICU mortality was 20.6% in 1990 to 1992, 27% in 1995 to 1996 and 25% in 1998 to 2000 [7,9]. In contrast, six-month mortality was 49% in 1990 to 1992, 38% in 1995 to 1996 and 30% in 1998 to 2000 [9,10]. Similar results were found in Switzerland [11] and the USA [6].The unmodified ICU prognosis is obviously not related to the absence of improvements in ICU care, but is largely due to modifications in the case-mix and attitudes toward the use of ICU care [12]. Compared to the pre-HAART period, two distinct categories of HIV/AIDS patients are now admitted. The most common of these is a particular subgroup of patients with problems in HI
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