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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 677 matches for " Janine Wiles "
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A Helping Hand during t-Testing Times
Siouxsie Wiles
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001785
Abstract:
Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand -Te Puāwaitanga o Nga Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu, LiLACS NZ: Study protocol
Karen J Hayman, Ngaire Kerse, Lorna Dyall, Mere Kepa, Ruth Teh, Carol Wham, Valerie Wright-St Clair, Janine Wiles, Sally Keeling, Martin J Connolly, Tim J Wilkinson, Simon Moyes, Joanna B Broad, Santosh Jatrana
BMC Geriatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-12-33
Abstract: A total population cohort study of those of advanced age. Two cohorts of equal size, Māori aged 80–90 and non-Māori aged 85, oversampling to enable sufficient power, were enrolled. A defined geographic region, living in the Bay of Plenty and Lakes District Health Board areas of New Zealand, defined the sampling frame. Rūnanga (Māori tribal organisations) and Primary Health Organisations were subcontracted to recruit on behalf of the University. Measures - a comprehensive interview schedule was piloted and administered by a trained interviewer using standardised techniques. Socio-demographic and personal history included tribal affiliation for Māori and participation in cultural practices; physical and psychological health status used standardised validated research tools; health behaviours included smoking, alcohol use and nutrition risk; and environmental data included local amenities, type of housing and neighbourhood. Social network structures and social support exchanges are recorded. Measures of physical function; gait speed, leg strength and balance, were completed. Everyday interests and activities, views on ageing and financial interests complete the interview. A physical assessment by a trained nurse included electrocardiograph, blood pressure, hearing and vision, anthropometric measures, respiratory function testing and blood samples.A longitudinal study of people of advanced age is underway in New Zealand. The health status of a population based sample of older people will be established and predictors of successful ageing determined.
DeLLITE Depression in late life: an intervention trial of exercise. Design and recruitment of a randomised controlled trial
Ngaire Kerse, Karen Falloon, Simon A Moyes, Karen J Hayman, Tony Dowell, Gregory S Kolt, C Raina Elley, Simon Hatcher, Kathy Peri, Sally Keeling, Elizabeth Robinson, John Parsons, Janine Wiles, Bruce Arroll
BMC Geriatrics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-8-12
Abstract: The Depression in Late Life: an Intervention Trial of Exercise (DeLLITE) is a 12 month randomised controlled trial of a physical activity intervention to increase functional status in people aged 75 years and older with depressive symptoms. The intervention involves an individualised activity programme based on goal setting and progression of difficulty of activities delivered by a trained nurse during 8 home visits over 6 months. The control group received time matched home visits to discuss social contacts and networks. Baseline, 6 and 12 months measures were assessed in face to face visits with the primary outcome being functional status (SPPB, NEADL). Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), quality of life (SF-36), physical activity (AHS Physical Activity Questionnaire) and falls (self report).Due to report in 2008 the DeLLITE study has recruited 70% of those eligible and tests the efficacy of a home based, goal setting physical activity programme in improving function, mood and quality of life in older people with depressive symptomatology. If successful in improving function and mood this trial could prove for the first time that there are long term health benefit of physical activity, independent of social activity, in this high risk group who consume excess health related costs.Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12605000475640Depression is a common condition in older people, affecting between 17 and 30% of community dwellers over the age of 65 years [1]. Depression can be associated with significant disability, adverse health outcomes, poor quality of life and excess mortality [2] and thus is a significant concern for older people.Treatment of depression in older people has limitations. Pharmaceutical interventions have potential side effects and potentiate drug interactions which can be particularly hazardous in older people. Psychological therapies [3] are limited by their availability in many sett
Role of hydroxycarbamide in prevention of complications in patients with sickle cell disease
NM Wiles, J Howard
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S4769
Abstract: le of hydroxycarbamide in prevention of complications in patients with sickle cell disease Review (3970) Total Article Views Authors: NM Wiles, J Howard Published Date September 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 745 - 755 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S4769 NM Wiles, J Howard Department of Haematology, St Thomas’ Hospital, Westminster, Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UK Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetically inherited condition caused by a point mutation in the beta globin gene. This results in the production of the abnormal hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Hydroxycarbamide, is an antimetabolite/cytotoxic which works by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase, blocking the synthesis of DNA and arresting cells in the S phase. In sickle cell anemia, it promotes fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis, improves red cell hydration, decreases neutrophil and platelet count, modifies red cell endothelial cell interactions and acts as a nitric oxide donor. Trials have shown the clinical benefit of hydroxycarbamide in a subpopulation of adult patients with SCD, with a 44% reduction in the median annual rate of painful crises, a decrease in the incidence of acute chest syndrome and an estimated 40% reduction in overall mortality over a 9-year observational period. Its use in pediatrics has also been well established; trials have shown it is well tolerated and does not impair growth or development. In addition it decreases the number and duration of hospital attendences. A number of emerging uses of hydroxycarbamide currently are being investigated, such as stroke prevention.
Translation of microwave methodology to continuous flow for the efficient synthesis of diaryl ethers via a base-mediated SNAr reaction
Charlotte Wiles,Paul Watts
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.7.160
Abstract: Whilst microwave heating has been widely demonstrated as a synthetically useful tool for rapid reaction screening, a microwave-absorbing solvent is often required in order to achieve efficient reactant heating. In comparison, microreactors can be readily heated and pressurised in order to “super-heat” the reaction mixture, meaning that microwave-transparent solvents can also be employed. To demonstrate the advantages associated with microreaction technology a series of SNAr reactions were performed under continuous flow by following previously developed microwave protocols as a starting point for the investigation. By this approach, an automated microreaction platform (Labtrix S1) was employed for the continuous flow synthesis of diaryl ethers at 195 °C and 25 bar, affording a reduction in reaction time from tens of minutes to 60 s when compared with a stopped-flow microwave reactor.
Role of hydroxycarbamide in prevention of complications in patients with sickle cell disease
NM Wiles,J Howard
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009,
Abstract: NM Wiles, J HowardDepartment of Haematology, St Thomas’ Hospital, Westminster, Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UKAbstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetically inherited condition caused by a point mutation in the beta globin gene. This results in the production of the abnormal hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Hydroxycarbamide, is an antimetabolite/cytotoxic which works by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase, blocking the synthesis of DNA and arresting cells in the S phase. In sickle cell anemia, it promotes fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis, improves red cell hydration, decreases neutrophil and platelet count, modifies red cell endothelial cell interactions and acts as a nitric oxide donor. Trials have shown the clinical benefit of hydroxycarbamide in a subpopulation of adult patients with SCD, with a 44% reduction in the median annual rate of painful crises, a decrease in the incidence of acute chest syndrome and an estimated 40% reduction in overall mortality over a 9-year observational period. Its use in pediatrics has also been well established; trials have shown it is well tolerated and does not impair growth or development. In addition it decreases the number and duration of hospital attendences. A number of emerging uses of hydroxycarbamide currently are being investigated, such as stroke prevention.Keywords: sickle cell anemia, hydroxycarbamide, hydroxyurea, maximum tolerated dose, vaso-occlusive crisis
Bigness in compatible systems
Andrew Snowden,Andrew Wiles
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Clozel, Harris and Taylor have recently proved a modularity lifting theorem of the following general form: if rho is an l-adic representation of the absolute Galois group of a number field for which the residual representation rho-bar comes from a modular form then so does rho. This theorem has numerous hypotheses; a crucial one is that the image of rho-bar must be "big," a technical condition on subgroups of GL(n). In this paper we investigate this condition in compatible systems. Our main result is that in a sufficiently irreducible compatible system the residual images are big at a density one set of primes. This result should make some of the work of Clozel, Harris and Taylor easier to apply in the setting of compatible systems.
Common mistakes in data presentation and statistical analysis: how can the BioStat Decision Tool help?
Siouxsie Wiles,Anne L Bishop
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.92v1
Abstract: As medical and molecular microbiologists who regularly read the scientific literature, it is our impression that many published papers contain data that is inappropriately presented and/or analysed. This is borne out by a number of studies which indicate that typically at least half of published scientific articles that use statistical methods contain statistical errors. While there are an abundance of resources dedicated to explaining statistics to biologists, the evidence would suggest that they are largely ineffective. These resources tend to focus on how particular statistical tests work, with reams of complicated-looking mathematical formulae. In addition, many statisticians are unfamiliar with the application of statistical techniques to molecular microbiology, instead telling us we need more samples, which can be difficult both ethically and practically in fields that include animal work and painstaking sample collection. In an age where performing a statistical test merely requires clicking a button in a computer programme, it could be argued that what the vast majority of biologists need is not mathematical formulae but simple guidance on which buttons to click. We have developed an easy to follow decision chart that guides biologists through the statistical maze. Our practical and user friendly chart should prove useful not only to active researchers, but also to journal editors and reviewers to rapidly determine if data presented in a submitted manuscript has been correctly analysed.
High-risk diabetic pregnancy and work: two hard-to-reconcile circumstances
Schirmer,Janine;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891997001200006
Abstract: in 1991 the prevalence of diabetes was 7.6% in women in nine brazilian state capitals. this disease now ranks among the leading causes of death in the country and is becoming an increasingly alarming public health problem. in spite of advances in the treatment of diabetes and improved obstetric care, gestational diabetes puts a pregnant woman at high risk of miscarriage, ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hypertension, and other serious disorders. this study used life histories to investigate the relationship between health, sexuality, and work in five working women who were diabetic and pregnant and who received care at the prenatal care outpatient clinic of the san pablo hospital. these women all had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, were between 26 and 43 years old, and earned from us$ 150 to us$ 375 per month for working 8-hour days, with one day off each week. two of the women?s male partners were unemployed; all of the women performed household chores during their day off. quotations taken directly from conversations with the five participants reveal the difficulty of caring for children while holding down a job; the sexual harassment that some of the women suffered; the conflict and dissatisfaction associated with work; the myth of the natural joy of motherhood; the sexual control exercised by males; the incompatibility of working conditions and work activities with pregnancy; and the perception that they did not have legal protection owing to employers? lack of respect for workers? rights and for the maternity protection provisions of the federal constitution of brazil. it is concluded that health policies should pay greater attention to improving the quality of life of working women, especially if they suffer from diabetes and are pregnant.
Trabajo y gestación de alto riesgo por diabetes: dos circunstancias difíciles de conciliar
Schirmer,Janine;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891997000300011
Abstract: in 1991 the prevalence of diabetes was 7.6% in women in nine brazilian state capitals. this disease now ranks among the leading causes of death in the country and is becoming an increasingly alarming public health problem. in spite of advances in the treatment of diabetes and improved obstetric care, gestational diabetes puts a pregnant woman at high risk of spontaneous abortion, ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hypertension, and other serious disorders. this study used life histories to investigate the relationship between health, sexuality, and work in five working women who were diabetic and pregnant and who received care at the prenatal care outpatient clinic of the san pablo hospital. all these women had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, were between 26 and 43 years old, and earned from us$ 150 to 375 per month for working 8-hour days, with one day off each week. two of the women's male partners were unemployed; all of the women performed household chores during their day off. quotations taken directly from conversations with the five participants reveal: the difficulty of caring for children and working; the sexual harassment that some of them suffered; the conflict and dissatisfaction associated with work; the myth of the natural joy of motherhood; the sexual control exercised by males; the interference of working conditions and work activities with pregnancy; and the perception that they did not have legal protection owing to employers' lack of respect for workers' rights and for the maternity protection provisions of the federal constitution of brazil. it is concluded that health policies should pay greater attention to improving the quality of life of working women, especially if they suffer from diabetes and are pregnant.
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