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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3546 matches for " Jane Coghill "
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Cold- and light-induced changes in the transcriptome of wheat leading to phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth
Mark O Winfield, Chungui Lu, Ian D Wilson, Jane A Coghill, Keith J Edwards
BMC Plant Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-55
Abstract: We observed novel responses of several genes thought to be of major importance in vernalisation-induced phase transition, and identified several MADS-box genes that might play an important role in the onset of flowering. In addition, we saw responses in genes of the Gibberellin pathway that would indicate that this pathway also has some role to play in phase transition.Phase transition in wheat is more complex than previously reported, and there is evidence that day-length has an influence on genes that were once thought to respond exclusively to an extended period of cold.In plants, the timing of the change from vegetative to reproductive growth is critical for successful reproduction, and must occur when both internal and external conditions are appropriate. The environmental cues of day-length and temperature have a strong influence on flowering, and the ability to perceive and respond to these cues is controlled through the photoperiod and vernalisation pathways, respectively [1].Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is normally a long-day plant, flowering in spring and early summer when days are lengthening [2]. Additionally, wheat cultivars can be broadly divided into two categories, winter or spring, according to whether they require an extended period of cold to become competent to flower. In winter varieties, change from vegetative to reproductive phase is promoted by exposure to low temperatures (3°C – 8°C) for 4–6 weeks. These varieties are planted in the autumn so that seedlings are exposed to the cold of winter and so become competent to flower. However, they only become committed to flower as days lengthen in the spring. In addition to these two external factors, different wheat varieties can be distinguished by the intrinsic rate at which they tend to pass from floral induction to heading. This tendency is referred to as earliness per se [3].In Arabidopsis, the genetic factors underpinning phase change have been well-characterised [4-6]. Four major genetic pat
A microarray analysis of gene expression in the free-living stages of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti
Fiona J Thompson, Gary LA Barker, Louise Hughes, Clare P Wilkes, Jane Coghill, Mark E Viney
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-157
Abstract: We have constructed an S. ratti cDNA microarray and used it to interrogate changes in gene expression during the free-living phase of the S. ratti life-cycle. We have found very extensive differences in gene expression between first-stage larvae (L1) passed in faeces and infective L3s preparing to infect hosts. In L1 stages there was comparatively greater expression of genes involved in growth. We have also compared gene expression in L2 stages destined to develop directly into infective L3s with those destined to develop indirectly into free-living adults. This revealed relatively small differences in gene expression. We find little evidence for the conservation of transcription profiles between S. ratti and S. stercoralis or C. elegans.This is the first multi-gene study of gene expression in S. ratti. This has shown that robust data can be generated, with consistent measures of expression within computationally determined clusters and contigs. We find inconsistencies between EST representation data and microarray hybridization data in the identification of genes with stage-specific expression and highly expressed genes. Many of the genes whose expression is significantly different between L1 and iL3s stages are unknown beyond alignments to predicted genes. This highlights the forthcoming challenge in actually determining the role of these genes in the life of S. ratti.Parasitic nematodes have complex life-cycles that are affected and controlled by factors both within and outwith their hosts. In the genus Strongyloides, the life-cycle, unusually, includes both an obligate female-only parasitic generation and a facultative dioecious adult free-living generation. In recent years there has been an increasingly detailed understanding of the factors that affect the development of the free-living phase of this life-cycle, particularly for the parasites of rats, S. ratti [1].S. ratti parasitic females lie embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine of their host. These
Analysis of wheat SAGE tags reveals evidence for widespread antisense transcription
Rebecca L Poole, Gary LA Barker, Kay Werner, Gaia F Biggi, Jane Coghill, J George Gibbings, Simon Berry, Jim M Dunwell, Keith J Edwards
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-475
Abstract: Examination of 71,930 Long SAGE tags generated from six libraries derived from two wheat genotypes grown under two different conditions suggested that SAGE is a reliable and reproducible technique for use in studying the hexaploid wheat transcriptome. However, our results also showed that in poorly annotated and/or poorly sequenced genomes, such as hexaploid wheat, considerably more information can be extracted from SAGE data by carrying out a systematic analysis of both perfect and "fuzzy" (partially matched) tags. This detailed analysis of the SAGE data shows first that while there is evidence of alternative polyadenylation this appears to occur exclusively within the 3' untranslated regions. Secondly, we found no strong evidence for widespread alternative splicing in the developing wheat grain transcriptome. However, analysis of our SAGE data shows that antisense transcripts are probably widespread within the transcriptome and appear to be derived from numerous locations within the genome. Examination of antisense transcripts showing sequence similarity to the Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b genes suggests that such antisense transcripts might have a role in the regulation of gene expression.Our results indicate that the detailed analysis of transcriptome data, such as SAGE tags, is essential to understand fully the factors that regulate gene expression and that such analysis of the wheat grain transcriptome reveals that antisense transcripts maybe widespread and hence probably play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression during grain development.With cereals constituting more than 60% of the world's dietary intake, the bread wheat Triticum aestivum is one of the most important crops in world agriculture [1,2]. Despite the high yields achieved in Europe there is still a real need to generate improved cultivars, as yield and flour quality can be dramatically affected by the environment. This need has become even greater in recent years with tight
Avoiding the 'twilight zone': recommendations for the transition of services from adolescence to adulthood for young people with ADHD
Susan Young, Clodagh M Murphy, David Coghill
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-174
Abstract: ADHD affects around 3-4% of UK children [1] and has a wide-ranging and detrimental impact on the wellbeing of individuals who may have a range of clinical, neuropsychological and psychosocial problems [2]. Common comorbid problems in childhood include oppositional defiant disorder (40%), anxiety disorder (34%), conduct disorder (14%), tics (11%) and mood disorder (6%) [3,4]. As children develop, many continue to suffer impairment from their symptoms. A meta-analysis of follow-up studies conducted by Faraone and colleagues [5] found that around 15% of cases continue to meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD at 25 years of age, with a further 50% of individuals suffering impairment from residual symptoms of ADHD. Comorbid problems also persist and/or develop afresh, including anxiety, mood problems and substance misuse [6-8]. The presentation of ADHD in adults may be complicated by the chronicity of their ADHD symptoms, and associated difficulties including low self-esteem, interpersonal relationship problems, educational and occupational difficulties, risk taking behaviours, driving accidents, delinquency and offending; even when ADHD has been recognised and treated, outcomes are often somewhat bleak [9,10]. These individuals are further disadvantaged by their cognitive and social deficits, impulsivity and poor attention, and may experience greater difficulty in achieving autonomy than their peers. Thus the transfer between child and adult services occurs at a time of increased vulnerability, when young people with ADHD may require guidance and support from trusted carers, including health care professionals. Data from the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study clearly suggests that well thought through and organized evidence based treatment protocols can improve outcomes for those with ADHD [11,12]. However, as ADHD has not yet been widely embraced by adult mental health services in the UK, many are untreated [13] and there are limited established clinical services off
The validity, reliability and normative scores of the parent, teacher and self report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in China
Du Yasong,Kou Jianhua,Coghill David
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-8
Abstract: Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has become one of the most widely used measurement tools in child and adolescent mental health work across the globe. The SDQ was originally developed and validated within the UK and whilst its reliability and validity have been replicated in several countries important cross cultural issues have been raised. We describe normative data, reliability and validity of the Chinese translation of the SDQ (parent, teacher and self report versions) in a large group of children from Shanghai. Methods The SDQ was administered to the parents and teachers of students from 12 of Shanghai's 19 districts, aged between 3 and 17 years old, and to those young people aged between 11 and 17 years. Retest data was collected from parents and teachers for 45 students six weeks later. Data was analysed to describe normative scores, bandings and cut-offs for normal, borderline and abnormal scores. Reliability was assessed from analyses of internal consistency, inter-rater agreement, and temporal stability. Structural validity, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results Full parent and teacher data was available for 1965 subjects and self report data for 690 subjects. Normative data for this Chinese urban population with bandings and cut-offs for borderline and abnormal scores are described. Principle components analysis indicates partial agreement with the original five factored subscale structure however this appears to hold more strongly for the Prosocial Behaviour, Hyperactivity – Inattention and Emotional Symptoms subscales than for Conduct Problems and Peer Problems. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's α coefficient were generally low ranging between 0.30 and 0.83 with only parent and teacher Hyperactivity – Inattention and teacher Prosocial Behaviour subscales having α > 0.7. Inter-rater correlations were similar to those reported previously (range 0.23 – 0.49) whilst test retest reliability was generally lower than would be expected (range 0.40 – 0.79). Convergent and discriminant validity are supported. Conclusion We report mixed findings with respect the psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the SDQ. Reliability is a particular concern particularly for Peer Problems and self ratings by adolescents. There is good support for convergent validity but only partial support for structural validity. It may be possible to resolve some of these issues by carefully examining the wording and meaning of some of the current questions.
A Preliminary Study of Barriers to Bank Financing of Ethnic Chinese Entrepreneurs in the UK  [PDF]
Jane Zhang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.37018

Ethnic minority entrepreneurship has been a growing research interest, however, little has been known about financial barriers to start up and run a business venture from the perspectives of UK ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs. The aim of this study is to explore the financial barriers of ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in starting up and running a business in the UK. Through semi-structured interviews with 12 ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs who run businesses in the UK, this study has preliminarily found: 1) ethnic Chinese businesses in the UK have increasingly faced difficulties to get access to bank finance since the global financial crisis; 2) the difficulties are largely caused by a lack of communication and understanding between the entrepreneurs and financial institutions; 3) the traditional perceptions of Chinese businesses have disadvantaged ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in the UK when they apply for bank credits. This study offers a number of implications. For policy-makers, an understanding of the characteristics of ethnic Chinese businesses and financing barriers to ethnic Chinese in business start-ups and running is important for the development of policy that encourages and supports ethnic Chinese businesses. For banks in the UK to expand their business, there is a need to develop tailored products and services specifically for ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs.

Impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on the patient and family: results from a European survey
Coghill David,Soutullo Cesar,d'Aubuisson Carlos,Preuss Ulrich
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-31
Abstract: Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience problems with education, interaction with others and emotional disturbances. Families of ADHD children also suffer a significant burden, in terms of strain on relationships and reduced work productivity. This parent survey assessed daily life for children with ADHD and their families. Method This pan-European survey involved the completion of an on-line questionnaire by parents of children (6–18 years) with ADHD (ADHD sample) and without ADHD (normative population sample). Parents were questioned about the impact of their child's ADHD on everyday activities, general behaviour and family relationships. Results The ADHD sample comprised 910 parents and the normative population sample 995 parents. 62% of ADHD children were not currently receiving medication; 15% were receiving 6–8 hour stimulant medication and 23% 12-hour stimulant medication. Compared with the normative population sample, parents reported that ADHD children consistently displayed more demanding, noisy, disruptive, disorganised and impulsive behaviour. Significantly more parents reported that ADHD children experienced challenges throughout the day, from morning until bedtime, compared with the normative population sample. Parents reported that children with ADHD receiving 12-hour stimulant medication experienced fewer challenges during early afternoon and late afternoon/early evening than children receiving 6–8 hour stimulant medication; by late evening and bedtime however, this difference was not apparent. ADHD was reported to impact most significantly on activities such as homework, family routines and playing with other children. All relationships between ADHD children and others were also negatively affected, especially those between parent and child (72% of respondents). Parents reported that more children with ADHD experienced a personal injury in the preceding 12 months, including those requiring the attention of healthcare professionals. Although 68% of parents were satisfied with their child's current treatment, 35–40% stated that their child's ADHD symptoms needed to be more effectively treated during the afternoon and evening. Conclusion This parent survey highlights the breadth of problems experienced by ADHD children and the impact throughout the day on both activities and relationships. Therefore, there is a need for treatment approaches that take into account the 24-hour impact of the disorder and include all-day coverage with effective medication.
Qualitative System Identification from Imperfect Data
George M. Coghill,Ross D. King,Ashwin Srinivasan
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1613/jair.2374
Abstract: Experience in the physical sciences suggests that the only realistic means of understanding complex systems is through the use of mathematical models. Typically, this has come to mean the identification of quantitative models expressed as differential equations. Quantitative modelling works best when the structure of the model (i.e., the form of the equations) is known; and the primary concern is one of estimating the values of the parameters in the model. For complex biological systems, the model-structure is rarely known and the modeler has to deal with both model-identification and parameter-estimation. In this paper we are concerned with providing automated assistance to the first of these problems. Specifically, we examine the identification by machine of the structural relationships between experimentally observed variables. These relationship will be expressed in the form of qualitative abstractions of a quantitative model. Such qualitative models may not only provide clues to the precise quantitative model, but also assist in understanding the essence of that model. Our position in this paper is that background knowledge incorporating system modelling principles can be used to constrain effectively the set of good qualitative models. Utilising the model-identification framework provided by Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) we present empirical support for this position using a series of increasingly complex artificial datasets. The results are obtained with qualitative and quantitative data subject to varying amounts of noise and different degrees of sparsity. The results also point to the presence of a set of qualitative states, which we term kernel subsets, that may be necessary for a qualitative model-learner to learn correct models. We demonstrate scalability of the method to biological system modelling by identification of the glycolysis metabolic pathway from data.
Assessing the Graham’s Formula for Stock Selection: Too Good to Be True?  [PDF]
Jason Lin, Jane Sung
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.23001

Benjamin Graham offered a straightforward and simple formula to evaluate stocks’ intrinsic value. Many regard the Graham Formula is a very simplistic way of measuring an individual company’s intrinsic value. Graham and Warren Buffet however felt that the simplicity of the model allowed them to quickly and accurately identify undervalued companies, and stay away from overvalued ones. In this paper, we wanted to explore the effectiveness of the Graham’s formula. We wanted to see if using the Graham’s formula, investors can achieve excess returns above the market over a period of 17 years.

Cowhage-Induced Itch as an Experimental Model for Pruritus. A Comparative Study with Histamine-Induced Itch
Alexandru D. P. Papoiu,Hong Liang Tey,Robert C. Coghill,Hui Wang,Gil Yosipovitch
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017786
Abstract: Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases.
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