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The Recruitment Pattern of Liza falcipinnis from Elechi Creek, Upper Bonny, Niger Delta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Awoteinm Dateme Isaiah George, Jasper Freeborn Nestor Abowei
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104457
Abstract:
The Recruitment Pattern of Liza falcipinnis from Elechi creek of Upper Bonny, Niger Delta, Nigeria was studied from (March 2009-January 2010). The pattern showed all year round recruitment with two peaks (one major and one minor) during the period of the study. The parameters obtained were L = 19.96, K = 0.40 y1, C = 0, WP = 0, to = 0. The C indicates the amplitude of seasonal growth oscillations (that is, the magnitude of the growth patterns) and has values ranging from 0 to 1.0. Winter Point (WP) indicates the times of the year during which growth is minimal. The percentage recruitment for the different months were: March 2009 (15.0%); April (23.40%); May (14.0%); June (11.3%); July (10.0%); August (7.30%); September (1.8%); October (0.5%); November (2.2%); December (8.0%) and January 2010 (6.0%). The exploitation rate (Emax) that gives maximum relative yield-per-recruit was 0.424. The exploitation rate at which marginal increase occurred in the relative yield-per-yield was 10% of its value at E = 0, whereas (E0.1) was observed to be 0.357. The exploitation rate (E0.5) which corresponds to 50% of the virgin (that is, the unexploited stock) relative biomass-per-recruit was estimated to be 0.279. The mean ratio of length-at-first capture (L) and asymptotic length (L) was 0.060, while that of natural mortality (yr﹣1) and growth rate (yr﹣1) was 1.00. Yield per increased gradually with increase in exploitation and Biomass per recruit declined with increase in exploitation. An all year round recruitment, with one high pulse arid a low pulse was established for the species. Research should be carried out to ascertain the influence of environmental factors on the growth and recruitment of the species.
The Efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum Leaf Powder and Ethanol Extract on Adult Periplanata americana under Laboratory Condition  [PDF]
Boate Rosemary Ukoroije, Jasper Freeborn Nestor Abowei, Richard Abalis Otayoor
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104455
Abstract:
The efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder and ethanol extract on adult Periplanata americana under laboratory condition was studied to control the nuisance of the pest. The mean mortality count of adult Periplanata americana was highest (84) in 50 g leaf powder and lowest (3) in the control. The highest mortality (125) was recorded in 96 hr exposure time while the lowest (17) was recorded in 24 h exposure time. There was significant difference (P-value = 0.05) in the mortality with increase in grams and exposure time of leaf powder and the control at 5% level of significance. The mean mortality count of adult P. americana was highest (104) in 50 ml ethanoic extract and lowest (1) in the control. The highest mortality (143) was recorded in 96 hr exposure time while the lowest (55) was recorded in 24 h exposure time. There is significant difference (P-value = 0.05) in the mortality with increase in grams and exposure time of leaf powder and the control at 5% level of significance. The efficacy of O. gratissimum Ethanol extract is more than the leaf powder. There was significant difference in mortality in both increase in concentration levels and exposure time at 5% level of significance in both leaf powder and ethanol extract.
Efficacy of Azadirachta indica Leaf Powder and Ethanol Extract on Adult Periplanata americana under Laboratory Condition  [PDF]
Ukoroije Boate Rosemary, Abowei Jasper Freeborn Nestor, Otayoor Richard Abalis
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104458
Abstract:
The efficacy of Azadirachta indica leaf powder and ethanol extract on adult Periplanata americana under laboratory condition to control the nuisance of the pest. The mean mortality count of adult Periplanata americana was the highest (92) in 50 g leaf powder and the lowest (2) in the control. The result also showed that the highest mortality (125) was recorded in 96 hr exposure time while the lowest (28) was recorded in 24 h exposure time. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for the mean mortality in the experiment and the control indicated that there was significant difference (P-value = 0.05) in the mortality with increase in grams and exposure time of leaf powder and the control at 5% level of significance the mean mortality count of adult P. americana was the highest (108) in 50 ml ethanoic extract and the lowest (3) in the control. The result also showed that the highest mortality (144) was recorded in 96 hr exposure time while the lowest (66) was recorded in 24 h exposure time. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for the mean mortality in the experiment and the control indicates that there is significant difference (P-value = 0.05) in the mortality with increase in grams and exposure time of leaf powder and the control at 5% level of significance. The efficacy of Azadirachta indica Ethanol extract is more than the leaf powder. There was significant difference in mortality in both increase in concentration levels and exposure time at 5% level of significance in both leaf powder and ethanol extract.
Physical and Chemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metal for Three Rainy Season Months in Water and Sediments of Upper New Calabar River, Niger Delta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Awoteinm Dateme Isaiah George, Jasper Freeborn Nestor Abowei
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104456
Abstract:
The study of heavy metals in water and sediment was carried out in the upper reach of the New Calabar River, Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Three sampling stations were selected which were Choba, Ogbogoro and Aluu. Water and sediment samples were collected and analysed, using the buck scientific Atomic Absorption/Emission spectrometer 200 A model. Water Physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ. Dissolved Oxygen had an overall mean of 4.17 ± 0.83 mg/l, temperature had mean value of 28.34℃ ± 1.07℃, pH had a mean value of 5.52 ± 0.54, electrical conductivity had a mean value of 1123.39 ± 859.58 μs/cm, BOD had mean value of 4.45 ± 1.14 mg/l, salinity had a mean value of 1.47 ± 1.15 ppt while TDS had mean value of 598.13 ± 529.58 mg/l. Result of heavy metals in water indicated that Zn had an overall mean value of 1.77 ± 0.53 ppm, Cr had mean value of 0.65 ± 0.21 ppm, Pb had a mean value of 0.19 ± 0.11 while Fe had an overall mean value of 1.52 ± 0.34 ppm. Heavy metals in sediment indicate higher concentration than in Water: Zn had an overall mean value of 7.90 ± 2.59 ppm, Cr observed an overall mean value of 1.94 ± 0.81 ppm, Pb had an overall mean value of 2.23 ± 0.61 ppm, while Fe observed an overall mean value of 87.43 ± 6.57 ppm. The result indicated that the source of heavy metals in the aquatic environment could be industrial effluent, domestic waste, dumping of scrap, vessel in the water way and runoff from agricultural land.
The Recruitment Pattern of Macrobrachium macrobrachion (Herklots, 1851) from Luubara Creek, Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Abowei Jasper,S.N. Deekae
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The recruitment pattern of Macrobrachium macrobrachion from Luubara creek in Ogoni land area of Niger Delta region in Nigeria was studied for a period of twelve calendar months (January – December, 2007). The recruitment pattern of M. macrobrachion showed that there were two peaks per year (a major one in March w hile the secondary one w as in August). How ever, there is a year round recruitment with the highest recruitment in March (16.16%) while the lowest recruitment was in O ctober (0.42% ). The grow th parameters obtained for the recruited shrimps were L∞ = 88.01, K = 0.58, C = 0.05, WP = 0 and t0 = 0. C indicates the amplitude of seasonal growth oscillations (that is, the magnitude of the growth patterns) and has values ranging from 0 to 1. WP (winter point) indicates the time of the year during which growth is minimal for temperate species but may not be applicable for tropical species. Juveniles and females were observed in the creek throughout the study period. Ovigerous females were also observed in the creek throughout the study period. There were more females than males in the population and probably this allowed for continuous replacement.
Some Growth Parameters of Macrobrachium mcrobrachion (herklots, 1851) from Luubara Creek in Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Abowei Jasper,S.N. Deekae
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Some Growth parameters of Macrobrachium mcrobrachion from Luubara Creek in Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria was studied for a period of two years (January, 2006 - December, 2007). The parameters were evaluated using different applications in the FiSAT package such as the Powell-Wetheral plot; the ELEFAN 1 Scan, and the Non-Seasonalized Version of the Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) to ensure accuracy. Powell-wetheral plot gave estimates of L∞ as 81.53 mm TL), K was 2.06 per year, Z/K was 1.07 while the growth performance index, Φ was 4.01. The growth parameter obtained from the ELEFAN 1 Scan were L∞ = 83.36 mm; K =2.25 per year; Φ = 4.02 and Rn = 0.13. The growth parameters obtained for the non- Seasonalized Version of Von Bertanlanffy growth function (VBGF) were L∞ = 34.61 mm; K = 0.28 per year; = 0.26 w hile the growth performance index was 2.5.1. The results from the length - at - age data showed that L∞ = 40 mm K = 0. 38 per year and t0 = -0.71. The overall estimates are L∞ = 82.65 mm; r = 0.95; K = 1.98 per year; t0 = 0.48; z/k = 1.07; Φ = 3.9 and Rn = 0.14 gave estimates of L∞ as 81.53 mm TL), K was 2.06 per year, Z/K was 1.07 while the growth performance index, Φ was 4.01. The growth parameter obtained from the ELEFAN 1 Scan were L∞ = 83.36 mm; K = 2.25 per year; Φ = 4.02 and Rn = 0.13. The grow th parameters obtained for the non-Seasonalized Version of Von Bertanlanffy growth function (VBGF) were L∞ = 34.61 mm; K = 0.28 per year; = 0.26 while the growth performance index was 2.5.1. The results from the length - at - age data show ed that L∞ = 40 mm K = 0. 38 per year and t0 = -0.71. The overall estimates are are L∞ = 82.65 mm; r = 0.95; K = 1.98 per year; t0 = 0.48; z/k = 1.07; Φ = 3.9 and Rn = 0.14. For 2006 the mean predicted extreme length was 81.63 mm while 2007 it was 83.33 mm. The overall predicted mean extreme length for M. macrobrachion in Luubara creek was 82.48 mm (TL) while the mean observed extreme length was 81.37 mm. The probability of having this length is put at 95% and the condition i.e., interval is between is 76.63-93.51%. The observed total lengths had a mean of 79.5 m m in 2006 and mean of 83.25 mm in 2007.
The Fecundity of Macrobrachium macrobrachion (Herklots, 1851) from Luubara Creek Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Abowei Jasper,S.N. Deekae
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2010,
Abstract: The fecundity of Macrobrachium macrobrachion from Luubara creek in Ogoni land axis of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was studied for a period of two years (January, 2006 - December, 2007). A total of 934 berried female shrimp were examined. The results show that the number of eggs ranged from 180 to 5, 800. The mean number of eggs per female was 1, 403. The eggs were spherical in shape; on the long axis the egg diameter ranged from 0.60 to 0.78 mm with a mean of 0.68mm while on the short axis, the egg diameter ranged from 0.40 to 0.59 mm with a mean of 0.48mm. There was a positive relationship between carapace length, total weight and the number of eggs: Y = 4207.9-3666x and r = 0.9737, Y = 0.4224-42244x and r = 0.9721, Y = 3666.11+2483.9x and r = 0.3736, Y = 500-0.3794.11x and r = 0.97372, y = 250-0.03794.0x and r = 0.9843 and Y = 333 + 674.71x and r = 0.3736. There was high correlation between female weight and the number of eggs. The range of absolute fecundity observed in this study was 180-5, 800 eggs and the mean number of eggs per female were 1403. A strong correlation exists between the number of eggs and total length of berried females (r = 0.969). Fecundity increases with the carapace length. The number of eggs also increases with increase in weight and carapace length. Generally, fecundity was linear and a function of the body weight and carapace length.
Macrobrachium Macrobrachion (Herklots, 1851) Length-Weight Relationship and Fulton’s Condition Factor in Luubara creek, Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Abowei Jasper,S.N. Deekae
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2010,
Abstract: Macrobrachium macrobrachion length-weight relationship and Fulton’s condition factor was studied in Luubara creek of Ogoni land in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria for a period of two years (January, 2006- December, 2007). A strong positive relationship exist between the shrimp length and weight for males in 2006; length and weight in females in 2006 and length and weight in both sexes in 2006( b<3) except for both sexes in 2006 with b = 3.13. Hence growth in the individual sex is allometric (b<3), but when the sexes were combined the growth was also allometric (b>3). The values obtained from the length/weight relationship (LWR) showed that there was a high and significant correlation between the total length and weight. The high correlation coefficient r =0.95 was an indication of a strong association between length and weight. This means that as the length of fish increases the weight increases in the same proportion. Coefficient of determination r2 was also high (0.91) which indicted that the model used for the analysis fits the data, confirming the fitness of the model. The results of the Fulton’s condition factor, K. In m ales, the highest condition factor (K = 0.00718) was recorded in August, 2007 while the lowest result in male (K = 0.001) was recorded in July, 2006. In females, the lowest condition factor (K = 0.000066) was in December, 2006 while the highest condition factor (K = 0.00157) for females was in October, 2006. In the berried females, the month of March, 2007 has the highest condition factor (K =0.002) while the lowest K value of 0.00097 was recorded in February and September, 2006. In 2006 the range of K was from 0.00084 to 0.00194, (females); 0.00066 - 0.00015 (males) and 0.00097 - 0.00144 for berried females. In 2007, the condition factor ranged from 0.00718 to 0.00109 (male), 0.00097 to 0.00147 (female) and 0.00099 - 0.002 (berried female). The mean condition factor was both sex and season dependent. There were significant variations between sexes. The differences in condition factors were in male and females may be attributed to the presence of ovigerous females.
Macrobrachium macrobrachion (Herklots, 1851) Class Structure and Sex Ratio in Luubara Creek, Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Abowei Jasper,S.N. Deekae
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Macrobrachium macrobrachion class structure and sex ratio was studied in Luubara creek of Ogoni land in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria for a period of two years (January, 2006 to December, 2007). M ajority of male shrimps were found in the 8 to 16 mm class. In 2006, the size class (8-16 mm) recorded 232 shrimps and constituted 32.08% of the sample population. However, in 2007 most of the male shrimps occurred in the 12-16 mm class, (157 shrimps) and constituted 28.91% of the sample population. In the females, the dominant size class was 8 to 16 mm. In 2006, a total of 324 females were observed in this size and this constituted 49.24% of the sample population. In 2007, a total of 170 female shrimps were obtained in the 8 to 12 mm size class and this constituted 38.20% of the population. There were no female shrimps caught in the 24 to 28 mm class during the study period. Amongst the berried females most of shrimps were found in the size class of 8-20 mm. In 2006 there were 274 berried females in the 8-12 mm group and this constituted 51.40% of the sam ple population. In 2007 a total of 167 berried females w ere caught in 8-12 mm group and this constituted 47.87% of the sam ple population. The sex ratios of shrimps in Luubara creek were variable. There were more females than males. The overall male to female ratio was 1:1.6. It was only in the month of October 2006 that the numbers of male were more than the female with a ratio of 1 male: 0.9 fem ale. The male to female ratio was more than 1:2 in four months namely January, 2006 (1:2.9), June, 2006 (1:2.6), September, 2007 (1:2.7) and October, 2007 (1:2.8). In other study months the male: female was less than 1:2. Only three months i.e. January, 2007, June, 2007 and July, 2007 had 1 male: 1 female ratio.
The Mortality, Exploitation Rate and Longevity of Macrobrachium macrobrachion (Herklots, 1851) in Luubara Creek, Ogoni Land, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Abowei Jasper,S.N. Deekae
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The mortality, exploitation rate and longevity of Macrobrachium macrobrachion from Luubara in Ogoni land area of N iger Delta, Nigeria was studied for period of two years (January, 2006 - Decem ber, 2007). Total mortality (Z) estimated for 2006 was 2.60 per year and for 2007 2.80 per year. The estimated average total mortality (Z) for M. macrobrachion in Luubara creek was 2.75 per year. The natural mortality was 2.04 per year while the fishing mortality was 0.72 per year. Exploitation rate for M. macrobrachion in Luubara creek was 0.24 in 2006 while in 2007 it was 0.27 with a mean of 0.25. Male shrimps attained sexual maturity between 11mm and 14 mm carapace length at one year plus while female shrimps reach sexual maturity between 8 mm and 25 mm carapace length and a mean length of 11.2 mm. The longevity estimated for M. macrobrachion in Luubara creek was 1.51 years. This shows that it is a short lived species like other shrimps. In both years, M. macrobrachion in Luubara Creek was under exploited. Therefore, there is the urgent need to improve its fishery.
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