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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327412 matches for " Janine S Mitchell "
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Provision and need of HIV/AIDS services in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, 2010
Annette AM Gerritsen, Janine S Mitchell, Brenda White
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives. To determine the need for HIV/AIDS service provision in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM), especially in municipal areas. Methods. The Foundation for Professional Development initiated the Compass Project. Using a questionnaire, data were collected during May - June 2010 from organisations providing HIV/AIDS services in the CTMM (organisational information and types of HIV/AIDS services). The need for HIV counselling and testing (HCT), antiretroviral treatment (ART), prevention of mother-tochild transmission (PMTCT), and care for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) was estimated using data from various sources. Results. A total of 447 service providers was included in the study: 72.3% non-governmental organisations (NGOs); 18.1% in the public sector; 5.1% in the private sector; and 4.5% faithbased organisations. The majority of the prevention- (70.2%) and support-related services (77.4%) were provided by NGOs, while the majority of treatment-related services originated from the public sector (57.3%). Service need estimates included: HCT – 1 435 438 adults aged 15 - 49 years (11 127/service provider); total ART – 75 211 adults aged 15+ years (1 213/service provider); ART initiation – 30 713 adults aged 15+ years (495/service provider); PMTCTHCT – 30 092 pregnant women (510/service provider); PMTCTART – 7 734 HIV+ pregnant women (221/service provider); and OVC care – 54 590 children (258/service provider). Conclusions. Service gaps remain in the provision of HCT, PMTCT-ART and OVC care. ART provision must be increased, in light of new treatment guidelines from the Department of Health. S Afr Med J 2012;102:44-46
The Experience of Melanoma Follow-Up Care: An Online Survey of Patients in Australia
Janine Mitchell,Peta Callaghan,Jackie Street,Susan Neuhaus,Taryn Bessen
Journal of Skin Cancer , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/429149
Abstract: Investigating patients’ reports on the quality and consistency of melanoma follow-up care in Australia would assist in evaluating if this care is effective and meeting patients’ needs. The objective of this study was to obtain and explore the patients’ account of the technical and interpersonal aspects of melanoma follow-up care received. An online survey was conducted to acquire details of patients’ experience. Participants were patients treated in Australia for primary melanoma. Qualitative and quantitative data about patient perceptions of the nature and quality of their follow-up care were collected, including provision of melanoma specific information, psychosocial support, and imaging tests received. Inconsistencies were reported in the provision and quality of care received. Patient satisfaction was generally low and provision of reassurance from health professionals was construed as an essential element of quality of care. “Gaps” in follow-up care for melanoma patients were identified, particularly provision of adequate psychosocial support and patient education. Focus on strategies for greater consistency in the provision of support, information, and investigations received, may generate a cost dividend which could be reinvested in preventive and supportive care and benefit patient well-being. 1. Introduction Globally, Australia has the highest incidence of melanoma, with annual rates continuing to rise [1]. Individuals with a primary melanoma have 8–12% risk of developing a second primary melanoma and an increased risk of developing a nonmelanoma skin cancer [2–5], and therefore posttreatment monitoring for recurrence and new primary melanomas is important. The purpose of follow-up is to detect recurrence and/or progression at an early treatable stage, identify treatment-related morbidity (e.g., lymphoedema), identify new melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancers, and provide reassurance and education [6]. Good practice in follow-up includes effective coordination of care, consistency in care provision [7, 8], evidence-based testing, and psychosocial support [6–9]. Patient perceptions can provide valuable insight into the quality of melanoma follow-up care and identify potential areas for improvement. Quality of patient care can be defined in both technical and interpersonal terms [10]. Here, “technical” refers to best practice based on current evidence coupled with care providers’ knowledge, judgment, and skill in implementation [10]. The 2008 Australian Cancer Network Melanoma Guidelines publication describes best practice guidelines for melanoma
Bluestem Gall Midge Annual Production Cycle and Effects on Grass Seed Production  [PDF]
Earle S. Raun, Robert B. Mitchell
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910151
Abstract: The bluestem gall midge (Stenodiplosis wattsii Gagné) is native to the grasslands of North America. It feeds on the developing seeds of warm-season grasses during a portion of its lifecycle, but little is known of the biology and extent of gall midge infestations in native warm-season grasses in the USA. We investigated the infestations of the bluestem gall midge in big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), sand bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var paucipilus
Cryptosporidium parvum Genome Project
Mitchell S. Abrahamsen
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2001, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.67
Abstract: A lack of basic understanding of parasite biology has been a limiting factor in designing effective means of treating and preventing disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum. Since the genomic DNA sequence encodes all of the heritable information responsible for development, disease pathogenesis, virulence, species permissiveness and immune resistance, a comprehensive knowledge of the C. parvum genome will provide the necessary information required for cost-effective and targeted research into disease prevention and treatment. With the recent advances in high-throughput automated DNA sequencing capabilities, large-scale genomic sequencing has become a cost-effective and time-efficient approach to understanding the biology of an organism. In addition, the continued development and implementation of new software tools that can scan raw sequences for signs of genes and then identify clues as to potential functions, has provided the final realization of the potential rewards of genome sequencing. To further our understanding of C. parvum biology, we have initiated a random shotgun sequencing approach to obtain the complete sequence of the IOWA isolate of C. parvum. Our progress to date has demonstrated that sequencing of the C. parvum genome will be an efficient and costeffective method for gene discovery of this important eukaryotic pathogen. This will allow for the identification of key metabolic and immunological features of the organism that will provide the basis for future development of safe and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of disease in AIDS patients, as well as immunocompetent hosts. Moreover, by obtaining the complete sequence of the C. parvum genome, effective methods for subspecific differentiation (strain typing) and epidemiologic surveillance (strain tracking) of this pathogen can be developed.
Spin Structure Functions g_1 and g_2 for the Proton and Deuteron
Gregory S. Mitchell
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The experiment E155 at SLAC measured the spin structure functions g_1 and g_2 of the proton and deuteron. The experiment used deep inelastic scattering of 48.3 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on polarized solid ^{15}NH_3 and ^{6}LiD targets. The data taken by three independent spectrometers covered a kinematic range of 0.014 < x < 0.9 and 1 (GeV/c)^2 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2. Due to the high luminosity and polarization available at SLAC the data on g_1 are to date the most precise in this kinematic range. The x and Q^2 dependence of g_1 has been studied using NLO PQCD fits, allowing extraction of values for the Bjorken sum rule and quark and gluon spin contributions to the nucleon. Results are presented for g_1 and g_2 for the proton and deuteron.
Vertical Discontinuities in Self-Affine Surfaces Lead to Multi-affinity
S. J. Mitchell
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Many systems of both theoretical and applied interest display multi-affine scaling at small length scales. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that when vertical discontinuities are introduced into a self-affine surface, the surface becomes multi-affine. The discontinuities may correspond to surface overhangs or to an underlying stepped surface. Two surfaces are numerically examined with different spatial distributions of vertical discontinuities. The multi-affinity is shown to arise simply from the surface of vertical discontinuities, and the analytic scaling form at small length scales for the surface of discontinuities is derived and compared to numerical results.
Neuroprotective Effects of Vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis  [PDF]
Margaret H. Cadden, Nancy S. Koven, Mitchell K. Ross
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23027
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease with no available cure, is marked by both physical and cognitive disability. In MS, central nervous system white matter lesions, believed to be consequences of inappropriate immune system reactivity, compromise inter-neuronal communication and, depending on the location of damage, beget a variety of symptoms including fatigue, loss of sensation, weakness of limbs, slowed psychomotor processing, and impaired memory. Recently, low vitamin D levels have been identified as a potential risk factor for MS, precipitating research into the immunomodulating properties of this vitamin that allow it to work in both a protective and therapeutic manner. Despite its promise as a disease-modifying agent, however, there is scant research that looks explicitly at vitamin D levels and cognitive symptoms of MS. Given the cognitive enhancing effects of vitamin D in other chronic inflammatory conditions such as chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease, there is urgent need to research whether vitamin D may prove equally beneficial in reducing cognitive sequelae in MS. Guidelines for future research are suggested.
The Subjective Well-Being of Malaysian School Children: Grade Level, Gender and Ethnicity  [PDF]
Mitchell Clark, H. S. Amar-Singh, Lina Hashim
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.512156
Abstract:

The present study explores the subjective well-being of Malaysian children between 12 and 14 years of age. These children are beginning the transition from childhood to adulthood. They are confronted by a range of social and developmental influences that impact their self concept, self esteem, independence skills and their sense of their personal well-being. Responses on the Personal Wellbeing Index (School Children) were collected from over a thousand children in Form 1 and Form 2 grade levels drawn from a sample of ten schools in Ipoh, Malaysia. The results for the sample as a whole range from the lowest average score in “happiness with life achievement” at 68.1 up to a score of 80.7 on the “personal relationships” domain out of a total possible score of 100. Significant differences between the male and female participants were noted with males rating their subjective well-being as higher than the ratings by females on their “satisfaction with life as a whole” as well as their happiness with “personal safety”. The younger students (Form 1 gradelevel) rated their happiness as significantly higher on the majority of life domains as compared to Form 2 students. There was also a significant difference between the students attending Chinese schools and those attending non-Chinese “National” schools. While those attending Chinese schools rated themselves substantially higher in regard to their happiness with “achievement in life”, those in the other schools rated themselves higher on most of the other domains as well as significantly higher on “satisfaction with life as a whole”. The strongest associations with “life as a whole” included “standard of living”, “personal safety” and “future security”.

An audit of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in rheumatology outpatients
Evin Sowden, William S Mitchell
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-58
Abstract: We audited a sample of 101 patients attending hospital rheumatology outpatient clinics on any form of disease modifying treatment by clinical questionnaire and medical record perusal. Further data were collected from the local immunisation coordinating agency and analysed by logistic regression modelling.Although there was a high rate of awareness with regard to immunisation, fewer patients on major immunosuppressants were vaccinated than patients with additional clinical risk factors against influenza (53% vs 93%, p < 0.001) or streptococcus pneumoniae (28% vs 64%, p = 0.001). The presence of additional risk factors was confirmed as significant in determining vaccination status by logistic regression for both influenza (OR 10.89, p < 0.001) and streptococcus pneumoniae (OR 4.55, p = 0.002). The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was also found to be a significant factor for pneumococcal vaccination (OR 5.1, p = 0.002). There was a negative trend suggesting that patients on major immunosuppressants are less likely to be immunised against pneumococcal antigen (OR 0.35, p = 0.067).Influenza and pneumococcal immunisation is suboptimal amongst patients on current immunosuppressant treatments attending rheumatology outpatient clinics. Raising awareness amongst patients may not be sufficient to improve vaccination rates and alternative strategies such as obligatory pneumococcal vaccination prior to treatment initiation and primary care provider education need to be explored.Influenza infection is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in epidemic years [1], whilst streptococcus pneumoniae infection accounts for 48% of bacteriologically confirmed community acquired pneumonias [2]. A number of groups have been identified as being at high risk for whom vaccination is currently recommended in the United Kingdom (UK), including individuals over 65 years of age or with heart disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes, chronic renal failure, chronic liver failure or hy
Dewey linked data: Making connections with old friends and new acquaintances Dewey linked data: Making connections with old friends and new acquaintances
Joan S. Mitchell,Michael Panzer
JLIS.it , 2013, DOI: 10.4403/jlis.it-5467
Abstract: This paper explores the history, uses cases, and future plans associated with availability of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system as linked data. Parts of DDC system have been available as linked data since 2009. Initial efforts included the DDC Summaries in eleven languages exposed as linked data in dewey.info. In 2010, the content of dewey.info was further extended by the addition of assignable numbers and captions from the Abridged Edition 14 data files in English, Italian, and Vietnamese. During 2012, we will add assignable numbers and captions from the latest full edition database, DDC 23. In addition to the “old friends” of different Dewey language versions, institutions such as the British Library and Deutsche Nationalbibliothek have made use of Dewey linked data in bibliographic records and authority files, and AGROVOC has linked to our data at a general level. We expect to extend our linked data network shortly to “new acquaintances” such as GeoNames, ISO 639-3 language codes, and Mathematics Subject Classification. In particular, the paper examines the linking process to GeoNames as an example of cross-domain vocabulary alignment. In addition to linking plans, the paper reports on use cases that facilitate machine-assisted categorization and support discovery in the semantic web environment. This paper explores the history, uses cases, and future plans associated with availability of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system as linked data. Parts of DDC system have been available as linked data since 2009. Initial efforts included the DDC Summaries in eleven languages exposed as linked data in dewey.info. In 2010, the content of dewey.info was further extended by the addition of assignable numbers and captions from the Abridged Edition 14 data files in English, Italian, and Vietnamese. During 2012, we will add assignable numbers and captions from the latest full edition database, DDC 23. In addition to the “old friends” of different Dewey language versions, institutions such as the British Library and Deutsche Nationalbibliothek have made use of Dewey linked data in bibliographic records and authority files, and AGROVOC has linked to our data at a general level. We expect to extend our linked data network shortly to “new acquaintances” such as GeoNames, ISO 639-3 language codes, and Mathematics Subject Classification. In particular, the paper examines the linking process to GeoNames as an example of cross-domain vocabulary alignment. In addition to linking plans, the paper reports on use cases that facilitate machine-assisted c
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