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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7715 matches for " Jane Bruce "
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Antenna Mechanism of Length Control of Actin Cables
Lishibanya Mohapatra?,Bruce L. Goode?,Jane Kondev
PLOS Computational Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004160
Abstract: Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This “antenna mechanism” involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentration of myosin motors delivering Smy1. These results provide testable predictions of the antenna mechanism of actin-cable length control.
Antenna mechanism of length control of actin cables
Lishibanya Mohapatra,Bruce L. Goode,Jane Kondev
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This antenna mechanism involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentration of myosin motors delivering Smy1. These results provide testable predictions of the antenna mechanism of actin-cable length control.
Intermittent Screening and Treatment versus Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Randomised Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial
Harry Tagbor,Jane Bruce,Mitchell Agbo,Brian Greenwood,Daniel Chandramohan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014425
Abstract: The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) may be compromised by the spread of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) across Africa. But little informtion exists on alternative drugs for IPTp or alternative strategies for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Therefore, we have investigated whether screening with a rapid diagnostic test and treatment of those who are positive (IST) at routine antenatal clinic attendances is as effective and as safe as SP-IPTp in pregnant women.
Routine use of ancillary investigations in staging diffuse large B-cell lymphoma improves the International Prognostic Index (IPI)
Dipti Talaulikar, Bruce Shadbolt, Jane E Dahlstrom, Anne McDonald
Journal of Hematology & Oncology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-2-49
Abstract: Bone marrow trephines of 156 histologically proven DLBCL cases at initial diagnosis were assessed on routine histology, and immunohistochemistry using two T-cell markers (CD45RO and CD3), two B-cell markers (CD20 and CD79a) and kappa and lambda light chains. Raw flow cytometry data on all samples were reanalysed and reinterpreted blindly. DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy samples was used for immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene rearrangement analysis. Using immunophenotyping (flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry), 30 (19.2%) cases were upstaged to stage IV. A further 8 (5.1%) cases were upstaged using molecular studies. A change in IPI was noted in 18 cases (11.5%) on immunophenotyping alone, and 22 (14.1%) cases on immunophenotyping and molecular testing. Comparison of two revised IPI models, 1) using immunophenotyping alone, and 2) using immunophenotyping with molecular studies, was performed with baseline IPI using a Cox regression model. It showed that the revised IPI model using immunophenotyping provides the best differentiation between the IPI categories.Improved bone marrow staging using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry improves the predictive value of the IPI in patients with DLBCL and should be performed routinely in all cases.Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a heterogeneous entity, encompassing morphologic and genetic variants, and variable clinical presentations and outcomes [1]. It accounts for 80% of all aggressive lymphomas [1]. The median long-term overall survival in DLBCL is only ~40-50% [2] with variable outcomes depending on pre-treatment clinical and laboratory characteristics [3].The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is a standard clinical tool that is widely used to predict outcome for patients with aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), including DLBCL. It uses a number of clinical and laboratory markers present at the time of diagno
Performance of the OptiMAL® dipstick in the diagnosis of malaria infection in pregnancy
Harry Tagbor,Jane Bruce,Edmund Browne,Brian Greenwood
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2008,
Abstract: Harry Tagbor1, Jane Bruce2, Edmund Browne1, Brian Greenwood2, Daniel Chandramohan21Department of Community Health, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: The accuracy of OptiMAL dipsticks was compared with that of microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria infection in pregnancy. During the course of a clinical trial of antimalarial drugs in pregnancy, we screened 4500 pregnant women of all parities who accessed antenatal clinic services at St. Theresa’s Hospital’s in Nkoranza, Ghana, between March 2003 and December 2004 with OptiMAL dipsticks and confi rmed the diagnosis of malaria with microscopy. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the OptiMAL antigen test compared to microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria infection in pregnancy. OptiMAL dipsticks had a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 85.4%, a positive predictive value of 92.7%, a negative predictive value of 92.6%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.91 (95% CI of 0.90–0.92). The diagnostic accuracy of the OptiMAL dipstick is high and the test may have practical use in the diagnosis of malaria infection in pregnancy in malaria endemic countries.Keywords: malaria, diagnosis, pregnancy, OptiMAL dipstick, microscopy
Cost Implications of Improving Malaria Diagnosis: Findings from North-Eastern Tanzania
Jacklin F. Mosha,Lesong Conteh,Fabrizio Tediosi,Samwel Gesase,Jane Bruce,Daniel Chandramohan,Roly Gosling
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008707
Abstract: Over diagnosis of malaria contributes to improper treatment, wastage of drugs and resistance to the few available drugs. This paper attempts to estimate the rates of over diagnosis of malaria among children attending dispensaries in rural Tanzania and examines the potential cost implications of improving the quality of diagnosis.
Acceptability and effectiveness of opportunistic referral of smokers to telephone cessation advice from a nurse: a randomised trial in Australian general practice
Jane M Young, Seham Girgis, Tracey A Bruce, Melissa Hobbs, Jeanette E Ward
BMC Family Practice , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-9-16
Abstract: Adult smokers (n = 318) attending 30 GPs in South Western Sydney, Australia were randomly allocated to usual care or referral to a telephone-based program comprising assessment and stage-based behavioural advice, written information and follow-up delivered by a nurse. Self-reported point prevalence abstinence at six and 12 months was compared between groups. Characteristics of patients who accepted and completed the intervention were investigated.Of 169 smokers randomised to the intervention, 76 (45%) consented to referral. Compared with smokers in 'pre-contemplation', those further along the stage-of-change continuum were significantly more likely to consent (p = 0.003). Those further along the continuum also were significantly more likely to complete all four calls of the intervention (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 0.8–8.1 and OR 8.6, 95% CI: 1.7–44.4 for 'contemplation' and 'preparation' respectively). At six months, there was no significant difference between groups in point prevalence abstinence (intention to treat) (9% versus 8%, p = 0.7). There was no evidence of differential intervention effectiveness by baseline stage-of-change (p = 0.6) or patient sex (p = 0.5). At 12 months, point prevalence abstinence in the intervention and control groups was 8% and 6% respectively (p = 0.6).Acceptance of opportunistic referral for nurse delivered telephone cessation advice was low. This trial did not demonstrate improved quit rates following the intervention. Future research efforts might better focus support for those patients who are motivated to quit.ACTRN012607000091404Australian general practice provides a unique setting for the provision of smoking cessation advice as over 80% of the population visits a general practitioner (GP) in any given year [1]. An 'opportunistic' approach to cessation advice in which smoking is discussed with every patient, irrespective of the reason for the consultation, has the potential to reach a large number of smokers in the community [2]. Despite
Who attends antenatal care and expanded programme on immunization services in Chad, Mali and Niger? the implications for insecticide-treated net delivery
Meredith Carlson, Lucy Smith Paintain, Jane Bruce, Jayne Webster, Jo Lines
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-341
Abstract: Data from Chad, Mali and Niger demographic and health surveys (DHS) were analyzed to determine risk factors for attending neither service. A conceptual framework for preventative health care-seeking behaviour was created to illustrate the hierarchical relationships between the potential risk factors. The independence of attending both ANC and EPI was investigated. A multivariate model of predictors for non-attendance was developed using logistic regression.ANC and EPI attendance were found to be strongly associated in all three countries. However, 47% of mothers in Chad, 12% in Mali and 36% in Niger did not attend either ANC or EPI. Region, mother's education and partner's education were predictors of non-attendance in all three countries. Wealth index, ethnicity, and occupation were associated with non-attendance in Mali and Niger. Other predictors included religion, healthcare autonomy, household size and number of children under five.Attendance of ANC and EPI are not independent and therefore the majority of pregnant women in these countries will have the opportunity to receive ITNs through both services. Although attendance at ANC and EPI are not independent, delivery through both systems may still add incrementally to delivery through one alone. Therefore, there is potential to increase the proportion of women and children receiving ITNs by delivering through both of these channels. However, modelling is required to determine the level of attendance and incremental potential at which it's cost effective to deliver through both services.An estimated 3.4 billion people globally are at risk of malaria with approximately 243 million cases and one million deaths annually [1]. Eighty-five percent of malaria cases and 90% of malaria deaths occur in Africa, with pregnant women and children under five years being especially at risk [1]. The sixth United Nations Millennium Development Goal aims to fight malaria, with a target of halving the incidence by 2015. One measure
Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock
Bernadette Hensen, Lucy Paintain, Rima Shretta, Jane Bruce, Caroline Jones, Jayne Webster
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-218
Abstract: A systematic search of published literature was conducted. Findings were collated and data extracted on proportion of patients prescribed ACT and alternative anti-malarials in the presence and absence of ACT stock.Of the 14 studies identified in which ACT prescription for uncomplicated malaria in the public sector was evaluated, just six, from three countries (Kenya, Uganda and Zambia), reported this in the context of ACT stock. Comparing facilities with ACT stock to facilities without stock (i) ACT prescribing was significantly higher in all six studies, increasing by a range of 21.3% in children < 5 yrs weighing ≥ 5 kg (p < 0.001; Kenya 2006) to 51.7% in children ≥ 10 kg (p < 0.001; Zambia 2006); (ii) SP prescribing decreased significantly in five studies, by a range of 14.4% (p < 0.001; Kenya 2006), to 46.3% (p < 0.001; Zambia 2006); (iii) Where quinine was a reported alternative, prescriptions decreased in five of the six studies by 0.1% (p = 1.0, Kenya 2010) to 10.2% (p < 0.001; Zambia 2006). At facilities with no ACT stock on the survey day, the proportion of febrile patients prescribed ACT was < 10% in five of the nine target groups included in the six studies, with the proportion prescribed ACT ranging from 0 to 28.4% (Uganda 2007).Prescriber practices vary based on ACT availability. Although ACT prescriptions increased and alternative anti-malarials prescriptions decreased in the presence of ACT stock, ACT was prescribed in the absence, and alternative anti-malarials were prescribed in the presence of, ACT. Presence of stock alone does not ensure that treatment guidelines are followed. More health facility surveys, together with qualitative research, are needed to understand the role of ACT stock-outs on provider prescribing behaviours and preferences.Despite progress in malaria control due to the availability of effective tools for treatment and prevention, access to interventions remains inequitable in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 90% of the mal
Health worker performance in the management of paediatric fevers following in-service training and exposure to job aids in Kenya
Beatrice Wasunna, Dejan Zurovac, Jane Bruce, Caroline Jones, Jayne Webster, Robert W Snow
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-261
Abstract: An evaluation of the intervention using pre- and post-intervention cross sectional health facility surveys was conducted in Bondo district. The surveys included: audit of government health facilities, health worker structured interviews and exit interviews with caretakers of sick children below five years of age. The outcome indicators were the proportions of febrile children who had AL prescribed, AL dispensed, and four different dispensing and counseling tasks performed.At baseline 33 government health facilities, 48 health workers and 386 febrile child consultations were evaluated. At follow-up the same health facilities were surveyed and 36 health workers and 390 febrile child consultations evaluated. The findings show: 1) no health facility or health worker was exposed to all components of the intervention; 2) the proportion of health workers who received the enhanced in-service training was 67%; 3) the proportion of febrile children with uncomplicated malaria treated with the first-line anti-malarial drug, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), at health facilities where AL was in stock increased from 76.9% (95%CI: 69.4, 83.1) to 87.6% (95% CI: 82.5, 91.5); 4) there were modest but non-significant improvements in dispensing and counseling practices; and 5) when the analyses were restricted to health workers who received the enhanced in-service training and/or had received new guidelines and job aids, no significant improvements in reported case-management tasks were observed compared to baseline.In-service training and provision of job aids alone may not be adequate to improve the prescribing, dispensing and counseling tasks necessary to change malaria case-management practices and the inclusion of supervision and post-training follow-up should be considered in future clinical practice change initiatives.By 2009, every country in Africa had transitioned to new, effective artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to manage uncomplicated malaria. Despite efforts to exp
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