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Ectopic cervical thymic cysts are uncommon lesions and definitive
preoperative diagnosis is not always possible. Surgical excision is recommended
due to the small but possible chance of malignant degeneration in adulthood. We
present a case of a nine year old boy with an asymptomatic lesion in his
neck, discuss the differential diagnoses of such lesions and treatment
Biologics have greatly improved the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), demonstrating efficacy and safety in alleviating symptoms, inhibiting bone erosion, and preventing loss of function. Unmet therapeutic needs in RA remain; however, further advances require an understanding of issues left unaddressed under the current treatment paradigm. Most biologic-na?ve and biologic-pretreated patients who initiate a biologic therapy, for example, do not reach American College of Rheumatology 50% (ACR50) response, and few achieve remission. Responses are often not durable, prompting frequent treatment switching. Predictive markers are unavailable to guide therapy selection, and clinical trial data are lacking on whether a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) is the best first-line biologic and on the optimal sequence of use for the different biologics. Risk of serious infection is the major safety concern. Translating preclinical and clinical findings into new therapeutics may help address unmet needs. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A represents an important therapeutic target; ongoing trials with IL-17A inhibitors will determine whether these agents can address some of the unmet needs associated with current biologics.
Strata of the Late Cretaceous Niobrara
Formation and Pierre Shale Group include bentonites that provide a distal
record of volcanic activity taking place to the west. Detailed stratigraphic analysis
combined with mineralogy and geochemistry of the bentonites indicates the
following timing of events: 1) Eustatic sea level fall as a result of the end
of the Niobrara Cycle; 2) Tectonic deformation of the Western Interior Seaway
coincident with tectonism on the Absoroka Thrust in Wyoming and Late Canyon
Range Thrust in Utah; 3) Backarc volcanism in Montana associated with the
Little Elkhorn Mountain volcanic complex; 4) Forearc volcanism in the Cascades
area indicates subduction of a hot oceanic crust where plagioclase in the
oceanic crust is being incorporated into the melt; 5) Cessation of tectonic
activity results in a return of sedimentation patterns to north-south trending
belts with the Boyer Bay and Burning Brule members of the Sharon Springs
Formation deposited to the east and the Mitten Black Shale Formation deposited
in the basin.
luminescence characteristics of feldspar from Nigeria were investigated.
Without preheat treatment, the TL glow curve exhibited two peaks at 136°C and
175°C. When preheated to a temperature of 200°C only one peak was observed at
240°C. The highest net IRSL intensity was obtained for a stimulation
temperature of 250°C. The TL signal is reduced by IR stimulation, and the
longer the stimulation the more pronounced the effect. The dose response curves
for both the TL and the IRSL showed a linear relationship for the doses
considered in the study. Dose recovery test performed using the SAR method
showed consistency with given dose for both TL and IRSL.