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Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  [PDF]
Jasper Agbakwuru
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28121
Abstract: This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.
Oil/Gas Pipeline Leak Inspection and Repair in Underwater Poor Visibility Conditions: Challenges and Perspectives  [PDF]
Agbakwuru Jasper
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35049
Abstract: Mechanical pressure clamps are examples of innovative tools commonly used in the oil and gas industry for arresting leaks from damaged oil and gas pipelines. However, if leaks result from pipeline rupture, clamps are not usually recommended. It is therefore obvious that inspection of the leaking pipeline is very crucial in deciding the strategy for repair. For subsea pipelines where underwater poor visibility is pronounced, this important aspect of the pipeline repair process becomes difficult to implement. The result is a repair-leak-repair cycle. This challenge is commonly found in repairs of old pipelines in unclear water conditions. Old pipelines and their vulnerability to fractures that often lead to ruptures are discussed. In this paper, the challenges and technologies available for visualisation and examination in such unclear water conditions are discussed. There appears to be a gap in the existing pipeline integrity management system with respect to inspection and repair of pipelines in unclear water conditions. This gap needs to be filled in order to minimise spills and pollution. For pipelines installed in unclear water condition, a perspective is suggested to extend the capability of existing remotely operated vehicles to employ the use of clear laminar water system or a related technique to provide integrity engineers and operators with close visual assess to inspect leaking pipelines and effect adequate repairs. This paper suggests that the use of optical eye as the main tool for examination remains valuable in managing the challenges in underwater pipeline repairs in unclear water condition.
Demand and Supply of Water for Agriculture: Influence of Topography and Climate in Pre-Alpine, Mesoscale Catchments  [PDF]
Jürg Fuhrer, Karsten Jasper
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.33019
Abstract: With climate change, water may become limited for intensive agriculture even in regions presently considered “water-rich”. Information about the potential water requirement and its temporal and spatial variability can help to develop future water management plans. A case study was carried out for Switzerland with its highly complex pre-alpine topography and steep gradients in climate. The hydrological model WaSiM-ETH was used to simulate net irrigation requirement (NIR) for cropland, grassland and orchards using criteria to define irrigation periods based either on the water stress level (expressed by the ratio of actual (aET) to potential evapotranspiration ((pET) (Method 1) or on thresholds for soil water potential (Method 2). Simulations for selected catchments were carried out with a daily time step for the period 1981-2010 using a 500 × 500 m spatial resolution. Catchment-scale NIR ranged between 0 and 4.3 million m3 and 0 and 7.3 million m3 for the two methods, respectively, with no trend over the observation period in any catchment. During the heat wave in 2003, NIR increased by a factor of 1.5 to 2.3 relative to the mean, and in catchments where discharge is directly dependent on precipitation, NIR in the summer of 2003 reached the limits of river water availability. In contrast, in a region with water supply from glacier melt water, highest NIR in 2003 still remained far below total river discharge. The results show that NIR varies strongly between years and across the landscape, and even in a presently cool-temperate climate, irrigation may put pressure on regional water resources under extreme climatic conditions that may become more frequent by the end of the 21st century.
Forest Fringe Communities Participation in Forest Reserve Sustainability in Ghana  [PDF]
Charles Adusei, Jasper Yao Dunyah
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.62009
Abstract: The paper investigated the forest fringe community’s participation in forest reserve sustainability in Ghana using Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana as a case study. The key issues examined are the forest reserve management strategies, stakeholder’s participation and livelihood activities of forest fringe communities. Two stage sampling technique was used to sample forty-two respondents for the study. A structured questionnaire in an interview form was used to solicit information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results of the study indicate that there is a management plan for the forest reserve but Forest Services Division (FSD) does not follow its prescriptions strictly, the involvement of Forest Fringe Communities (FFCs) by FSD in the management of the forest reserve was insignificant and evidence of FSD not establishing income generating activity for FFCs livelihood sustenance. It is therefore recommended that community members should be empowered to play the role of co-managers of the forest reserve and there should be regular visit and interaction between FSD and the FFCs.
Modeling the optical properties of excitons in linear and tubular J-aggregates
Jasper Knoester
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijp/2006/61364
Abstract: The theory of the optical properties of linear and tubular molecular J-aggregates is reviewed. The primary optical excitations in these systems are Frenkel excitons, which may be delocalized over many molecules. The collective nature of these excitations gives rise to special optical properties and dynamics, which are of interest for purely scientific reasons, but also enable the application of J-aggregates as photographic sensitizers and artificial light-harvesting systems. The focus of this paper is on the effect of aggregate geometry, disorder, and temperature on the absorption and fluorescence spectra. Also transport of excitations between J-aggregates is discussed. Connection is made to experiments on aggregates of cyanine dyes and natural light-harvesting systems.
Michèle Roberts: Female Genius and the Theology of an English Novelist
Alison Jasper
Text Matters - A Journal of Literature, Theory and Culture , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10231-011-0005-8
Abstract: Since Simone de Beauvoir published The Second Sex in 1949, feminist analysis has tended to assume that the conditions of male normativity—reducing woman to the merely excluded "Other" of man—holds true in the experience of all women, not the least, women in the context of Christian praxis and theology. Beauvoir's powerful analysis—showing us how problematic it is to establish a position outside patriarchy's dominance of our conceptual fields—has helped to explain the resilience of sexism and forms of male violence that continue to diminish and destroy women's lives because they cannot be seen as questionable. It has also, I would argue, had the unintended consequence of intensifying the sense of limitation, so that it becomes problematic to account for the work and lives of effective, innovative and responsible women in these contexts. In order to address this problematic issue, I use the life and work of novelist Michèle Roberts, as a case study in female genius within an interdisciplinary field, in order to acknowledge the conditions that have limited a singular woman's literary and theological aspirations but also to claim that she is able to give voice to something creative of her own. The key concept of female genius within this project draws on Julia Kristeva's notion of being a subject without implicitly excluding embodiment and female desire as in normative male theology, or in notions of genius derived from Romanticism. Roberts' work as a writer qualifies her as female genius in so far as it challenges aspects of traditional Christianity, bringing to birth new relationships between theological themes and scriptural narratives without excluding her singular female desires and pleasures as a writer. This paper—as part of a more inclusive, historical survey of the work of women writers crossing the disciplinary boundaries between literature and Christian theology over the last several centuries also asks whether, in order to do proper justice to the real and proven limitations imposed on countless women in these fields across global and historical contexts, we need, at the same time, to reduce the Christian tradition to something that is always antithetical or for which women can take absolutely no credit or bear no responsibility.
The Work of Art as Religious Enactment. Georges de la Tour’s The Repentant Magdalene L’ uvre d’art comme acte religieux. La Madeleine repentante de Georges de la Tour
David Jasper
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.129
Abstract: Cet essai porte sur La Madeleine repentante qui appartient à la collection de la National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.. Le tableau est abordé ici dans la tradition théologique du personnage de Marie-Madeleine et examiné en tant qu’ uvre où se joue le processus liturgique de repentance, confession puis expérience de l’absolution, ce qui permet à l’observateur de participer à ce processus. C’est une uvre très personnelle et en même temps ancrée dans la vie commune de l’église.
Ambition and reality in modeling: a case study on public planning for regional sustainability
Jasper Grosskurth
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2007,
Abstract: A comprehensive systems approach is a prerequisite for the development of sustainability policy strategies. Quantitative models are frequently proposed as useful building blocks in this regard. We examine the value of such models in a case study on regional sustainability carried out in cooperation with the administration of the Dutch province of Limburg. With the participation of an interdisciplinary group of civil servants, we developed an influence diagram representing the region and compared this to the coverage of quantitative models used in provincial strategic planning. The significant discrepancies between the two types of system representation lead to a more diligent interpretation of results, help to improve the models, and set challenges for future model use in regional sustainability planning. This article provides policy makers with practical advice on strategic planning and encourages scientists to improve the models by developing new techniques for the integration of quantitative and qualitative analyses.
Religion and literature: Critical reflections on reading the Bible, literature, theology and culture to 2000
David Jasper
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1996, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v61i1.584
Abstract: Despite its status as a “best-seller " for thousands of years, the Bible is rarely actually "read". It has been used by religious traditions for various purposes, primarily to maintain its status as authoritative text within their institutions. But if we return to the ancient midrashic tradition of reading and interpretation as opposed to more recent practices of biblical interpretation within the academies, we encounter a relentless exercise in reading the texts of Scripture, and a rediscovery of their strange, dangerous and often subversive powers. This is particularly important now as we face our “postmodern condition ”, in which what emerges as important is not the power of the centre, but the necessary revival of those on the margins and those whose voices have been stifled. Returning to these nervous practices of reading the Bible we find ourselves within the critical debates of postmodernity as it struggles with an apocalyptic sense of ending and beginning at the turn of the millenium.
Menselijke vrijheid en het Christelijk geloof
Jasper Doomen
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v68i1.1081
Abstract: Human freedom and the Christian faith. In this article, it is examined whether there is room for human freedom in a Christian perspective. Augustine’s and Luther’s views are illuminating in order to clarify this matter. The way they deal with the idea of predestination is an important issue. According to Augustine, man is, to a certain degree, able to grasp the way in which God governs man; this idea is not present in Luther’s thoughts. Their notions of ‘freedom’ differ considerably as well; here, too, Augustine has more confidence in human reason than Luther does. However, it is difficult for both Luther and Augustine to defend a notion of human freedom and at the same time maintain God’s foreknowledge. Still, even irrespective of that, human freedom is something which cannot easily be demonstrated. For both Christians and non-believers, the issue of human freedom remains an unresolved problem. Howtocitethisarticle: Doomen, J., 2012, ‘Menselijke vrijheid en het Christelijk geloof’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 68(1), Art. #1081, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ hts.v68i1.1081
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