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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6873 matches for " Jane-Francis Kihla Akoachere "
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Groundwater Biological Quality in Abuja FCT: Myths and Realities of Point and Non-Point Pollution of Fractured Rock Aquifers  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Jane-Francis Kihla Akoachere, Simon Oko Okpara, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Felix Akumcha Mbaabe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105734
Abstract:
The quality of groundwater is three fold: physical, chemical and biological. For water to be fit for human consumption, it must have satisfied all three quality aspects. Therefore, the groundwater biological quality of Abuja FCT can never be over emphasized since the wellbeing of the citizens of the capital territory, seat of the government of Nigeria, is of strategic importance. There are myths and realities about the biological quality of groundwater in fractured rock aquifers which must be clarified. Groundwater plays a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many private, government, and households establishments depend solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. This study evaluates the biological quality using total bacterial density (TBD), total coliform (TC), coliform bacteria (CB), faecal coliform (FC), total bacteria count (TBC), and salmonella species (SS) as biological pollution indicators. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26?C - 36.1?C and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. Groundwater of Abuja FCT is not suitable for drinking as the species had the following concentration and percentages above the permissible limits for drinking water: TC (0 - 1280) 51.06%, FC (0 - 170) 19.15%, TBD (0 - 86.6) 98.94%, TBC (0 - 5120) 95.74%, CB (0 - 438) 74.47% and SS (0 - 223) 69.15%. Groundwater from Abuja FCT Granite-Gneiss fractured rock aquiferous formation is unfit for human consumption and an added danger to humans since it is usually assumed to be safe. Groundwater from Granite-Gneiss fractured rock aquifers could be the source of endemic outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as E. coli, Cholera, Gastroenteritis, Typhoid and Diarrhea; as such all groundwater from the aquiferous formations in Abuja FCT should be treated before consumption and use. Source protection strategies as well as monitoring are recommended although it may not serve the purpose for which it is intended since the potential for pollution is point and non-point sourced.
Etiologic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired urinary tract infection in two Cameroonian towns
Jane-Francis Tatah Akoachere, Suylika Yvonne, Njom Akum, Esemu Seraphine
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-219
Abstract: We cultured 235 urine specimens and analyzed the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates by the disc diffusion technique. Uropathogens were recovered from 137 (58.3%), with prevalence rates in Buea and Bamenda being 65.9% and 54% respectively. Predominant pathogens were Escherichia coli (31.4%), Klebsiella oxytoca (25.5%) and Staphylococcus spp (24.1%). Geographic variation in uropathogen distribution and antibiotic susceptibility was observed, and a significant difference in pathogen distribution with respect to gender. The 20–39?years age group had the highest prevalence of infection. All pathogens isolated were detected in this group. Isolates exhibited low susceptibility to antibiotics tested. Bamenda isolates generally exhibited lower susceptibility compared to those from Buea.Regional variation in etiology of CAUTI and antibiotic susceptibility observed in our study emphasizes the need to establish local and national antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems in Cameroon to provide information for the development of CAUTI treatment guidelines.A total of 235 patients comprising 150 (63.8%) from Bamenda and 85 (36.2%) from Buea were sampled. Of these, 167 (71.1%) were females and 68 (38.9%) were males. The age of participants ranged from 2?years to 80?years. Patients were stratified into the following age-groups: < 20?years (n?=?29, 12.3%), 20–39?years (n?=?131, 55.7%), 40–59?years (n?=?51, 21.7%) and?≥?60?years (n?=?24, 10.2%). A total of 137 (58.3%) samples had significant growth of pathogens.UTI prevalence was 65.9% in Buea and 54% in Bamenda (Table 1). Logistic regression analysis of UTI with study site as a predictor produced no significant relationship (G?=?0.161, df?=?1, p?=?0.687). Measure of association between prevalence of UTI and study site showed weak predictive ability (Somers’ D (0.01) and Goodman-Kruskal Gamma (0.11) are close to zero).Analyzing prevalence with respect to gender, females (67.7%) had a higher prevalence of infection than males (35.
Effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, G-6-P-D enzyme activity and haemoglobin
Theresa K Nkuo-Akenji, Paul Wepngong, Jane-Frances Akoachere
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The main objective was to investigate the effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, haemoglobin genotype and G-6-P-D enzyme activity on malaria. The study was carried out in Buea, South West Province, Cameroon. Subjects consulting at health care facilities in Buea were randomly recruited into the study. A total of 121 febrile patients 1-60 years old comprised the study subjects. Thin and thick blood films were prepared for malaria parasite detection. G-6-P-D enzyme activity was assayed using the met-haemoglobin reduction test. Determination of haemoglobin genotypes was by a rapid screening method alongside electrophoresis. Malaria positive patients were treated. The highest malaria prevalence of 74.5% was in Group O individuals and the lowest of 58.6% in group B individuals. Mean parasite density (Log10-1/ul blood) in the various blood groups was not significantly different. Individuals with G-6-P-D deficiency had a significantly lower malaria prevalence (47.5%) when compared with active individuals. Mean parasite density in enzyme deficient and active individuals was 3.7(SD± 3.9) and 4.4(SD ±5.0) respectively and the difference was significant (p<0.05). Malaria prevalence was lower (57.5%) in HbS individuals when compared with HbAA (74.6%) and HbSS (60%) but parasite density was not significantly different. Our results suggest that individuals with blood group O who have the HbAA genotype and show G-6-P-D enzyme activity may be more susceptible to malaria. Information on the influence of these genetic factors on malaria would be useful in the better management of the disease in the study area. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 11(3-4) 2004:: 93-97
Retention of β-Carotene in Cream-Fleshed Sweetpotato-Based Complementary Food Stored in Different Containers under Simulated Tropical Temperature and Humidity  [PDF]
Francis Kweku Amagloh, Louise Brough, Janet L. Weber, Anthony N. Mutukumira, Allan Hardacre, Jane Coad
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A2004
Abstract:

The stability of β-carotene in cream-fleshed sweetpotato-based complementary food stored in three different containers under simulated tropical temperature of 32°C and 85% relative humidity in an environmental chamber for 24 weeks was investigated. The formulation stored in a metallised polyester film in a refrigerator (approximately 3.0°C and 95% relative humidity) retained about 81% of β-carotene at 24 weeks, with no significant change in the moisture content. The formulation stored in either a metallised polyester film or a translucent polypropylene container placed in the environmental chamber retained approximately half of the β-carotene at 24 weeks, with a slight increase in moisture content. However, the formulation held in a transparent low-density polyethylene bag had the lowest β-carotene retention (37%) and the highest moisture content at week 24. Within the limits of this study, it has been demonstrated that β-carotene in cream-fleshed sweetpotato-based complementary food was well retained when moisture uptake was minimised.

Which diagnostic tests are most useful in a chest pain unit protocol?
Steve Goodacre, Thomas Locker, Jane Arnold, Karen Angelini, Francis Morris
BMC Emergency Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-227x-5-6
Abstract: The Northern General Hospital CPU uses 2–6 hours of serial ECG / ST segment monitoring, CK-MB(mass) on arrival and at least two hours later, troponin T at least six hours after worst pain and exercise treadmill testing. Data were prospectively collected over an eighteen-month period from patients managed on the CPU. Patients discharged after CPU assessment were invited to attend a follow-up appointment 72 hours later for ECG and troponin T measurement. Hospital records of all patients were reviewed to identify adverse cardiac events over the subsequent six months. Diagnostic accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating sensitivity and specificity for: 1) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with clinical myocardial infarction and 2) ACS with myocyte necrosis. Prognostic value was estimated by calculating the relative risk of an adverse cardiac event following a positive result.Of the 706 patients, 30 (4.2%) were diagnosed as ACS with myocardial infarction, 30 (4.2%) as ACS with myocyte necrosis, and 32 (4.5%) suffered an adverse cardiac event. Sensitivities for ACS with myocardial infarction and myocyte necrosis respectively were: serial ECG / ST segment monitoring 33% and 23%; CK-MB(mass) 96% and 63%; troponin T (using 0.03 ng/ml threshold) 96% and 90%. The only test that added useful prognostic information was exercise treadmill testing (relative risk 6 for cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or arrhythmia over six months).Serial ECG / ST monitoring, as used in our protocol, adds little diagnostic or prognostic value in patients with a normal or non-diagnostic initial ECG. CK-MB(mass) can rule out ACS with clinical myocardial infarction but not myocyte necrosis(defined as a troponin elevation without myocardial infarction). Using a low threshold for positivity for troponin T improves sensitivity of this test for myocardial infarction and myocardial necrosis. Exercise treadmill testing predicts subsequent adverse cardiac events.The chest pain unit (CPU) h
Two new methods for the determination of hydraulic fracture apertures in fractured-rock aquifers
RA Akoachere, G van Tonder
Water SA , 2009,
Abstract: Fracture apertures play a significant role in groundwater systems. For proper groundwater quantity and contamination management, fractures have to be properly characterised. However, due to their complexity, fracture characterisation is one of the main challenges for hydrogeologists all over the world. This is particularly important in South Africa, where aquifers are predominantly fractured. Two new methods have been developed to determine inclined and horizontal fracture apertures in fractured-rock aquifers. The first is a water-balance method, the slug-tracer (ST) test: . The slug-tracer (ST) test [b = (r2 / R2) ¢ h] and the second is a tracer-detection method, comprising the NAPL entry pressure (NEP) test and the NAPL injection pressure (NIP) test: . The NAPL entry pressure (NEP) test [b = (r g h)] . The NAPL injection pressure (NIP) test [b = ( g V/ 2 r)] and [b = (M g) / m] These mathematical formulations were developed from laboratory experimentation using transparent Perspex parallel plate physical models and 27 apertures of 0.008 mm to 6 mm, created by using aluminium foil and thickness gauges between 20 mm thick clamped Perspex plates. The ST test uses a slug to which is added NaCl as tracer (50 mg to 300 mg/.). An EC meter is used to detect breakthrough in the observation boreholes. The NEP test uses an NAPL (sunflower oil) hydraulic head and transducers to determine the entry pressure. Using these mathematical formulae, fracture apertures are then determined for horizontal and inclined apertures. The NIP test uses the entry pressure (by injection), recorded by transducers of an NAPL (sunflower oil) and its volume or mass to determine the fracture aperture for horizontal and inclined fractures. Results from smooth and rough (buffed to 10 x 20 ê) fracture surfaces gave accuracies of 96 to 98% for aperture determinations of 26 apertures from 0.04 to 6 mm.
Interventions for increasing chlamydia screening in primary care: a review
Samitha Ginige, Christopher K Fairley, Jane S Hocking, Francis J Bowden, Marcus Y Chen
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-95
Abstract: A Medline search was conducted for controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving chlamydia screening rates in primary health care settings. The Medline search was done for studies in English published prior to December 2005 using the following key words: chlamydia, screening, intervention, primary care and GPs. In addition, the references cited in the articles were reviewed. Studies in English published prior to December 2005 were reviewed.Four controlled studies met the inclusion criteria – 3 were randomized studies and one was not. Strategies to increase screening rates included the use of educational packages targeting primary care physicians and the correction of barriers to screening within clinic systems. In 3 studies, the intervention was associated with an increase in screening rates of between 100% and 276% (p < 0.04). In the fourth study, the intervention was associated with a significant attenuation in declining screening rates over time (4% versus 34% decline, p = 0.04).There are only a limited number of randomized or controlled studies that demonstrate improved chlamydia screening of younger women in primary care.Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world [1]. This is of concern as untreated infection can lead to serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Most individuals infected with chlamydia are asymptomatic [2,3], so screening is necessary to detect cases and to reduce the risk of complications. Studies suggest that selective screening for chlamydia reduces the prevalence of infection and the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease [4,5].Opportunistic screening of sexually active females less than 25 years of age for chlamydia in primary care has been recommended in a number of industrialized countries [6,8]. In Australia, over 80% of women aged 16–24 years visit a general practitione
The Impact of Family Planning on Women's Lives: Findings from the Women's Studies Project in Mali and Zimbabwe
Barbara Barnett, Mamadou Konaté, Marvellous Mhloyi, Jane Mutambirwa, Monica Francis-Chizororo, Noah Taruberekera, Priscilla Ulin
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: This paper reports on the findings of the Women's Studies Project, a five-year research effort conducted by Family Health International and designed to study the impact of family planning on women's lives. Twenty-six field studies were conducted in ten countries, including the sub-Sahara countries of Mali and Zimbabwe. In Mali, researchers looked at the experiences of first-time contraceptive users and factors that influence decisions to continue or discontinue methods, including spousal approval. In Zimbabwe, studies focused on family planning as a factor in women's participation in the country's economic development process. Researchers concluded that daftly planning is one of many strategies women can use to exercise autonomy in their lives. However, negative consequences of contraceptive use, such as community disapproval or husband's opposition may discourage women from taking control of their fertility. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999:3 [1]: 27-38) Key Words: Family planning, women's lives, Mali, Zimbabwe
The Case for Improved Diagnostic Tools to Control Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa and How to Get There
Arlene C. Chua?,Jane Cunningham?,Francis Moussy?,Mark D. Perkins?,Pierre Formenty
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003734
Abstract:
The trigger-tube: A new apparatus and method for mixing solutes for injection tests in boreholes
RA Akoachere II, G Van Tonder
Water SA , 2011,
Abstract: The trigger-tube apparatus and method was developed for mixing solutes and tracers for injection tests. The apparatus is a cap-trigger tube segment and the technique mixes solutes in boreholes in 2 min. Trigger-tube with solute/tracer is introduced into the well, the trigger is released, the tube is withdrawn and the solute/tracer mixes with well water instantaneously to give a homogeneous mixture. Field tests using this method and apparatus for point dilution tests gave a Darcy velocity of 4.06 m/d, seepage velocity of 122.89 m/d and effective porosity of 0.33. Natural gradient tests gave a Darcy velocity of 4.06 m/d and natural velocity of 123 m/d, using tracer, for the same fracture at 21 m in borehole UO5, University of the Free State campus test site. The apparatus enables a comparatively shorter time for carrying out SWIW tests than is possible using the pump mixing method. Field tests gave results of 13 min for the trigger-tube method and 25 min for the pump mixing method, for a point dilution test using NaCl as a conservative tracer. The trigger-tube apparatus can be used for any borehole test that requires the introduction of a homogenous mixture.
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