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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466848 matches for " Jason A. Randall "
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The Effects of a Single Bout of Exercise on Mood and Self-Esteem in Clinically Diagnosed Mental Health Patients  [PDF]
Naomi J. Ellis, Jason A. Randall, Grant Punnett
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.23013
Abstract: Objectives: Research has highlighted the importance of regular exercise within the general population and mental health groups in regard to mood and self-esteem, as well as single bout exercise within the general population. However, research into single bout exercise in mental health population is lacking. This study investigated the impact of a single bout of exercise, on mood and self-esteem, in patients with a wider clinical mental health diagnosis. Design: A quantitative questionnaire was completed immediately pre and post a single, 45 minute bout of moderate intensity exercise, consisting of the Brunel Universal Mood States (BRUMS) questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE). Methods: Participants attending a mental health hospital with a clinical mental health diagnosis (N = 54) completed the questionnaire. Information regarding physical activity levels, mental health diagnosis and length of hospital stay were collated. Results: A significant improvement was identified on the RSE as well as the BRUMS (depression, anger, confusion, anxious tension and vigour) over time. Conclusion: The significant findings highlight the importance of exercise promotion within this population group, and the potentially beneficial role that a single bout of exercise can have on mood and self-esteem in patients experiencing mental health problems.
Recent self-harm and psychological measures in the emergency department
Jason R. Randall,Brian H. Rowe,Kathryn A. Dong,Ian Colman
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.667
Abstract: The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED). Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk.
Collisions of matter-wave solitons
Jason H. V. Nguyen,Paul Dyke,De Luo,Boris A. Malomed,Randall G. Hulet
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/nphys3135
Abstract: Solitons are localised wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction which compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity. This remarkable property is mathematically a consequence of the underlying integrability of the one-dimensional (1D) equations, such as the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, that describe solitons in a variety of wave contexts, including matter-waves$^{1,2}$. Here we explore the nature of soliton collisions using Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with attractive interactions confined to a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide. We show by real-time imaging that a collision between solitons is a complex event that differs markedly depending on the relative phase between the solitons. Yet, they emerge from the collision unaltered in shape or amplitude, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. By controlling the strength of the nonlinearity we shed new light on these fundamental features of soliton collisional dynamics, and explore the implications of collisions that bring the wave packets out of the realm of integrability, where they may undergo catastrophic collapse. 1. Zabusky, N.J. & Kruskal, M.D. Interaction of "solitons" in a collisionless plasma and the recurrence of initial states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 240 (1965). 2. Zakharov, V.E. & Shabat, A.B. Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-moduation of waves in nonlinear media. Sov. Phys. JEPT. 34, 62 (1972).
A Lentivirus-Mediated Genetic Screen Identifies Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) as a Modulator of β-Catenin/GSK3 Signaling
Richard A. Klinghoffer, Jason Frazier, James Annis, Jason D. Berndt, Brian S. Roberts, William T. Arthur, Raul Lacson, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Marc Ferrer, Randall T. Moon, Michele A. Cleary
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006892
Abstract: The multi-protein β-catenin destruction complex tightly regulates β-catenin protein levels by shuttling β-catenin to the proteasome. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a key serine/threonine kinase in the destruction complex, is responsible for several phosphorylation events that mark β-catenin for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Because modulation of both β-catenin and GSK3β activity may have important implications for treating disease, a complete understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the β-catenin/GSK3β interaction is warranted. We screened an arrayed lentivirus library expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting 5,201 human druggable genes for silencing events that activate a β-catenin pathway reporter (BAR) in synergy with 6-bromoindirubin-3′oxime (BIO), a specific inhibitor of GSK3β. Top screen hits included shRNAs targeting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the target of the anti-inflammatory compound methotrexate. Exposure of cells to BIO plus methotrexate resulted in potent synergistic activation of BAR activity, reduction of β-catenin phosphorylation at GSK3-specific sites, and accumulation of nuclear β-catenin. Furthermore, the observed synergy correlated with inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β and was neutralized upon inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Linking these observations to inflammation, we also observed synergistic inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-12), and increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to GSK3 inhibitors and methotrexate. Our data establish DHFR as a novel modulator of β-catenin and GSK3 signaling and raise several implications for clinical use of combined methotrexate and GSK3 inhibitors as treatment for inflammatory disease.
The Effectiveness of Non-Surgical Weight Management Interventions for Obesity in the UK: A Review and Meta-Regression Analysis  [PDF]
Jason Randall, Matt Slater, Antony Stewart, Geoff Pugh, Kevin Lewis, Cathy Levy, Paola Alessandri-Gray
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.33025
Abstract: Background: Obesity is regarded as one of the most serious challenges public health faces in the 21st century for adults and children alike. Accordingly weight management interventions remain a public health priority aiming to reduce the burden of obesity and co-morbidities. Therefore this review aims to assess the effectiveness of non-surgical weight management interventions for obesity in the UK. Method: Thirty one databases were searched that identified 20 articles for inclusion. Articles were screened and quality scored using the “Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool”. Meta-regression analysis (MRA) was undertaken on seven studies that allowed for effect size calculations. Results: In adult populations, lifestyle interventions that targeted both diet and physical activity, delivered in the private sector were most effective in reducing weight and/or BMI, and were more cost-effective. In children the most successful interventions mirrored adult interventions, but were family-orientated. MRA supported these findings. Most frequent intervention duration was 12 weeks. Discussion: The results provide evidence to support policy makers for the effective delivery of weight management interventions. Findings suggest that weight management interventions in the UK are effective in reducing weight and/or BMI for both children and adults. Interventions delivered in the private sector (e.g. Weight Watchers), targeting diet and physical activity levels, demonstrated the highest levels of effectiveness. However, compared to these models, NHS programmes are less well defined in the research literature and may not have been optimised. For children, effectiveness is improved by family-level programmes incorporating children and their parents.
Functional Studies on the IBD Susceptibility Gene IL23R Implicate Reduced Receptor Function in the Protective Genetic Variant R381Q
Svetlana Pidasheva, Sara Trifari, Anne Phillips, Jason A. Hackney, Yan Ma, Ashley Smith, Sue J. Sohn, Hergen Spits, Randall D. Little, Timothy W. Behrens, Lee Honigberg, Nico Ghilardi, Hilary F. Clark
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025038
Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in several populations have demonstrated significant association of the IL23R gene with IBD (Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)) and psoriasis, suggesting that perturbation of the IL-23 signaling pathway is relevant to the pathophysiology of these diseases. One particular variant, R381Q (rs11209026), confers strong protection against development of CD. We investigated the effects of this variant in primary T cells from healthy donors carrying IL23RR381 and IL23RQ381 haplotypes. Using a proprietary anti-IL23R antibody, ELISA, flow cytometry, phosphoflow and real-time RT-PCR methods, we examined IL23R expression and STAT3 phosphorylation and activation in response to IL-23. IL23RQ381 was associated with reduced STAT3 phosphorylation upon stimulation with IL-23 and decreased number of IL-23 responsive T-cells. We also observed slightly reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokine secretion in IL23RQ381 positive donors. Our study shows conclusively that IL23RQ381 is a loss-of-function allele, further strengthening the implication from GWAS results that the IL-23 pathway is pathogenic in human disease. This data provides an explanation for the protective role of R381Q in CD and may lead to the development of improved therapeutics for autoimmune disorders like CD.
Breaking Of Conformal Invariance And Electromagnetic Field Generation In The Universe
A. Dolgov Randall
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.48.2499
Abstract: It is shown that the breaking of the conformal invariance in quantum electrodynamics due to the trace anomaly results in the generation of long wave electromagnetic fields during inflationary stage of the universe evolution. If the coefficient of the logarithmic charge renormalization is large (due to a large number of charged particles species), these primordial electromagnetic fields can be strong enough to create the observed galactic magnetic fields.
Bryophyte mass to stem length ratio: A potential metric for eco-physiological response to land use  [PDF]
Jason A. Hubbart, Elliott Kellner
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31001
Abstract:

Methods of analysis are needed that quantitatively characterize the response of organisms to anthropogenic disturbance. Herein a method is presented that characterizes bryophyte morphological variability in response to timber harvest treatments (clearcut and partial cut). Samples (n = 6196) of the semi-aquatic bryophyte Brachythecium frigidum were collected from clearcut, partial cut and full forest stream reaches between August 2003 and October 2005 and analyzed to obtain mass to stem length ratios (M:SL). Results show that relative to a full forest (i.e. full canopy cover condition), average M:SL ratios were reduced approximately 18% in the partial cut and 37% in the clearcut, indicating a decrease in biomass per unit stem length with increasing harvest intensities. Increased light intensities and higher air temperatures resulting from decreased canopy cover in the harvest treatments corresponded to lower M:SL ratios (0.31 and 0.24 for the partial cut and clearcut, respectively). Results quantify the morphological response of B. frigidum to habitat perturbation, thereby validating the method as a useful assessment of anthropogenic disturbance in post-timber harvest environments. Additional work should be conducted to test the method in other physiographic regions and to isolate bryophyte response to alterations of distinct environmental variables.

Suicidal Behaviour and Related Risk Factors among School-Aged Youth in the Republic of Benin
Jason R. Randall, David Doku, Michael L. Wilson, Karl Peltzer
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088233
Abstract: Introduction Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. Methods Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. Discussion The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.
Translating the Cantor set by a random
Randall Dougherty,Jack Lutz,R. Daniel Mauldin,Jason Teutsch
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We determine the constructive dimension of points in random translates of the Cantor set. The Cantor set "cancels randomness" in the sense that some of its members, when added to Martin-Lof random reals, identify a point with lower constructive dimension than the random itself. In particular, we find the Hausdorff dimension of the set of points in a Cantor set translate with a given constructive dimension.
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