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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12091 matches for " Jane Elizabeth Risdall "
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The Akt Pathway Inhibitor Degeulin Prevents Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Induced Splenocyte Proliferation and Inflammation  [PDF]
Sarah Joanne Christine Whitfield, Jane Elizabeth Risdall, Gareth Griffiths, Ethel Diane Williamson, Alun James Carter
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2017.81001
Abstract: Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) is considered a potential biological weapon. It is toxic by both inhalation and ingestion. Effects of ingestion include fever, vomiting and diarrhoea, while inhalation may additionally result in chest pain, dyspnoea, pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure. Severe exposure may be fatal and treatment relies on symptomatic support. At a cellular level, SEB up-regulates T-cell proliferation leading to a pathological inflammatory response. Deguelin, a rotenoid isolated from the African plant Mundulea sericea (Leguminosae), has been shown to reduce cellular proliferation by inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signalling pathway. Using isolated murine splenocytes, we have demonstrated that treatment with deguelin reduces SEB inducing T cell proliferation by 60%. Deguelin treatment also decreased IL-2 and CCL2 secretion by splenocytes exposed to SEB. We demonstrate that targeting cellular proliferation can significantly reduce inflammation after SEB exposure and suggest that anti-proliferatives may have a role as potential generic medical counter measures if superantigens are used as biological weapons.
Early Years Policy
Jane Waldfogel,Elizabeth Washbrook
Child Development Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/343016
Abstract: We analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by examining gaps in school readiness between low-, middle-, and high-income children, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies in the USA and UK. We find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are present in both countries before children enter school and then decompose these gaps to identify the factors that account for the poorer scores of low-income children. We then consider what role early years policy could play in tackling these gaps, drawing on the best available evidence to identify promising programs. 1. Introduction One of the key challenges in addressing inequality of educational attainment, and promoting social mobility, is that substantial gaps in school readiness are already present at school entry [1, 2]. The presence of these gaps even before children start school has prompted a great deal of interest in the role that early years policy might play in narrowing these gaps. Interest in the early years has also been spurred by new research and scholarship in fields such as neuroscience, developmental psychology, and economics [3–5]. A further impetus is the availability of rigorous evidence that high-quality interventions can improve child development in the early years (see reviews in [6, 7]). These results provide grounds for optimism that well-crafted policies could help narrow gaps in school readiness. At the same time, however, there are clearly some limits to what early years programs can accomplish. Some portion of the differences that emerge in the early years will be due to factors that are not readily altered by policy. A further challenge is that not all early years programs are equally effective, high-quality programs are not inexpensive, and even the most promising model programs may not work as well when delivered on a large scale. There are also thorny issues regarding the extent to which such programs are best delivered universally or targeted to disadvantaged groups. In this paper, we use two types of evidence to analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by documenting how large the gaps in school readiness are between low - , middle-, and high-income children in the USA and UK, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies. To briefly preview those results, we find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are already present in both countries before
Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Ligands as Regulators of Airway Inflammation and Remodelling in Chronic Lung Disease
Jane Elizabeth Ward,Xiahui Tan
PPAR Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/14983
Abstract: Inflammation is a major component in the pathology of chronic lung diseases, including asthma. Anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids is not effective in all patients. Thus, new therapeutic options are required to control diverse cellular functions that are currently not optimally targeted by these drugs in order to inhibit inflammation and its sequelae in lung disease. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), originally characterised as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, offer marked potential in this respect. PPARs are expressed in both lung infiltrating and resident immune and inflammatory cells, as well as in resident and structural cells in the lungs, and play critical roles in the regulation of airway inflammation. In vitro, endogenous and synthetic ligands for PPARs regulate expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemoattractants, and cell proliferation and survival. In murine models of allergen-induced inflammation, PPARα and PPARγ ligands reduce the influx of inflammatory cells, cytokine and mucus production, collagen deposition, and airways hyperresponsiveness. The activity profiles of PPAR ligands differ to corticosteroids, supporting the hypothesis that PPARs comprise additional therapeutic targets to mimimise the contribution of inflammation to airway remodelling and dysfunction.
Anatomia de galhas de ambrosia em folhas de Baccharis concinna e Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae)
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042001000100007
Abstract: ambrosia galls are induced by dipteran (cecidomyiidae) and no nutritive tissue is present: fungi hyphae are the source of food to the inducer larva. ambrosia galls in baccharis concinna and b. dracunculifolia have only one chamber with one inducer. the fungi hyphae are observed. in b. dracunculifolia galls the hyphae are restricted to the larval chamber. the parenchyma palisade cells are elongated. in b. concinna galls hyphae spread also among chlorenchyma cells around of larval chamber. the chlorenchyma cells near to the chamber elongate slightly. in both galls, pericyclic fibers of vascular system lose their secondary walls. when the inducer is in pupal phase, the amount of hyphae increases and they fill several parts of the larval chamber. hyphae of b. concinna galls present lipophilic globules which are not observed in the hyphae of b. dracunculifolia galls. picnids are found only in the senescent galls of b. dracunculifolia. this paper is the first contribution to the knowledge of the ambrosia galls in the brazilian flora.
Anatomia de galhas de ambrosia em folhas de Baccharis concinna e Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae)
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2001,
Abstract: Galhas de ambrosia s o induzidas por dípteros (Cecidomyiidae) e desprovidas de tecido nutritivo, pois a larva do indutor alimenta-se de hifas de fungos. As galhas de ambrosia de Baccharis concinna e B. dracunculifolia s o constituídas por uma única camara larval, contendo um indutor. S o observadas hifas de fungos. Nas galhas de B. dracunculifolia, as hifas ficam confinadas à camara larval e as células do parênquima pali ádico mostram-se alongadas. Nas galhas de B. concinna, as hifas est o presentes também entre as células do clorênquima situadas ao redor da camara larval. As células do clorênquima próximas à camara larval alongam-se ligeiramente. As fibras pericíclicas do sistema vascular, em ambas as galhas, perdem as paredes secundárias. Quando o indutor está em fase pupal, as hifas de fungos aumentam em quantidade e preenchem várias partes da camara larval. Nas hifas da galha de B. concinna verifica-se a presen a de glóbulos lipofílicos, que est o ausentes nas hifas das galhas de B. dracunculifolia. Picnídios s o observados somente nas galhas senescentes de B. dracunculifolia. Este trabalho é a primeira contribui o ao conhecimento de galhas de ambrosia na flora brasileira.
PPARγ Ligands Regulate Noncontractile and Contractile Functions of Airway Smooth Muscle: Implications for Asthma Therapy
Chantal Donovan,Xiahui Tan,Jane Elizabeth Bourke
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/809164
Abstract: In asthma, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) can contribute to inflammation, airway wall remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Targetting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a receptor upregulated in ASM in asthmatic airways, may provide a novel approach to regulate these contributions. This review summarises experimental evidence that PPARγ ligands, such as rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ), inhibit proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production from ASM in vitro. In addition, inhaled administration of these ligands reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodelling in mouse models of allergen-induced airways disease. PPARγ ligands can also regulate ASM contractility, with acute treatment eliciting relaxation of mouse trachea in vitro through a PPARγ-independent mechanism. Chronic treatment can protect against the loss of bronchodilator sensitivity to β2-adrenoceptor agonists and inhibit the development of AHR associated with exposure to nicotine in utero or following allergen challenge. Of particular interest, a small clinical trial has shown that oral RGZ treatment improves lung function in smokers with asthma, a group that is generally unresponsive to conventional steroid treatment. These combined findings support further investigation of the potential for PPARγ agonists to target the noncontractile and contractile functions of ASM to improve outcomes for patients with poorly controlled asthma. 1. Introduction Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease affecting over 300 million people worldwide, with 250,000 deaths per year attributed to the disease [1]. Asthma is characterized by inflammation, airway wall remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), whereby airways are more sensitive to a variety of stimuli and subsequently contract too easily and too much [2]. A major feature of airway remodeling in asthma is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. This thickened ASM layer can act as both a source and target of inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, contributing to persistent inflammation and increased airway narrowing. Proliferative, synthetic, and contractile functions of ASM can therefore play distinct roles in both the pathogenesis of asthma and perpetuation of disease symptoms (Figure 1) [3, 4]. Figure 1: Potential targets for the regulation of noncontractile (proliferative and synthetic) and contractile functions of airway smooth muscle contributing to airway hyperresponsiveness. In current asthma therapy, inhaled β2-adrenoceptor agonists
Topic: the Many Faces of Diversity - Title: Culturally Competent Nursing Care for Families: Listening to the Voices of Mexican-American Women
Sandra K. Eggenberger,Jane Grassley,Elizabeth Restrepo
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2006,
Abstract: Mexican-Americans represent the fastest-growing minority population group in the United States. Gaining a cultural perspective of health care in the Mexican-American population necessitates listening to the voices of women because they assume primary responsibility for maintaining family health. The Transcultural Assessment Model developed by Giger and Davidhizar (2004) provides the framework for this exploration of Mexican-American women’s health care views. From this model the investigators developed an interview guide based on social organization and environmental control. Thematic analysis of interviews with six Mexican-American women revealed the importance of the family, religion, and locus-of-control in the health beliefs, attitudes, and lifestyle practices of this culture. Using the voices of Mexican-American women the investigators seek to promote an understanding of the culture as a guide for nursing care. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the Mexican-American cultural phenomena of social organization and environmental control which can guide the nurse to provide culturally competent care that meets the needs of Mexican-American women and their families.
Métodos de colora??o de Roeser (1972): modificado - e Kropp (1972) visando a substitui??o do azul de astra por azul de alci?o 8GS ou 8GX
Luque, Rebeca;Sousa, Hildeberto C. de;Kraus, Jane Elizabeth;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061996000200001
Abstract: staining methods based on modified roeser (1972) as well as that of kropp (1972) were done with leaves of lychnophora ericoides, coffea arabica and nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8gs or 8gx. samples were fixed in faa, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. the histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. permanent slides were prepared with synthetic canada balsam. the results obtained indicate that the modified roeser method (1972) is better than that of kropp (1972) under present experimental conditions. the astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8gx and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. the results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.
Anomalous somatic embryos in Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret (Myrtaceae)
Pescador, Rosete;Kerbauy, Gilberto Barbante;Viviani, Daniela;Kraus, Jane Elizabeth;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042008000100014
Abstract: somatic embryogenesis represents a valuable tool for the studies on the basic aspects of plant embryo development. today this process is used as a potencial technique for large-scale plant micropropagation although, so far, it has been applied to only a small number of species. however, when somatic embryos are malformed they are considered economically useless. in acca sellowiana (o. berg) burret, an important fruit-producing crop, large amounts of anomalous somatic embryos (76.3%) were found just after 40 days of culture of explants in a 2,4-d containing medium. among the anomalous forms found in the cotiledonary stage, 12.2% consisted of fused embryos, 40.4% displayed fused cotyledons, 13.0% presented supernumerary cotyledons, and 10.7% showed absence or poorly developed cotyledons, including those without the shoot apical meristem. histological analyses indicated that the altered embryos were formed either directly from cotyledons, hypocotyl and radicle of the zygotic embryos used as explants, or indirectly from calli formed from these tissue parts. it is suggested that the formation of anomalous somatic embryos, as well as a low frequency of conversion into emblings reflect physiological and/or genetic disturbances triggered by the presence of 2,4-d in the medium. in vitro experimental alternative approaches are discussed in order to lessen the occurrence of malformed somatic embryos.
Teachers’ Use of Humor in Teaching and Students’ Rating of Their Effectiveness
Lazarus Ndiku Makewa,Elizabeth Role,Jane Ayiemba Genga
International Journal of Education , 2011, DOI: 10.5296/ije.v3i2.631
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which teachers use humour in teaching in Migori district, Kenya, and students’ ratings of their teaching effectiveness. Purposive and random sampling procedures were used in the selection of the sample for the study. Studen
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