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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21587 matches for " Jean Bosco Ouedraogo "
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Management Problems of Trans-Frontier Yellow Fever Cases in Burkina Faso 2010  [PDF]
Seydou Yaro, Aline R. Ouoba, Alidou Zango, Jérémi Rouamba, Aly Drabo, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Fati Samandoulougou-Kirakoya, Jean Macq, Annie Robert, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.32013
Abstract:

This last decade, Burkina Faso has been confronted with yellow fever confirmed cases, mainly from Western part of the country. In 2010, National Reference laboratory of yellow fever received 970 sera of suspected cases from the 65 Health Districts of the country. We found 11 positive results by ELISA test researching specific IgM against yellow fever. An aliquot of these eleven positive sera were sent to Dakar for confirmation by sero neutralization and RT-PCR. Eight have been confirmed by regional laboratory of Pasteur Institute of Dakar and three were classified as doubtful. Confirmed cases were manly notified by Sindou (4/8) and Mangodara (3/8) Health Districts and the last one came from Nongr-masson health District situated in the central part of the country. Three out of the four confirmed cases in Sindou Health District were resident from neighboring village in Ivory Cost. Conformed cases coming from neighboring villages of Ivory Cost were difficult to manage because of the relative lack of coordination between the two health centers responsible in two different countries. The three cases were not notified to Ivory Cost Health authorities and, in addition, they didn’t benefit from the Burkina Faso response plan. The goal of this work is to present results from National Reference yellow fever laboratory in 2010 in Burkina Faso and stressing trans-frontier cases management problems in order to suggest a multinational mechanism of response to fight against this disease more effectively.

Neisseria meningitis serogroup X outbreak in Burkina Faso, 2009-2010  [PDF]
Seydou Yaro, Aly Drabo, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Judith Mueller, Oumar Sanou, Haoua Tall, Phillip Jaillard, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Jean Macq, Annie Robert, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22010
Abstract: Background: Centre MURAZ of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) organized in 2009 and 2010 a system of Cerobro-Spinal Fluid (CSF) collection in eight pilot Districts as an initial step for the future Ministry of Health’s led strategy of individual surveillance in a context of meningococcal conjugate A vaccine introduction. Methods: CSF samples were analyzed with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This allowed for meningitis etiologies dynamics studies in the pilot Districts. Results: Because of geographical difficulties and lack of means, less than 40% of suspected cases had their CSF analyzed at PCR reference laboratory. In 2009, among confirmed cases at reference laboratory, Sp (Streptococcus pneumonia), NmA (Neisseria meningitis A) and Hib (Hemophilus influenzae b) were responsible respectively for 90%, 6.6% and 4.4% of cases. In 2010, serogroup distribution among confirmed cases was: Sp 62.7%, NmX 32.2% and NmA 5.1%. Sp which was continuously present in Burkina Faso takes more significant proportions, just as serogroup X which until there was sporadically encountered. The attack rates of NmX were tree to twelve times higher than for NmA in the two Districts where NmX has been notified. Conclusion: As a consequence of such results, efforts must be maintained in epidemiologic surveillance field and in reinforcement of laboratory capacities. Fast care should be guaranteed to patients with adequate antibiotics according to country national guideline and chemoprophylaxis measures should be undertaken among contacts of patients to prevent secondary cases. A plea must be made on one hand for pneumococcal vaccine introduction in Burkina Faso and on other hand towards manufacturers for taking into account serogroup X into meningococcal polyvalent vaccine composition. With this polyvalent vaccine including serougruop X, we suggested to conduct periodically mass campaign vaccination of people before the beginning of meningitis epidemiological season.
New Optimal Pivot Rule for the Simplex Algorithm  [PDF]
Jean Bosco Etoa Etoa
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2016.610054
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new pivot rule of the simplex algorithm. The simplex algorithm first presented by George B. Dantzig, is a widely used method for solving a linear programming problem (LP). One of the important steps of the simplex algorithm is applying an appropriate pivot rule to select the basis-entering variable corresponding to the maximum reduced cost. Unfortunately, this pivot rule not only can lead to a critical cycling (solved by Bland’s rules), but does not improve efficiently the objective function. Our new pivot rule 1) solves the cycling problem in the original Dantzig’s simplex pivot rule, and 2) leads to an optimal improvement of the objective function at each iteration. The new pivot rule can lead to the optimal solution of LP with a lower number of iterations. In a maximization problem, Dantzig’s pivot rule selects a basis-entering variable corresponding to the most positive reduced cost; in some problems, it is well-known that Dantzig’s pivot rule, before reaching the optimal solution, may visit a large number of extreme points. Our goal is to improve the simplex algorithm so that the number of extreme points to visit is reduced; we propose an optimal improvement in the objective value per unit step of the basis-entering variable. In this paper, we propose a pivot rule that can reduce the number of such iterations over the Dantzig’s pivot rule and prevent cycling in the simplex algorithm. The idea is to have the maximum improvement in the objective value function: from the set of basis-entering variables with positive reduced cost, the efficient basis-entering variable corresponds to an optimal improvement of the objective function. Using computational complexity arguments and some examples, we prove that our optimal pivot rule is very effective and solves the cycling problem in LP. We test and compare the efficiency of this new pivot rule with Dantzig’s original pivot rule and the simplex algorithm in MATLAB environment.
Major reduction of malaria morbidity with combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation in young children in Burkina Faso: a randomized double blind trial
Augustin N Zeba, Hermann Sorgho, No?l Rouamba, Issiaka Zongo, Jeremie Rouamba, Robert T Guiguemdé, Davidson H Hamer, Najat Mokhtar, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo
Nutrition Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-7-7
Abstract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was done in children of Sourkoudougou village, Burkina Faso. Children aged from 6 to 72 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A plus 10 mg elemental zinc, six days a week (n = 74) or placebo (n = 74) for a period of six months. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the beginning and the end of the study, and children were evaluated daily for fever. Microscopic examination of blood smear was done in the case of fever (temperature ≥37.5°C) for malaria parasite detection.At the end of the study we observed a significant decrease in the prevalence malaria in the supplemented group (34%) compared to the placebo group (3.5%) (p < 0.001). Malaria episodes were lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.029), with a 30.2% reduction of malaria cases (p = 0.025). Time to first malaria episode was longer in the supplemented group (p = 0.015). The supplemented group also had 22% fewer fever episodes than the placebo group (p = 0.030).These results suggest that combined vitamin A plus zinc supplementation reduces the risk of fever and clinical malaria episodes among children, and thus may play a key role in malaria control strategies for children in Africa.Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among African children [1]. Between 300 to 500 millions new cases of malaria, primarily due to P. falciparum, are annually observed in the world, with 90% in sub-saharan Africa, and these account for an estimated one million children deaths [2]. Furthermore, resistance to drugs and insecticides used to fight this disease has hampered malaria control efforts [3]. Children and adults living in malaria-endemic areas often have a high prevalence of malnutrition and deficiencies of micronutrients such as vitamin A and zinc; this situation creates a complexity of interactions with ser
An analysis of timing and frequency of malaria infection during pregnancy in relation to the risk of low birth weight, anaemia and perinatal mortality in Burkina Faso
Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Maxime K Drabo, Lieven Huybregts, Hermann Sorgho, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Robert T Guiguemde, Jean van Geertruyden, Patrick Kolsteren, Umberto D'Alessandro, the FSP/MISAME study Group
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-71
Abstract: Study participants were enrolled at antenatal care (ANC) visits and randomized to receive either two or three doses of SP at the appropriate time. Women were visited daily and a blood slide was collected when there was fever (body temperature > 37.5°C) or history of fever. Women were encouraged to attend ANC and deliver in the health centre, where the new-born was examined and weighed. The timing and frequency of malaria infection was analysed in relation to the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality.Data on birth weight and haemoglobin were available for 1,034 women. The incidence of malaria infections was significantly lower in women having received three instead of two doses of SP. Occurrence of first malaria infection during the first or second trimester was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight: incidence rate ratios of 3.56 (p < 0.001) and 1.72 (p = 0.034), respectively. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, the risk remained significantly higher for the infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.07, p = 0.002). The risk of maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality was not associated with the timing of first malaria infection.Malaria infection during first trimester of pregnancy is associated to a higher risk of low birth weight. Women should be encouraged to use long-lasting insecticidal nets before and throughout their pregnancy.Each year, about 30 million pregnant women are at risk for malaria [1], with consequences of public health concern [2]. Indeed, malaria infection may result in maternal anaemia [3], pre-term delivery and low birth weight (LBW) [2,4] and is therefore an important determinant of perinatal mortality [5-7]. To prevent and manage malaria in pregnancy, the Word Health Organization (WHO) recommends effective case management, use of insecticide-treated bed nets and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) [8]. Followi
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Associated Risk Factors in Pregnant Women at Selected Health Facilities in Kigali City, Rwanda  [PDF]
Jean Baptsite Niyibizi, Florien Safari, Jean Bosco Ahishakiye, Jean Bosco Habimana, Herbert Mapira, Ngule Chrispus Mutuku
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.64028
Abstract: Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication of pregnancy that causes chronic hypertension, increased rate of cesarean delivery, fetal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, early diagnosis of GDM is vital to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity. Moreover, it can circumvent or procrastinate the onset of type 2 diabetes. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of GDM in pregnant women attending Kimironko, Kicukiro and Muhima Health Centres. The specific objectives were to determine the blood glucose during the second trimester in pregnant women aged between 21 and 45 years, to find out the frequencies of pregnant women presenting with GDM according to age and to assess some promising risk factors associated with GDM. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Kimironko, Kicukiro and Muhima Health centers using a sample size of 96 pregnant women. Blood glucose levels were measured using glucose oxidase method with a glucometer. Data were analyzed by using Microsoft Office Excel and SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 96 pregnant women who participated in the study, 8.3% were found to have GDM with the mean ± 2SD of 194.12 ± 25.53 mg/dl of their blood glucose results (Mean ± 2SD: A 95% level of confidence Intervals). The highest proportion of GDM was revealed in pregnant women aged between 26 - 30 years, representing a frequency of 5.2% whereas 2.1% of GDM was reflected in women aged between 21 - 25 years. The lowest proportion of GDM fell in age group of 31 - 35 years contributing to 1% of the total GDM. There were no cases of GDM in pregnant women in the 36 - 40 or 41 - 45 age groups. The mean ± 2SD of participant’s age groups was 27.12 ± 5.01 years. In addition, while obesity did not show to be associated with GDM, age and family history were found to be risk factors of GDM. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of GDM was 8.3% and the most affected pregnant women were in the age group of 26 - 30 years.
Introduction: Sept Articles sur le Conflit en Afrique Acteurs et identities dans la crise en Afrique: l'engagement de la sociologie
Ebrima Sall, Jean Bernard Ouedraogo
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2003,
Abstract:
Incisional Hernias: Risk Factors and Treatment in a Context of Limited Resources  [PDF]
Souleymane Ouedraogo, Salam Ouedraogo, Jean-Luc Kambire, Mamadou Windsouri, Mamadou T. Traore, Maurice Zida, , Si Simon Traore
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.810050
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the etiologic factors and therapeutic modalities of incisional hernias in the department of surgery at the regional hospital of Tenkodogo, in Burkina Faso. Methods: It is a cross sectional study covering the period from 2010 to 2012. Sampling was comprehensive, including all the patients operated for incisional hernias during this period. Results: Fifty-four patients were included. Their average age was 22.3 years. There were 35 (64.8%) males and 19 (35.2%) female patients. We counted 28 large-size incisional hernias, 14 medium-size incisional hernias and 12 incisional hernias of small size. The average time from the first surgery to the diagnosis of incisional hernias was 8 months. Generalized acute peritonitis (44.4%) and acute intestinal obstructions (22.2%) were the main indications of initial surgical interventions. Vertical midline incisions have been involved in 37 cases (68.5%). Therapeutically, two surgical techniques have been used: open suture repair and open mesh repair. Forty-two patients (77.8%) were treated by open suture repair. Twelve patients (22.2%) benefited from open mesh repair. Post-operative complications were noted in 2 patients. Nine patients (16.7%) presented a recurrence after 12 months. Conclusion: In the rural area of Burkina Faso, incisional hernias occur in young patients. Emergencies with abdominal Infections are the main operative indications. Prostheses are relatively high cost and less accessible. The recidivism rate is high.
Analogue Wavelet Transform Based the Predicted Imaginary Part of the Dynamics of Rational Map Having Zeros
Jean-Bosco Mugiraneza
International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Significant work has already been done for complex quadratics. However, the dynamics of rational functions and their properties are equally interesting. In this paper we have generated computer images from a C++ computer program. We have then developed an artificial neural network model using predictive modeling software based on RMS type of error out of two samples of points obtained from the generated images. The imaginary part of sample II was predicted by applied the real parts of sample I and sample II to the artificial neural network. The real part of sample II was more important than the real part of sample I in predicting the imaginary part of sample II. The predicted imaginary part of sample II was then imported to Matlab Signal Processing Tool (SPTool) via Matlab workspace. We have applied a stable band pass filter to the model to eliminate noise from it for its analysis. A modulated signal produced reveals that the methodology used shall be applied to explore properties of computer generated images from the generated wavelet. We have further imported the predicted imaginary part of sample II to autoSIGNAL software for time and frequency range analysis of the continuous wavelet transform.
Wavelet Based Some Julia Sets of Rational Maps Having Zhukovskii Function
Jean Bosco Mugiraneza
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing , 2012,
Abstract: The dynamics of rational maps and their properties are interesting because of the presence of poles and zeros. In this paper we have computed Julia sets of rational maps having Zhukovskii Function for which the double of the first derivative has no Herman rings. The data points out of the Julia set in Matlab workspace were imported to Matlab Signal Processing Tool for their analysis. We have sampled the data points with the sampling frequency of 8192 Hz and obtained complex signals. We have then applied the band pass filter to these complex signals. The effect of the band pass filter has generated complex analogue modulated signals.
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