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A two-genome microarray for the rice pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola and its use in the discovery of a difference in their regulation of hrp genes
Young-Su Seo, Malinee Sriariyanun, Li Wang, Janice Pfeiff, Jirapa Phetsom, Ye Lin, Ki-Hong Jung, Hui Hsien Chou, Adam Bogdanove, Pamela Ronald
BMC Microbiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-99
Abstract: Three biological replicates of the microarray experiment to compare global gene expression in representative strains of Xoo and Xoc grown in PSB vs. XOM2 were carried out. The non-specific error rate and the correlation coefficients across biological replicates and among duplicate spots revealed that the microarray data were robust. 247 genes of Xoo and 39 genes of Xoc were differentially expressed in the two media with a false discovery rate of 5% and with a minimum fold-change of 1.75. Semi-quantitative-RT-PCR assays confirmed differential expression of each of 16 genes each for Xoo and Xoc selected for validation. The differentially expressed genes represent 17 functional categories.We describe here the construction and validation of a two-genome microarray for the two pathovars of X. oryzae. Microarray analysis revealed that using representative strains, a greater number of Xoo genes than Xoc genes are differentially expressed in XOM2 relative to PSB, and that these include hrp genes and other genes important in interactions with rice. An exception was the rax genes, which are required for production of the host resistance elicitor AvrXa21, and which were expressed constitutively in both pathovars.The rice pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzicola (Xoc) cause economically significant disease in many rice-growing regions of the world [1]. Xoo invades rice vascular tissue to cause bacterial leaf blight, whereas Xoc colonizes the mesophyll parenchyma tissue to cause bacterial leaf streak. Xoo gains access to the xylem through wounds or natural openings such as hydathodes, while Xoc, in contrast, enters the leaf mainly through stomata [2]. Xoo and Xoc are closely related, infect the same host, and are often both established in the same rice fields. The complete genome sequences of Japanese Xoo strain T7174 (also called MAFF311018) and Korean Xoo strain KACC10331 have been published [3,4]. The genome sequences of a t
Linking mechanistic and behavioral responses to sublethal esfenvalerate exposure in the endangered delta smelt; Hypomesus transpacificus (Fam. Osmeridae)
Richard E Connon, Juergen Geist, Janice Pfeiff, Alexander V Loguinov, Leandro S D'Abronzo, Henri Wintz, Christopher D Vulpe, Inge Werner
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-608
Abstract: Exposure to esfenvalerate affected swimming behavior of larval delta smelt at concentrations as low as 0.0625 μg.L-1, and significant differences in expression were measured in genes involved in neuromuscular activity. Alterations in the expression of genes associated with immune responses, along with apoptosis, redox, osmotic stress, detoxification, and growth and development appear to have been invoked by esfenvalerate exposure. Swimming impairment correlated significantly with expression of aspartoacylase (ASPA), an enzyme involved in brain cell function and associated with numerous human diseases. Selected genes were investigated for their use as molecular biomarkers, and strong links were determined between measured downregulation in ASPA and observed behavioral responses in fish exposed to environmentally relevant pyrethroid concentrations.The results of this study show that microarray technology is a useful approach in screening for, and generation of molecular biomarkers in endangered, non-model organisms, identifying specific genes that can be directly linked with sublethal toxicological endpoints; such as changes in expression levels of neuromuscular genes resulting in measurable swimming impairments. The developed microarrays were successfully applied on larval fish exposed to esfenvalerate, a known contaminant of the Sacramento-San Joaquin estuary, and has permitted the identification of specific biomarkers which could provide insight into the factors contributing to delta smelt population decline.The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is a pelagic fish species endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin estuary, whose abundance has dramatically declined since the 1980s, and more precipitously in recent years [1-4]. It was listed as endangered in 2009, under both the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and California Endangered Species Act (CESA). Considerable efforts are presently being made to understand the causes of this recent population decline [4,5
The role that oilseeds, including new hi-oleic varieties can play in improving the profile of fat intake by the UK population  [PDF]
Janice Irene Harland
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.53024

The production in the EU of the oilseeds, rapeseed and sunflower, has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. Much of the oil produced after crushing is used for culinary purposes; this enhanced intake of vegetable oil has led to a substantial change of fatty acid (FA) supply. This has been conclusively demonstrated by taking the UK oil supply data and by use of the FA profile of the key oils converting the supply data into a FA profile of the UK market place for 2008-2012. The most marked changes are a reduction in saturated fat (SFA) and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) available for consumption. Furthermore the introduction of varieties of hi-oleic sunflower oil can further affect the market FA profile. The fat profiles of rapeseed and sunflower oils are considered healthy and they can have a positive impact when included in the diet, particularly as a replacement for oils or fats rich in SFA. In the UK and much of Europe, adult SFA intake continues to exceed recommendations. While reductions in the UK population’s SFA intake have occurred over the last 20 years, these are modest and it may be timely to identify ways in which SFA intake can be further reduced. To do this, the UK market FA supply data has been analysed alongside the profile of FA intake from adults recording their intake in national dietary surveys in order to identify if the market supply affects overall FA consumption. There is an indication that market oil supply is reflected in adults dietary intake of the main groups of FA. Consequently changes made to the oil profile of oilseeds by plant breeders and use of the resulting healthier oils by food manufacturers could have important roles to play in helping adults to achieve the recommended intake of SFA and also improve the overall fat quality in their diet leading to enhanced long-term health and well-being. Thus changes made in pri

Economic Justice and the 2003-2010 Recession: Lessons Learned for Multi-Level Social Work Practice  [PDF]
Janice Gasker, Jia Yu
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.412030
Abstract: The pursuit of social justice is a defining value of the social work profession, and its economic component is widely perceived to be an essential component of this quest. Consequently, social workers will practice to their fullest capacities if they understand the contemporary economic phenomena needed to promote social justice on all levels of practice, and discipline-specific knowledge in an accessible format is required to do so. In response, this paper provides a social work perspective on the world-wide recession of 2003-2010 along with implications for micro, mezzo and macro practice.
The Difference in Calcium Levels in Aspergillus nidulans Grown on Glucose or Pectin  [PDF]
Janice Aparecida Rafael, Suraia Said
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.22016
Abstract: Understanding the growth regulatory mechanisms in filamentous fungi is very important for the production of medicines for antifungal therapies. It is well established that Ca2+ gradient is essential for hyphal growth and that one mechanism responsible for the Ca2+ cellular concentration starts with the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by receptor-regulated forms of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). In the present study the levels of calcium in Aspergillus nidulans wild type (A26) and plcA-deficient mutant (AP27) growing in a carbon source readily assimilated, as glucose or pectin a non-readily assimilated carbon source was investigated. Intracellular calcium levels in A26 were higher in the presence of glucose than in pectin, but lower in AP27 independently of the carbon source and in AP27 the vesicular calcium distribution occurred mainly at the apex of the hyphae. Delay in nuclear division was also observed if A26 and AP27 were grown in pectin presence when compared with growth in glucose. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the levels of intracellular Ca2+ were higher when A. nidulans was growing in glucose than in a non readily assimilated carbon source as pectin. Further, it also showed that the plcA gene, although not essential, may be responsible for high-molecular weight carbon source recongnation, for the intracellular Ca2+ levels maintenance and consequently by the nuclear division in A. nidulans.
S?o Paulo de Ramos de Azevedo: da cidade colonial à cidade romantica
Theodoro, Janice;
Anais do Museu Paulista: História e Cultura Material , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-47141996000100016
Abstract: the a. analyses through the activily of ramos de azevedo the implicit links between s?o paulo's colonial past and the modernist movement, and the role played by the european "imaginaire" in america, as well as the tecno-scientific traditions with wich he was affiliated.
The Kindergarten Clinical Trial
Janice Weinberg
Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJCT.S7724
Abstract: dergarten Clinical Trial Commentary (5221) Total Article Views Authors: Janice Weinberg Published Date November 2009 Volume 2009:1(Default) Pages 23 - 26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJCT.S7724 Janice Weinberg Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The author describes an imaginary clinical trial performed using her daughter’s kindergarten class in Arlington, Massachusetts as study subjects. The children are introduced to several age-appropriate concepts related to clinical trials including defining a study question and randomization. Basic concepts in clinical trials are introduced, the Kindergarten Clinical Trial is described, and possible additional activities with kindergarteners and older children are discussed.
Teaching Notes. Model Prisons: Simulations in a Corrections Class
Janice Rienerth
Sociation Today , 2005,
Abstract: The author describes how students are asked to design a model prison with goals and outcomes. Included are a number of Power Point slides showing the outcomes of the exercises outlined in article format.
Through an activity theory lens: Conceptualizing service learning as 'boundary work'
Janice McMillan
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2009,
Abstract: Michael Gibbons (2005) has spoken about the need to re-imagine the relationship between higher education and society and he calls for the emergence of a ‘new social contract’. In particular he highlights three elements of this new form of engagement: contextualization, boundary objects, and transaction spaces or boundary zones. It is here that my paper is located – in the conceptualization of the ‘boundary zone’ at the nexus of higher education and society, with a focus on service learning as practice. In the literature on higher education there appears to be little evidence describing ways of conceptualizing and understanding the boundary zone itself. Most of the service learning research literature for instance, looks either at the university side of the relationship or at the impact on the community (and even then only in very few cases). In order to better understand the ‘push and pull’ of service learning, we need to better understand better what happens in the transaction/boundary zone in the first instance. In order to do this, we need to develop conceptual tools to illuminate the complex practices that occur at this nexus. Drawing on situated learning, post Vygotskian theory and activity theory in particular, I develop a framework for service learning conceived as ‘boundary work’. This framework illuminates inherent contradictions in these trans-boundary practices, and the argument is therefore that unless we understand these practices better and in more nuanced ways, we are in no position to improve them and consequently our understandings of this form of educational practice remain unaltered. Finally, by raising a number of questions about boundary practices at the end of the paper, I provide some ways of taking this conceptualization project further.
Humans and Machines in the subway Humanos e máquinas no metr
Janice Caiafa
Galáxia , 2011,
Abstract: In this work we analyze the repercussions that the recent implementation of an electronic fare collection system - with smart cards – has brought to everyday life of subway riders in Rio de Janeiro. The adoption of a fare collection system involves the choice of a technology and the stipulation of a charging system. By following this technological evolution in Rio de Janeiro’s subway, we explore how its riders learn to approach the new interfaces with the automatic machines and to cope with the payment conditions, which are at the same time imposed. We note, in this context, how the technological devices are coupled to human actions regarding the construction of a new fare collection system as well as the sociability that is developed in the subway technological space. Resumo: Neste trabalho analisamos as repercuss es que a recente implementa o de um novo sistema de bilhetagem eletr nica trouxe para o quotidiano dos usuários do metr do Rio de Janeiro. A ado o de um sistema de bilhetagem envolve a escolha de uma tecnologia e a estipula o de um regime de cobran a. Ao acompanhar essa evolu o tecnológia no metr do Rio de Janeiro, exploramos como os usuários têm aprendido a abordar as novas interfaces com as máquinas automáticas e enfrentado as condi es de pagamento que no mesmo golpe s o impostas. Observamos como as ferramentas tecnológicas se acoplam a a es humanas tanto no que diz respeito à própria constru o do novo sistema quanto à sociabilidade que se desenvolve no espa o tecnológico do metr . Palavras-Chave: Tecnologia; Metr (Rio de Janeiro); Sociabilidade Abstract: In this work we analyze the repercussions of the recently implemented fare collection system with smart cards in the Rio de Janeiro subway. The implementation of a fare collection system involves opting for a certain technology as well as stipulating a regime of fare charging. As we follow this technological evolution in the Rio de Janeiro subway, we observe how its riders learn to address the new interfaces with the automatic machines and to cope with the payment conditions which are at the same time imposed. We note, in this context, how the technological devices are coupled with human actions in the very construction of the new fare collection system as well as in the sociability that evolves in the technological space of the subway. Keywords: Technology; Subway (Rio de Janeiro); Sociability.
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