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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22943 matches for " Jean Claude Niyondiko "
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Esophageal Cancer: Epidemiological, Clinical and Histopathological Aspects over a 24-Years Period at Kamenge University Hospital, Bujumbura, Burundi  [PDF]
Rénovat Ntagirabiri, Richard Karayuba, Gabriel Ndayisaba, Aline Nduwimana, Jean Claude Niyondiko
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.64014
Abstract: Aim: There were no data about esophageal cancer in Burundi. The aim of the study was to highlight the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of the esophageal cancer. Method: A retrospective study over a 24-years period (from January 1988 to December 2011) was carried out at Kamenge university hospital, including patients with esophageal cancer. The cases were selected on basis of the histological evidence of the cancer. Results: A total of 34 cases were retrieved and included for analysis. Among them, 24 patients (70.5%) were males. The esophageal cancer constituted 8.6% of digestive cancers over the period of the study. The average age was 50.9 years. It was revealed by dysphagia in 32 patients (94.1%) and was concomitantly metastatic in 12 patients. The squamous cell carcinoma was 30 cases (88.2%). 27 patients underwent a curative resection, but the outcome and prognosis were poor. In-hospital mortality and morbidity rates were respectively 8.8% and 17.7%. Conclusion: The present study showed evidence that the esophageal cancer in our country had the same characteristics and distribution as well as in developing countries. It had a poor prognosis and efforts had to be done in the early cancer detection.
The “3 Genomic Numbers” Discovery: How Our Genome Single-Stranded DNA Sequence Is “Self-Designed” as a Numerical Whole  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Perez
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A2004
Abstract:

This article proves the existence of a hyper-precise global numerical meta-architecture unifying, structuring, binding and controlling the billion triplet codons constituting the sequence of single-stranded DNA of the entire human genome. Beyond the evolution and erratic mutations like transposons within the genome, it’s as if the memory of a fossil genome with multiple symmetries persists. This recalls the intermingling of information characterizing the fractal universe of chaos theory. The result leads to a balanced and perfect tuning between the masses of the two strands of the huge DNA molecule that constitute our genome. We show here how codon populations forming the single-stranded DNA sequences can constitute a critical approach to the understanding of junk DNA function. Then, we suggest revisiting certain methods published in our 2009 book “Codex Biogenesis”. In fact, we demonstrate here how the universal genetic code table is a powerful analytical filter to characterize single-stranded DNA sequences constituting chromosomes and genomes. We can then show that any genomic DNA sequence is featured by three numbers, which characterize it and its 64 codon populations with correlations greater than 99%. The number “1” is common to all sequences, expressing the second law of Chargaff. The other 2 numbers are related to each specific DNA sequence case characterizing life species. For example, the entire human genome is characterized by three remarkable numbers 1, 2, and Phi = 1.618 the golden ratio. Associated with each of these three numbers, we can match three axes of symmetry, then “imagine” a kind of hyperspace formed by these codon populations. Then we revisit the value (3-Phi)/2 which is probably universal and common to both the scale of quarks and atomic levels, balancing and tuning the whole human genome codon population. Finally, we demonstrate a new kind of duality between “form and substance” overlapping the whole human genome: we will show that—simultaneously with the duality between genes and junk DNA—there is a second layer of embedded hidden structure overlapping all the DNA of the whole human genome, dividing it into a second type of duality information/redundancy involving golden ratio proportions.

Urban Planning in Africa: Which Alternative for Poor Cities? The Case of Koudougou in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Bolay
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34033
Abstract: The efforts made to plan cities in emerging and developing countries are confronted to multiple issues, especially in small and middle sized cities which can be considered as poor through several criteria: socio-economic level of majority of population; low levels of public investments, weak quality of local administration, and large dependence of external donors. Following several authors, one of the main reason is that philosophy and methods of urban planning applied to these specific contexts are directly reproduced from a Western tradition which doesn’t correspond to the local and national context in terms of needs, priorities and organization of the financial resources. The case of Koudougou, a medium sized city in one of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso, will give the opportunity to understand concretely how these deficiencies are translated in an urban context, and foresee, more globally, alternative models of urban planning better adapted to poor cities, whose number of inhabitants is growing steadily.
Planning the Intermediate City, or How to Do Better with Little: The Case of the City of Nueve de Julio, Argentina  [PDF]
Jean Claude Bolay
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.63020
Abstract:
With 92% of its population living in urban areas, Argentina is one of the most urbanized countries on the planet. Like in many South Countries, the populations of the small and medium-sized cities, which serve as intermediate centers between the countryside and the urban network, are growing steadily. Such cities in Argentina offer services and infrastructures to both urban and rural populations, as well as a residential alternative to the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area. These cities, however, are facing specific problems that require appropriate responses. In this respect, Nueve de Julio is emblematic of the challenges facing these intermediate cities. As one of the hundred cities created in the 19th century by the Argentinian government, Nueve de Julio is today a city whose population is increasing, and territory is expanding, but that lacks any foresight to anticipate the next 20 or 30 years. Our purpose is to analyze the reasons of this stagnation, explain the serious development problems the city confronts, with disparities in the organization of its territory and 20% of population living in poverty, and foresee an open system of urban planning, capable to guide the urban authorities and its partners in the identification of priorities and investments in favor of all the inhabitants. The government seems helpless in dealing with this. Political activism prevails over planning and varies from one election to the next depending on the party in power. Means are lacking, both financially and in terms of technical skills. Establishing an open system of urban planning is imperative. Based on the collaboration of citizen, the goals of the planning should include social, economic and spatial integration, efforts to include the city’s poor and more rational, less costly development of the suburban periphery. This will enable Nueve de Julio to better play its role as an intermediate city for the entire urban and regional population with regard to business, administration, education and health services.
The Role of Cultural Promotion As an Integral Component of Leipzig’s Urban Development  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14009
Abstract: After the reunification in 1990, Leipzig—as well as other East German cities—had to face the challenges of the new political-administrative system and an open global economy. Through the systematic implementation of its evolving urban development strategies, the city has developed positively in many areas. After the German reunification, most of Leipzig’s districts lacked cultural leisure services that would have been fit for all age groups and close to their homes. In the early 1990s, the establishment of such urgently needed socio-cultural centers was initiated on the one hand by official authorities and on the other by the citizens themselves. Many newly founded associations and initiatives strove hard to maintain the existing or to develop new cultural activities. In order to implement the latter, they were not only interested in the already established cultural sites, but particularly in former industrial structures or other buildings with a rich historical background. The best project in this effort is the world-famous Spinnerei. These urban environments offered vast opportunities for artists, the independent scene, cultural workers and creative industries alike. A large number of Leipzig’s cultural institutions originated from civic engagement and were then, in times of economic recovery, incorporated into municipal ownership. Nowadays, they are threatened to be re-privatized as the city’s means of cultural funding are gradually reaching their limits. But Leipzig planning officials still think that the promotion of cultural projects in the neighborhoods provides a climate where culture is respectfully seen as a precious opportunity for urban development. Through an extensive and varied offer of cultural activities, otherwise marginalized citizens can be integrated in social life and participate in democratic processes.
The Sustainable Development of Miami: Tackling the Homeless Problem  [PDF]
Vaiva Kalesnikaite, Jean-Claude Garcia- Zamor
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23019
Abstract: The article intends to provide more understanding of strategies intended to tackle homelessness presence in Miami-Date County as well as draw some lessons that could be learnt from experience. It is explanatory in nature and the main method used is extensive literature research as well as the official reports. It discusses the issue of homelessness in the light of sustainable communities; overviews the important strategies for tackling homelessness presence in the literature and practice; discusses the homelessness presence in Miami-Date County and the strategies and main actors that tackle it; discusses the sustainability of these strategies in the light of development of Miami-Dade County; and draws conclusions and suggestions for strategies of tackling homeless presence in Miami-Dade County.
Recycling of Alum from Water Treatment Residue and Reuse It as a Flocculating Agent for Raw Water Treatment  [PDF]
Pascaline Sanga, Yves Iradukunda, Jean Claude Munyemana
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.612018
Abstract: The chemical coagulation-flocculation technology is touted as one of the valuable techniques and widely used for wastewater treatment because of its simplicity and effectiveness. So far, a number of flocculants have been fabricated to ameliorate the flocculation process in water treatment such as alum, polyaluminium chloride. Despite its broad application in water treatment, accumulation of alum in sludge has been reported as the main source of a disposal problem. Furthermore, recent studies suggested that the presence of alum in sludge may lead to human health problems. Here in, we have used alkalization method to recover alum present in sludge collected from Kimisagara water treatment plant located in Kigali capital city of Rwanda. The recovered alum was used more than one time and showed excellent flocculation efficiency. Some physical parameters such as pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Conductivity and Turbidity were systematically tested and compared with those of World Health Organization (WHO) and Rwanda Standards Board (RSB) standards for drinking water. The results showed that alum present in sludge can be recovered and reused for multiple times.
Helium oxygen mixtures in the intensive care unit
Jean-Claude Chevrolet
Critical Care , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cc1019
Abstract: Human airways are complex tubes, and airflow in a tube may occur in a laminar, a transitional or a turbulent manner [1]. Reynolds number can approximately predict the nature of flow [2]. Flow characteristics are determined by complex interplays between many different factors, including the branching patterns of trachea and bronchi, the diameter of the conduits, the angles of branching, and the degree of roughness of the walls. The flow characteristics in the airways may also vary depending on the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates [2,3].During quiet breathing in normal humans, a transition from turbulent to laminar flow occurs through the trachea to around the second generation of bronchi. In patients with airways obstruction, however, turbulent flow occurs very frequently, even in low breathing rates and quiet breathing patterns [4]. This leads to increased work of breathing (WOB).In turbulent flows, the pressure necessary to generate a given flow rate is dependent on the density of the inspired gases [4,5]. Helium has a density that is significantly lower than that of air [4]. Therefore, a mixture of helium and oxygen, termed heliox, has a lower density than does a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (air, or airox) [6,7]. Breathing heliox leads to a reduction in resistance to flow within the airways, and consequently to a decrease in the WOB, particularly in disorders that are characterized by increased airways resistance [8]. These beneficial effects have been observed in a few patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and upper airways obstruction [9]. Heliox has not only been used in patients breathing spontaneously, but also in the settings of both invasive mechanical ventilation (ie with tracheal intubation) [10] and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) [11,12]. Nevertheless, the usefulness of heliox in the intensive care unit remains debatable.In upper airways obstruction, heliox appears
O currículo entre o relativismo e o universalismo
Forquin, Jean-Claude;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302000000400004
Abstract: this article examines the issues of relativism and universalism in the curriculum. according to the author, the relativist approach holds that the validity of what is taught should be questioned. for the universalist approach, there is a common body of knowledge that everyone should learn and that are valuable regardless of particular circumstances and interests. the author discusses the pedagogical implications of the two perspectives and argues that schools and teachers should offer their students the possibility of regarding the multiplicity of voices in the world as analogous to polyphony.
Semiótica del discurso en La tribuna (1882), de Emilia Pardo Bazán
Mbarga,Jean-Claude;
Estudios filológicos , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0071-17132005000100010
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of speech as mediation in la tribuna (1882), by emilia pardo bazán, through the study of illocutionnary speech acts as narrative ingredients which participate de facto in the story and give access to the deep meanings of the novel
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