Abstract:
The drag free technique is used to force a proof mass to follow a geodesic motion. The mass is protected from perturbations by a cage, and the motion of the latter is actively controlled to follow the motion of the proof mass. We present a theoretical analysis of the effects of quantum fluctuations for this technique. We show that a perfect drag free operation is in principle possible at the quantum level, in spite of the back action exerted on the mass by the position sensor.

Abstract:
This paper presents a unified framework for dealing with a deduction system and a denotational semantics of exceptions. It is based on the fact that handling exceptions can be seen as a kind of generalized case distinction. This point of view on exceptions has been introduced in 2004, it is based on the notion of diagrammatic logic, which assumes some familiarity with category theory. Extensive sums of types can be used for dealing with case distinctions. The aim of this new paper is to focus on the role of generalized extensivity property for dealing with exceptions. Moreover, the presentation of this paper makes only a restricted use of category theory.

Abstract:
A new categorical framework is provided for dealing with multiple arguments in a programming language with effects, for example in a language with imperative features. Like related frameworks (Monads, Arrows, Freyd categories), we distinguish two kinds of functions. In addition, we also distinguish two kinds of equations. Then, we are able to define a kind of product, that generalizes the usual categorical product. This yields a powerful tool for deriving many results about languages with effects.

Abstract:
Most often, in a categorical semantics for a programming language, the substitution of terms is expressed by composition and finite products. However this does not deal with the order of evaluation of arguments, which may have major consequences when there are side-effects. In this paper Cartesian effect categories are introduced for solving this issue, and they are compared with strong monads, Freyd-categories and Haskell's Arrows. It is proved that a Cartesian effect category is a Freyd-category where the premonoidal structure is provided by a kind of binary product, called the sequential product. The universal property of the sequential product provides Cartesian effect categories with a powerful tool for constructions and proofs. To our knowledge, both effect categories and sequential products are new notions.

Abstract:
Computational effects may often be interpreted in the Kleisli category of a monad or in the coKleisli category of a comonad. The duality between monads and comonads corresponds, in general, to a symmetry between construction and observation, for instance between raising an exception and looking up a state. Thanks to the properties of adjunction one may go one step further: the coKleisli-on-Kleisli category of a monad provides a kind of observation with respect to a given construction, while dually the Kleisli-on-coKleisli category of a comonad provides a kind of construction with respect to a given observation. In the previous examples this gives rise to catching an exception and updating a state. However, the interpretation of computational effects is usually based on a category which is not self-dual, like the category of sets. This leads to a breaking of the monad-comonad duality. For instance, in a distributive category the state effect has much better properties than the exception effect. This remark provides a novel point of view on the usual mechanism for handling exceptions. The aim of this paper is to build an equational semantics for handling exceptions based on the coKleisli-on-Kleisli category of the monad of exceptions. We focus on n-ary functions and conditionals. We propose a programmer's language for exceptions and we prove that it has the required behaviour with respect to n-ary functions and conditionals.

Abstract:
This paper presents equational-based logics for proving first order properties of programming languages involving effects. We propose two dual inference system patterns that can be instanciated with monads or comonads in order to be used for proving properties of different effects. The first pattern provides inference rules which can be interpreted in the Kleisli category of a monad and the coKleisli category of the associated comonad. In a dual way, the second pattern provides inference rules which can be interpreted in the coKleisli category of a comonad and the Kleisli category of the associated monad. The logics combine a 3-tier effect system for terms consisting of pure terms and two other kinds of effects called 'constructors/observers' and 'modifiers', and a 2-tier system for 'up-to-effects' and 'strong' equations. Each pattern provides generic rules for dealing with any monad (respectively comonad), and it can be extended with specific rules for each effect. The paper presents two use cases: a language with exceptions (using the standard monadic semantics), and a language with state (using the less standard comonadic semantics). Finally, we prove that the obtained inference system for states is Hilbert-Post complete.

Abstract:
An Optical-Thermal-Damage Model was formulated using finite-element modeling software (Femlab 3.1, Comsol Inc). The general model simulated light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory, temperature rise using the bioheat equation and laser-induced injury using the Arrhenius damage model. Biological tissue was represented by two homogenous regions (dermis and fat layer) with a nonlinear air-tissue boundary condition including free convection.Video recordings were used to gain a better understanding of the back and forth movement of the cannula during laser lipolysis in order to consider them in our mathematical model. Infrared video recordings were also performed in order to compare the actual surface temperatures to our calculations. The reduction in fat volume was determined as a function of the total applied energy and subsequently compared to clinical data reported in the literature.In patients, when using cooled tumescent anesthesia, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser or 980 nm diode laser: (6 W, back and forth motion: 100 mm/s) give similar skin surface temperature (max: 41°C). These measurements are in accordance with those obtained by mathematical modeling performed with a 1 mm cannula inserted inside the hypodermis layer at 0.8 cm below the surface. Similarly, the fat volume reduction observed in patients at 6-month follow up can be determined by mathematical modeling. This fat reduction depends on the applied energy, typically 5 cm3 for 3000 J. At last, skin retraction was observed in patients at 6-month follow up. This observation can be easily explained by mathematical modeling showing that the temperature increase inside the lower dermis is sufficient (48–50°C) to induce skin tighteningLaser lipolysis can be described by a theoretical model. Fat volume reduction observed in patients is in accordance with model calculations. Due to heat diffusion, temperature elevation is also produced inside the lower reticular dermis. This interesting

Abstract:
We present a quantum network approach to real high sensitivity measurements. Thermal and quantum fluctuations due to active as well as passive elements are taken into account. The method is applied to the analysis of the capacitive accelerometer using the cold damping technique, developed for fundamental physics in space by ONERA and the ultimate limits of this instrument are discussed. It is confirmed in this quantum analysis that the cold damping technique allows one to control efficiently the test mass motion without degrading the noise level.

Abstract:
We consider a model of quantum measurement built on an ideal operational amplifier operating in the limit of infinite gain, infinite input impedance and null output impedance and with a feddback loop. We evaluate the intensity and voltage noises which have to be added to the classical amplification equations in order to fulfill the requirements of quantum mechanics. We give a description of this measurement device as a quantum network scattering quantum fluctuations from input to output ports.

Abstract:
We analyse non ideal quantum measurements described as scattering processes providing an estimator of the measured quantity. The sensitivity is expressed as an equivalent input noise. We address the Von Neumann problem of chained measurements and show the crucial role of preamplification.