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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402932 matches for " Janet M Read "
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Prevalence of childhood disability and the characteristics and circumstances of disabled children in the UK: secondary analysis of the Family Resources Survey
Clare M Blackburn, Nick J Spencer, Janet M Read
BMC Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-21
Abstract: Data were generated from secondary analysis of the Family Resources Survey, a national UK cross-sectional survey, (2004/5) which had data on 16,012 children aged 0-18 years. Children were defined as disabled if they met the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) definition (1995 and 2005). Frequency distributions and cross-tabulations were run to establish prevalence estimates, and describe the circumstances of disabled children. To establish the association between individual social and material factors and childhood disability when other factors were controlled for, logistic regression models were fitted on the dependent variable 'DDA defined disability'.7.3% (CI 6.9, 7.7) of UK children were reported by as disabled according to the DDA definition. Patterns of disability differed between sexes with boys having a higher rate overall and more likely than girls to experience difficulties with physical coordination; memory, concentration and learning; communication. Disabled children lived in different personal situations from their non-disabled counterparts, and were more likely to live with low-income, deprivation, debt and poor housing. This was particularly the case for disabled children from black/minority ethnic/mixed parentage groups and lone-parent households. Childhood disability was associated with lone parenthood and parental disability and these associations persisted when social disadvantage was controlled for.These analyses suggest that UK disabled children experience higher levels of poverty and personal and social disadvantage than other children. Further research is required to establish accurate prevalence estimates of childhood disability among different black and minority ethnic groups and to understand the associations between childhood disability and lone parenthood and the higher rates of sibling and parental disability in households with disabled children.There is considerable global concern to reduce the prevalence of childhood disability and to
Rick Henderson and Mike Pochin: A Right Result? Advocacy, justice and empowerment
Read, Janet
Social Work and Society , 2003,
Abstract: As Henderson and Pochin point out in the introduction to their book, recent years have seen the concept of advocacy given increasing prominence in central and local government policy in the UK. It made an appearance in local community care and long-stay hospital closure plans. It features in reforms to the health service in England and Wales, in the form of the Patient Advocacy and Liaison Services (DoH 2000), while proposed changes to the mental health system also accord a key role to service users' advocates. In addition, Valuing People, central government's proposals on the future strategy for people with learning disabilities, promised the widespread development of advocacy services (DoH 2001). Advocacy, traditionally located on the margins of state activity in the UK, is experiencing something of an attempt to shift it into mainstream policy and service provision. This makes it a significant time to review the core values and practices that have distinguished advocacy from other forms of professional and voluntary intervention and to explore how these may be preserved and developed in the contemporary context.
Childhood disability and socio-economic circumstances in low and middle income countries: systematic review
Douglas E Simkiss, Clare M Blackburn, Felix O Mukoro, Janet M Read, Nicholas J Spencer
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-119
Abstract: Electronic databases (MEDLINE; EMBASE; PUBMED; Web of Knowledge; PsycInfo; ASSIA; Virtual Health Library; POPLINE; Google scholar) were searched using terms specific to childhood disability and SECs in LAMI countries. Publications from organisations including the World Bank, UNICEF, International Monetary Fund were searched for. Primary studies and reviews from 1990 onwards were included. Studies were assessed for inclusion, categorisation and quality by 2 researchers.24 primary studies and 13 reviews were identified. Evidence from the available literature on the association between childhood disability and SECs was inconsistent and inconclusive. Potential mechanisms by which poverty and low household SEC may be both a cause and consequence of disability are outlined in the reviews and the qualitative studies. The association of poor SECs with learning disability and behaviour problems was the most consistent finding and these studies had low/medium risk of bias. Where overall disability was the outcome of interest, findings were divergent and many studies had a high/medium risk of bias. Qualitative studies were methodologically weak.This review indicates that, despite socially and biologically plausible mechanisms underlying the association of low household SEC with childhood disability in LAMI countries, the empirical evidence from quantitative studies is inconsistent and contradictory. There is evidence for a bidirectional association of low household SEC and disability and longitudinal data is needed to clarify the nature of this association.In 2004 the Global Burden of Disease report estimated that over 100 million children under the age of 15 years had a moderate or severe disability, the majority of whom live in low and middle income countries (LAMI) [1,2]. Research on these children in LAMI countries however, has been described as 'woefully inadequate' [3]. Reviews of research have found that the majority of studies have focused on cross-sectional, community
Use of a bougie during percutaneous tracheostomy
M Read
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2469
Abstract: A bougie was used during 46. This technique does not use bronchoscopic control. A bougie is passed through the tracheal tube (TT) into the trachea. The TT is withdrawn until the cuff is above the vocal cords. With the cuff fully inflated, the TT is advanced (using the bougie as a guide) until the cuff impacts on the vocal cords. A gas-seal is maintained by gentle pressure on the TT keeping the cuff pressing on the vocal cords. During percutaneous tracheostomy the bougie remains in the trachea. When ventilation through the tracheostomy tube (cuff inflated) is confirmed, the TT and bougie are withdrawn. Throughout the procedure, if ventilation difficulties occur, the TT can be easily re-inserted using the bougie as a guide.Three different bougies were used: types (number used) were Eschmann (29), size 10 Portex disposable (four) and size 12 Portex disposable (13). Three patients were trauma cases: a neutral cervical position was maintained. In 33 cases the Blue Rhino dilator and in 12 cases the Ultra-Perc (White Rhino) dilator was used. One case was a serial dilator (see later).The bougie for airway control for percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with zero hypoxic episodes in 46 cases. Minor bougie damage in two cases caused no problems. Other complications seen were either minor or unlikely to be due to the bougie.
Robust Optimization for Gate Sizing Considering Non-Gaussian Local Variations  [PDF]
Jin Sun Janet M. Roveda
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.516245
Abstract: This paper employs a new second-order cone (SOC) model as the uncertainty set to capture non-Gaussian local variations. Then using robust gate sizing as an example, we describe the detailed procedures of robust design with a budget of uncertainty. For a pre-selected probability level of yield protection, this robust method translates uncertainty budgeting problems into regular robust optimization problems. More importantly, under the assumption of non-Gaussian distributions, we show that within-die variations will lead to varying sizes of uncertainty sets at different nominal values. By using this new model of uncertainty estimation, the robust gate sizing problem can be formulated as a Geometric Program (GP) and therefore efficiently solved.
Invariant structure of the hierarchy theory of fractional quantum Hall states with spin
M. Milovanovic,N. Read
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.1461
Abstract: We describe the invariant structure common to abelian fractional quantum Hall systems with spin. It appears in a generalization of the lattice description of the polarized hierarchy that encompasses both partially polarized and unpolarized ground state systems. We formulate, using the spin-charge decomposition, conditions that should be satisfied so that the description is SU(2) invariant. In the case of the spin- singlet hierarchy construction, we find that there are as many SU(2) symmetries as there are levels in the construction. We show the existence of a spin and charge lattice for the systems with spin. The ``gluing'' of the charge and spin degrees of freedom in their bulk is described by the gluing theory of lattices.
Tamm surface resonances in very low energy electron scattering from clean metal surfaces
M. N. Read
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Very low-energy features which occur in electron reflectivities from clean fcc metal (111) surfaces have been subject to a number of interpretations. Here we analyse the feature near 19.8 eV on Cu(111) at normal incidence and find that it is due to resonant scattering at the rise of the muffin-tin average interstitial potential between atomic layers on approach to the surface from the bulk. This new mechanism corresponds to a Tamm-type surface resonance which is very different in formation to the usual Shockley and Rydberg resonances and explains all features in a systematic way.
Edge excitations of paired fractional quantum Hall states
M. Milovanovic,N. Read
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.53.13559
Abstract: The Hilbert spaces of the edge excitations of several ``paired'' fractional quantum Hall states, namely the Pfaffian, Haldane-Rezayi and 331 states, are constructed and the states at each angular momentum level are enumerated. The method is based on finding all the zero energy states for those Hamiltonians for which each of these known ground states is the exact, unique, zero-energy eigenstate of lowest angular momentum in the disk geometry. For each state, we find that, in addition to the usual bosonic charge-fluctuation excitations, there are fermionic edge excitations. The edge states can be built out of quantum fields that describe the fermions, in addition to the usual scalar bosons (or Luttinger liquids) that describe the charge fluctuations. The fermionic fields in the Pfaffian and 331 cases are a non-interacting Majorana (i.e., real Dirac) and Dirac field, respectively. For the Haldane-Rezayi state, the field is an anticommuting scalar. For this system we exhibit a chiral Lagrangian that has manifest SU(2) symmetry but breaks Lorentz invariance because of the breakdown of the spin statistics connection implied by the scalar nature of the field and the positive definite norm on the Hilbert space. Finally we consider systems on a cylinder where the fluid has two edges and construct the sectors of zero energy states, discuss the projection rules for combining states at the two edges, and calculate the partition function for each edge excitation system at finite temperature in the thermodynamic limit. It is pointed out that the conformal field theories for the edge states are examples of orbifold constructions.
Surface electron band structure and VLEED reflectivity for Al(111)
M. N. Read
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The 2D layer Green function scattering method is used to calculate the energy of surface states and resonances at Gamma-bar for Al(111) for both below and above the vacuum level. The surface barrier potential is represented by an empirical form. The above vacuum level surface electron band structure for this surface has not been calculated before and it is important in understanding many surface phenomena. The geometric structure of the Al(111) surface is known from intensity analysis in low-energy electron diffraction at energies 60 -- 450 eV. The details of the surface barrier for Al(111) were obtained from a match with the below vacuum level experimental energy position of the first Rydberg surface resonance and the Shockley surface state at k_|| = 0 (Gamma-bar). The calculation was then extended to the above vacuum level case for 0 -- 27 eV with the inclusion of inelastic electron interactions. Tamm-type resonances at 6.9 eV and possibly also at 8.3 eV, a Shockley-type resonance at 14.0\pm0.5 eV and a series of Rydberg (image) resonances near 24 eV all above vacuum level are found at k_|| = 0. The same 2D layer Green function scattering method using the same input data was then used to calculate the intensity of the 00 beam for k_|| = 0 (normal incidence) in very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) from this surface in the energy range 0 -- 65 eV. Features in the VLEED intensities are found due to the Shockley and Rydberg resonances. Experimental data from over 26 years ago found surface features near the energies found in this work. Beam intensities from low energy electron microscope (LEEM) measurements at normal incidence and new data from other surface spectroscopies could provide experimental confirmation of the resonances predicted in this work.
Analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC Background: Production of Background Maps and Event Files
A. M. Read
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: XMM-Newton background maps for the 3 EPIC instruments in their different instrument/mode/filter combinations and in several energy bands have been constructed using a superposition of many pointed observations. Event datasets for the different instrument/mode/filter combinations have also been constructed, with longer exposure times than previously created files. This document describes the construction of the background maps and event files, and their usage. Further details on how to obtain these background products, together with related software and these explanatory notes can be found at http://www.sr.bham.ac.uk/xmm3/BGproducts.html
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