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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1018 matches for " Janine Higgins "
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Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation
Janine A. Higgins
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/829238
Abstract: Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.
Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation
Janine A. Higgins
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/829238
Abstract: Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect. 1. Introduction Whole grains are those that contain intact cereal germ, endosperm, and bran. Whole grain intake is associated with a variety of beneficial health effects. In large epidemiological studies, whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass index (BMI) [1], and lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease [2, 3], and colorectal cancer [4]. Likewise, legume consumption is associated with a reduction in the incidence of type??2 diabetes [5] and, in small prospective intervention studies, with increased glucose tolerance and improved lipemia [6]. One of the mechanisms that may be responsible for the beneficial effects of whole grain and legume consumption is their ability to lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses which, in turn, has effects on hepatic and lipid metabolism [7]. Although the ability of certain whole grains and legumes to lower postprandial glycemia is well documented [8, 9], little attention has been given to the subsequent meal effect of whole grain and legume ingestion. The subsequent or second meal effect is the ability of whole grains and legumes to lower postprandial glycemia not only after the meal at which they are consumed but also at a subsequent meal later in the day or even on the following day. This effect could be useful for blood glucose control in diabetic patients but could also confound insulin dosing regimens by causing an uncalculated or unexpected decrease in insulin requirements at the subsequent meal. Whole grains and legumes are a collection of different foods with differing structural and physicochemical properties. The amount of insoluble
A Novel Approach to Calculating Energy Density from Food Images Reduces Analysis Time and Cost  [PDF]
Zhaoxing Pan, Tyson Marden, Archana Mande, Janine Higgins
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.102018
Abstract: Traditional methods of self-reported food intake are characterized by limitations such as underreporting, high participant burden, and high cost. With the development of automated devices to capture food images and monitor food intake, an accurate and efficient method to estimate energy intake is needed. This study aimed to develop an accurate and time efficient method for estimating energy intake from food images by defining a simple and less burdensome way of estimating energy density (ED). Four experimental methods, exchange, food score-long, food score-short, and meal, were developed to estimate ED based on nutrient composition, water content, and relative proportion of foods in images, using different approaches. Three trained nutritionists analyzed 29 food images for ED using each method. All four experimental methods were compared to the full visual method in which a nutritionist estimated the portion size of each food consumed from dietary intake images and conducted data entry and analysis software. All experimental methods overestimated ED compared to the FVM but the meal method exhibited the closest agreement, lowest variance for ED, and significantly decreased analysis time by an average of 53 s/meal (p = 0.03). The meal method was used for full-scale validation by analyzing 213 food images against weighed food records. The meal method reduced analysis time by 69% (120 s; p ≤ 0.0001) and over-estimated ED by an average of 1.56 ± 3.17 J/g (p < 0.0001) compared to the FVM and 1.67 ± 3.09 J/g (p < 0.0001) compared to the WFR. The meal method is a novel and quick approach to calculate ED from dietary intake images.
Consumption of resistant starch decreases postprandial lipogenesis in white adipose tissue of the rat
Janine A Higgins, Marc A Brown, Leonard H Storlien
Nutrition Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-5-25
Abstract: It has been reported that chronic resistant starch (RS) feeding in rats causes a decrease in adipocyte cell size, a decrease in fatty acid synthase expression, and reduced whole-body weight gain relative to digestible starch (DS) feeding [1,2]. Additionally, in healthy adults, a single RS meal caused a substantial elevation in total and meal fat oxidation compared to a DS meal [3]. These data suggest that RS intake may influence postprandial lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of lipogenesis in key lipogenic organs acutely following a RS or DS meal.Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were obtained from the Animal Resource Center (Murdoch, Western Australia) and were housed in groups of three at the University of Wollongong, Animal House. The rats were maintained at 22°C on a 12-h light/dark cycle (light cycle from 0700–1900 h), with free access to a standard laboratory chow (Young Stock Feed, Young, Australia) and water. The study was conducted according to the National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC; Australia) code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. Test Diets were prepared as previously described [5]. As a percentage of total energy, all diets contained 67% carbohydrate (57% starch; 10% sucrose), 22% protein, and 11% fat. All diets were identical in composition except for the percentage of RS and DS included in the starch component. For the RS diet, the starch used was a natural high amylose starch, Hi-Maize 957? (National Starch and Chemical Co), which is 60% amylose/40% amylopectin, versus waxy cornstarch, which is 0% amylose/100% amylopectin, for the DS diet. Diets were presented to the animals in an unprocessed, unpelleted form so the starches were not subjected to cooking or extrusion. The dietary fiber level of the starches was determined using the Association of Analytical Chemistry (AOAC) enzymatic-gravimetric method. Total dietary fiber (dry solids) was lower (approximatel
Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation
Higgins Janine,Higbee Dana,Donahoo William,Brown Ian
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2004,
Abstract: Background Although the effects of resistant starch (RS) on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia have been extensively studied, little is known about the impact of RS on fat metabolism. This study examines the relationship between the RS content of a meal and postprandial/post-absorbative fat oxidation. Results 12 subjects consumed meals containing 0%, 2.7%, 5.4%, and 10.7% RS (as a percentage of total carbohydrate). Blood samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Respiratory quotient was measured hourly. The 0%, 5.4%, and 10.7% meals contained 50 μCi [1-14C]-triolein with breath samples collected hourly following the meal, and gluteal fat biopsies obtained at 0 and 24 h. RS, regardless of dose, had no effect on fasting or postprandial insulin, glucose, FFA or TAG concentration, nor on meal fat storage. However, data from indirect calorimetry and oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein to 14CO2 showed that addition of 5.4% RS to the diet significantly increased fat oxidation. In fact, postprandial oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein was 23% greater with the 5.4% RS meal than the 0% meal (p = 0.0062). Conclusions These data indicate that replacement of 5.4% of total dietary carbohydrate with RS significantly increased post-prandial lipid oxidation and therefore could decrease fat accumulation in the long-term.
Increased Physical Activity Not Decreased Energy Intake Is Associated with Inpatient Medical Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescent Females
Janine Higgins, Jennifer Hagman, Zhaoxing Pan, Paul MacLean
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061559
Abstract: There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11–19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.
Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation
Janine A Higgins, Dana R Higbee, William T Donahoo, Ian L Brown, Melanie L Bell, Daniel H Bessesen
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-1-8
Abstract: 12 subjects consumed meals containing 0%, 2.7%, 5.4%, and 10.7% RS (as a percentage of total carbohydrate). Blood samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Respiratory quotient was measured hourly. The 0%, 5.4%, and 10.7% meals contained 50 μCi [1-14C]-triolein with breath samples collected hourly following the meal, and gluteal fat biopsies obtained at 0 and 24 h. RS, regardless of dose, had no effect on fasting or postprandial insulin, glucose, FFA or TAG concentration, nor on meal fat storage. However, data from indirect calorimetry and oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein to 14CO2 showed that addition of 5.4% RS to the diet significantly increased fat oxidation. In fact, postprandial oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein was 23% greater with the 5.4% RS meal than the 0% meal (p = 0.0062).These data indicate that replacement of 5.4% of total dietary carbohydrate with RS significantly increased post-prandial lipid oxidation and therefore could decrease fat accumulation in the long-term.Resistant starch (RS) is any starch that is not digested in the small intestine but passes to the large bowel for fermentation [1]. Retrograded amylose (a linear polymer of glucose residues linked by α(1→4) bonds; RS1), such as cooked and cooled starchy foods like pasta salad, and native starch granules (RS2), such as those found in high-amylose maize starch and bananas, are the major components of dietary RS. Calories from RS that are undigested in the small intestine can be salvaged by fermentation to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, butyrate, proprionate) by the microflora of the large bowel. Fermentation of RS in the large bowel gives rise to increased production of SCFA which is reflected in higher epithelial and portal concentrations. SCFA concentration in the periphery, however, is very low and therefore difficult to measure accurately so any increase in production of SCFA in response to RS consumption may no
Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity
Janine A Higgins, Matthew R Jackman, Ian L Brown, Ginger C Johnson, Amy Steig, Holly R Wyatt, James O Hill, Paul S MacLean
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-49
Abstract: Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight.Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health.These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.Weight regain occurs frequently in individuals who have lost weight [1]. Substantial evidence indicates that biological adaptations to weight loss contribute to weight regain. Reductions in leptin, insulin [2,3], and other neural, nutrient, and endocrine signals, convey an "energy deficit" signal to energy balance control centers within the brain resulting in an increased drive to eat [4] and suppressed energy expenditure [5-7]. Studies in obese rodent models of weight regain indicate that this large energy gap between elevated energy intake and su
Creative Excellence in the Japanese University: Knowledge-Content-Cognition and Language-Culture-Communication Integrated Global Awareness Learning  [PDF]
Alan Brady, Robert M. Higgins
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.621236
Abstract: Barnett (1997) argues that the university has lost its way, but that the world needs the university more than before but for different reasons. He says that the university must clarify a new role in the world and in society, and find a new vocabulary, and a new sense of purpose. The world including the university is faced with what Barnett calls supercomplexity where human frames of understanding, action, and identity are continually changing and being challenged. In this new supercomplex world, the university, Barnett maintains, must take on two roles in particular. Firstly, it needs to compound supercomplexity, thus making the world more challenging than it has seemed. The second role is to enable humans to live effectively in this chaotic world. Internally, says Barnett, the university needs to become a new kind of organization that must, whether it likes it or not, live with uncertainty (i.e. “the uncertainty principle”) and at the same time help people to live with and revel in that uncertainty. Creativity, excellence, and excellence in creativity are also uncertain in this new supercomplex world which requires new and innovative ways of framing their interpretations and development in higher education. We focus in this paper on the potential of additional L2 global language English to serve as the medium of effecting an integrated content-knowledge-cognition and language-culture-communication creatively excellent higher education. However, it is our belief and hope that such a higher learning can and should be developed in the L1 Japanese language as the primary medium of learning and communication. The employment and deployment of CLIGAL in the home L1 Japanese and the globally useful L2 English are necessary for there to be creative excellence across the Japanese higher education curriculum.
SOME OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR SECOND-ORDER DELAY DYNAMIC EQUATIONS
Raegan Higgins
Applicable Analysis and Discrete Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/aadm100425018h
Abstract: We investigate the oscillation of second-order delay dynamicequations. Our results extend and improve known results foroscillation of second-order differential equations that have beenestablished by extsc{Erbe} [Canad. Math. Bull. extbf{16} (1973), 49--56]. We apply results from the theory of upper and lower solutions and give some examples to illustrate the main results.
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