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What Is Exactly the Scope of Nuclear Chemistry and Its Educational Position between Other Chemistry Branches  [PDF]
Turan ünak
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2017.71006
Abstract: The undergraduate chemistry programs of different universities across the world show clearly that nuclear chemistry education doesn’t have a permanent status in chemistry curricula like classical sub-branches of chemistry which means like organic, inorganic, analytical, physical, and biochemistry. Before starting the evaluation of the status of nuclear chemistry education, first of all, nuclear chemistry should correctly be defined and its position in chemistry education programs should correctly be determined. In addition, a confusion of terminology or at least, a terminological turbulence exists in this branch of chemistry about the use of terms such as nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, nuclear and radiochemistry. Also, the scopes of the expressions used in this field such as radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, etc. should be exactly defined and the realtions between them should be clearly understood. Breifly, nuclear chemistry may be difined as a large umbrella which covers all chemical studies related to radioactive materials and nuclear radiation including the fine sub-branches such as radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radioanalytical chemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, environmental radiochemistry. If these are not done, the educational problems in nuclear chemistry could not be correctly investigated and the remedies could not be correctly determined.
Predictors of Extra-Marital Partnerships among Women Married to Fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya
Zachary Kwena, Isaac Mwanzo, Chris Shisanya, Carol Camlin, Janet Turan, Lilian Achiro, Elizabeth Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095298
Abstract: Background The vulnerability of women to HIV infection makes establishing predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships critical. We investigated the predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen. Methods The current analyses are part of a mixed methods cross-sectional survey of 1090 gender-matched interviews with 545 couples and 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 59 couples. Using a proportional to size simple random sample of fishermen as our index participants, we asked them to enrol in the study with their spouses. The consenting couples were interviewed simultaneously in separate private rooms. In addition to socio-economic and demographic data, we collected information on sexual behaviour including extra-marital sexual partnerships. We analysed these data using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. For FGDs, couples willing to participate were invited, consented and separated for simultaneous FGDs by gender-matched moderators. The resultant audiofiles were transcribed verbatim and translated into English for coding and thematic content analysis using NVivo 9. Results The prevalence of extra-marital partnerships among women was 6.2% within a reference time of six months. Factors that were independently associated with increased likelihood of extra-marital partnerships were domestic violence (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.09–1.92), women reporting being denied a preferred sex position (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.26–8.84) and spouse longer erect penis (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.00–1.78). Conversely, women's age – more than 24years (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI 0.14–0.78) and women's increased sexual satisfaction (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.87–0.96) were associated with reduced likelihood of extra-marital partnerships. Conclusion Domestic violence, denial of a preferred sex positions, longer erect penis, younger age and increased sexual satisfaction were the main predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships. Integration of sex education, counselling and life skills training in couple HIV prevention programs might help in risk reduction.
The Role of HIV-Related Stigma in Utilization of Skilled Childbirth Services in Rural Kenya: A Prospective Mixed-Methods Study
Janet M. Turan ,Abigail H. Hatcher,José Medema-Wijnveen,Maricianah Onono,Suellen Miller,Elizabeth A. Bukusi,Bulent Turan,Craig R. Cohen
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001295
Abstract: Background Childbirth with a skilled attendant is crucial for preventing maternal mortality and is an important opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The Maternity in Migori and AIDS Stigma Study (MAMAS Study) is a prospective mixed-methods investigation conducted in a high HIV prevalence area in rural Kenya, in which we examined the role of women's perceptions of HIV-related stigma during pregnancy in their subsequent utilization of maternity services. Methods and Findings From 2007–2009, 1,777 pregnant women with unknown HIV status completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire assessing their perceptions of HIV-related stigma before being offered HIV testing during their first antenatal care visit. After the visit, a sub-sample of women was selected for follow-up (all women who tested HIV-positive or were not tested for HIV, and a random sample of HIV-negative women, n = 598); 411 (69%) were located and completed another questionnaire postpartum. Additional qualitative in-depth interviews with community health workers, childbearing women, and family members (n = 48) aided our interpretation of the quantitative findings and highlighted ways in which HIV-related stigma may influence birth decisions. Qualitative data revealed that health facility birth is commonly viewed as most appropriate for women with pregnancy complications, such as HIV. Thus, women delivering at health facilities face the risk of being labeled as HIV-positive in the community. Our quantitative data revealed that women with higher perceptions of HIV-related stigma (specifically those who held negative attitudes about persons living with HIV) at baseline were subsequently less likely to deliver in a health facility with a skilled attendant, even after adjusting for other known predictors of health facility delivery (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22–0.88). Conclusions Our findings point to the urgent need for interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma, not only for improving quality of life among persons living with HIV, but also for better health outcomes among all childbearing women and their families. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
How Perceptions of HIV-Related Stigma Affect Decision-Making Regarding Childbirth in Rural Kenya
José S. Medema-Wijnveen, Maricianah Onono, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Suellen Miller, Craig R. Cohen, Janet M. Turan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051492
Abstract: Introduction HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Kenya is high. Furthermore, there is a high risk of maternal mortality, as many women do not give birth with a skilled healthcare provider. Previous research suggests that fears of HIV testing and unwanted disclosure of HIV status may be important barriers to utilizing maternity services. We explored relationships between women’s perceptions of HIV-related stigma and their attitudes and intentions regarding facility-based childbirth. Methods 1,777 pregnant women were interviewed at their first antenatal care visit. We included socio-demographic characteristics, stigma scales, HIV knowledge measures, and an 11-item scale measuring health facility birth attitudes (HFBA). HFBA includes items on cost, transport, comfort, interpersonal relations, and services during delivery at a health facility versus at home. A higher mean HFBA score indicates a more positive attitude towards facility-based childbirth. The mean HFBA score was dichotomized at the median and analyses were conducted with this dichotomized HFBA score using mixed effects logit models. Results Women who anticipated HIV-related stigma from their male partner had lower adjusted odds of having positive attitudes about giving birth at the health facility (adjusted OR = .63, 95% CI 0.50–0.78) and less positive attitudes about health facility birth were strongly related to women’s intention to give birth outside a health facility (adjusted OR = 5.56, 95% CI 2.69–11.51). Conclusions In this sample of pregnant women in rural Kenya, those who anticipated HIV-related stigma were less likely to have positive attitudes towards facility-based childbirth. Furthermore, negative attitudes about facility-based childbirth were associated with the intention to deliver outside a health facility. Thus, HIV-related stigma reduction efforts might result in more positive attitudes towards facility-based childbirth, and thereby lead to an increased level of skilled birth attendance, and reductions in maternal and infant mortality.
A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya
Janet M. Turan,Abigail M. Hatcher,Merab Odero,Maricianah Onono,Jannes Kodero,Patrizia Romito,Emily Mangone,Elizabeth A. Bukusi
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/736926
Abstract: Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups ( groups) and in-depth interviews ( ) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. 1. Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major source of preventable mortality and morbidity for women globally [1–3]. In Kenya, 47% of ever-married women report having ever experienced emotional, physical, and/or sexual violence from their spouse—among the highest rates in the world [4, 5]. Violence towards pregnant women in Kenya is estimated to be 13.5% [6], a higher prevalence than many conditions routinely screened for during pregnancy [7]. Global research suggests that when pregnant women experience GBV, there is a higher likelihood of miscarriage [3, 8], premature labor [9], low birthweight [8, 10, 11], and infant death [12]. Demographic Health Survey data from Kenya suggests that experiencing lifetime GBV is associated with child stunting and under-2 mortality [12]. GBV is also a driver of the global HIV epidemic, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where women are disproportionately at risk of both GBV and HIV infection. GBV increases risk of HIV acquisition [13, 14], and HIV-positive women are more likely to experience GBV than their HIV-negative counterparts [15]. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the intersecting risks and adverse outcomes related to HIV infection
Power System Analysis of an Aero-Engine  [PDF]
Onder Turan, Hakan Aydin
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.34060

The aim of this study is analyzed in detail for better understanding of energy and power of an aero-engine. In this regard, this study presents energy equations were applied to the turbofan engine components. The engine has a thrust range of 82 to 109 kN. It consists of fan, axial low pressure compressor (LPC), axial high pressure compressor (HPC), an annular combustion chamber, high-pressure turbine (HPT) and low pressure turbine (LPT). The results show that power of the engine flow approaches a maximum value to be 82.85 MW in the combustor outlet, while minimum power is observed at LPC inlet with the value of 1.37 MW. Furthermore, important parameters of the engine are also analyzed from reverse-engineering method. It is expected that results of this study will be beneficial of power, cogeneration and aero-propulsive generation systems in similar environment.

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, Larvicidal and Anthelmintic Activities and Phenolic Contents of Cyclamen alpinum  [PDF]
Murat Turan, Ramazan Mammadov
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2018.94008
Abstract: In this study, antioxidant, cytotoxic, larvicidal, antimicrobial and anthelmintic effects and phenolic contents of ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of leaf and tuber parts of Cyclamen alpinum were investigated. DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene assays were carried out in antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were tested in determination assay. 9 phenolic contents were determined by HPLC. Artemia salina was used in the cytotoxic effect. Larvicidal effect was investigated against Culex pipiens. Disc diffusion method was used in antimicrobial effect. The tuber part was found to be more toxic than the leaf part in the anthelmintic activity assay. The highest value obtained from the antioxidant activity experiment was observed with value of 86.73 ± 0.16 (%) in DPPH assay. The lowest LC50 value in larvicidal effect was determined 0.151 mg/mL after 72 hours. Consequently, there is need for further studies on the Cyclamen alpinum, which has the ability to fight against diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, etc.
Parental Engagement in Children’s Learning: Moving on from Mass Superstition  [PDF]
Janet Goodall
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.911116
Abstract: In this article, I build on Goodman’s concept of mass superstition, which he applied to the schooling system. Goodman holds that we continue to believe in the value of this system, without clear evidence that it is working. I use this concept to apply the argument to the way the current system deals with parents. In spite of clear indications in the research that parental engagement with children’s learning is one of the best means to support educational achievement, particularly for children at risk of failure in the current system, parents are still routinely held at a distance from the learning processes fostered by the school system. I argue for a change to the foundational beliefs of the system, so that schools and families will work in partnership as co-constructors of children’s learning.
kinci Ergenekon //// 2th Ergenekon
?mer Turan
History Studies : International Journal of History , 2010,
iir: Kütüphane
Hasan Turan
Türk Kütüphanecili?i , 1974,
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