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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 470548 matches for " Jane A Scott "
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Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding
Jane A. Scott,Tsz Ying Chih,Wendy H. Oddy
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4101464
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS ( p < 0.001) and FVVS ( p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS ( p < 0.001) and FVVS ( p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS ( p = 0.003) and FVVS ( p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety.
Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study
Chelsea E Mauch, Jane A Scott, Anthea M Magarey, Lynne A Daniels
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-7
Abstract: In total, 670 Australian first-time mothers recruited as part of the NOURISH trial completed a questionnaire regarding infant feeding and pacifier use.Pacifiers were introduced by 79% of mothers, of whom 28.7% were advised to use a pacifier by their mother/mother-in-law with a further 22.7% being advised by a midwife. The majority of mothers used a pacifier in order to soothe their infant (78.3%), to help put them to sleep (57.4%) and to keep them comforted and quiet (40.4%). Pacifiers given to infants before four weeks (adjHR 3.67; 95%CI 2.14-6.28) and used most days (adjHR 3.28; 95%CI 1.92-5.61) were significantly associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding.This study identifies an opportunity for educating new mothers and their support network, particularly their infant's grandmothers, with regards to potential risks associated with the early and frequent use of a pacifier, and alternative methods for soothing their infant, in order to reduce the use of pacifiers and their potentially negative effect on breastfeeding duration.Breastfeeding is known to be the ideal form of infant nutrition, not only because of its direct nutritional benefits to the infant, but also for its immune-protective and numerous other physiological benefits to the infant and mother [1,2]. In Australia, results of the 2004-2005 National Health Survey indicate that while 87.8% of mothers initiated breastfeeding, only half of infants (50.4%) were being breastfed to some extent at 6 months of age [3]. Pacifier use has been shown to have a strong negative association with decreased exclusive and overall breastfeeding duration [4,5]. The early introduction of a pacifier rather than pacifier use per se appears to be strongly associated with shortened duration of breastfeeding. One of few randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating this association reported a shorter overall breastfeeding duration in infants introduced to the pacifier by four weeks compared to those introduced from five
Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait
Manal Dashti, Jane A Scott, Christine A Edwards, Mona Al-Sughayer
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-5-7
Abstract: A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding.In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery.The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers in Kuwait.There is an ever increasing volume of evidence highlighting the importance of breastfeeding in infancy and later life. International recommendations promote exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life [1]. Studying breastfeeding practices in women is important to identify those population groups most likely to not breastfeed and to identify and understand their reasons fo
The Effect of Virus-Blocking Wolbachia on Male Competitiveness of the Dengue Vector Mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Michal Segoli ,Ary A. Hoffmann,Jane Lloyd,Gavin J. Omodei,Scott A. Ritchie
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003294
Abstract: Background The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia blocks the transmission of dengue virus by its vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, and is currently being evaluated for control of dengue outbreaks. Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that results in the developmental failure of offspring in the cross between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. This increases the relative success of infected females in the population, thereby enhancing the spread of the beneficial bacterium. However, Wolbachia spread via CI will only be feasible if infected males are sufficiently competitive in obtaining a mate under field conditions. We tested the effect of Wolbachia on the competitiveness of A. aegypti males under semi-field conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In a series of experiments we exposed uninfected females to Wolbachia-infected and uninfected males simultaneously. We scored the competitiveness of infected males according to the proportion of females producing non-viable eggs due to incompatibility. We found that infected males were equally successful to uninfected males in securing a mate within experimental tents and semi-field cages. This was true for males infected by the benign wMel Wolbachia strain, but also for males infected by the virulent wMelPop (popcorn) strain. By manipulating male size we found that larger males had a higher success than smaller underfed males in the semi-field cages, regardless of their infection status. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that Wolbachia infection does not reduce the competitiveness of A. aegypti males. Moreover, the body size effect suggests a potential advantage for lab-reared Wolbachia-males during a field release episode, due to their better nutrition and larger size. This may promote Wolbachia spread via CI in wild mosquito populations and underscores its potential use for disease control.
Predictors of the early introduction of solid foods in infants: results of a cohort study
Jane A Scott, Colin W Binns, Kathleen I Graham, Wendy H Oddy
BMC Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-60
Abstract: Subjects were 519 participants in the second longitudinal Perth Infant Feeding Study (PIFS II) recruited from two maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia in 2002/3. Data collected prior to, or shortly after discharge from hospital, and at 4, 10, 16, 22, 32, 40 and 52 weeks postpartum included timing of the introduction of solid foods and a variety of maternal and infant characteristics associated with the introduction of solid foods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify those factors associated with the risk of introducing solid foods early, which for the purposes of this study was defined as being before 17 weeks.The median age of introduction of solid foods was 17.6 weeks. In total, 44% of infants had received solids before 17 weeks and 93% of infants had received their first solids before 26 weeks of age. The strongest independent predictors of the early introduction of solids were young maternal age, mother smoking prior to pregnancy and not fully breastfeeding at 4 weeks postpartum. In general, mothers introduced solids earlier than recommended because they perceived their baby to either need them or be ready for them.This study showed a high level of non-compliance among Australian mothers with the infant feeding recommendation related to the timing of solids that was current at the time. In order to improve compliance health professionals need to be aware of those groups least likely to comply with recommendations and their reasons for non-compliance. Infant feeding recommendations need to be evidence-based, uniformly supported by professionals and widely, clearly and consistently articulated if higher rates of compliance are to be achieved in the future.Since 2001 the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that infants be exclusively breastfed for 6 months and that complementary foods, including solid foods, be introduced thereafter. The current WHO infant feeding recommendations have the primary aim of reducing morbidity in
Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study
Amit Arora, Jane A Scott, Sameer Bhole, Loc Do, Eli Schwarz, Anthony S Blinkhorn
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-28
Abstract: This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence.This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.Dental caries (decay) is one of the most prevalent chronic childhood diseases worldwide and is a major problem both from a population health perspective and for individual families who have to deal with a young child suffering from toothache [1-3]. In 1996, 39 percent of Australian 6 year-old children had dental caries [4,5], and since that time caries experience in Australian children in all States and Territories has increased [5,6]. The 2002 Child Dental Health Survey of Australia reported that 45 percent of 5-year-olds had one or more decayed or missing teeth and 10 percent of those children examined were found to have more than seven decayed teeth [7]. Local data from the Centre for Oral Health Strategy (NSW Health) indicates that despite water fluoridation, dental caries is a major public health
Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management: A prospective cohort study in Glasgow
Jane A Scott, Michele Robertson, Julie Fitzpatrick, Christopher Knight, Sally Mulholland
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-3-21
Abstract: A longitudinal study of 420 breastfeeding women was undertaken in Glasgow in 2004/05. Participants were recruited and completed a baseline questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice they received from health professionals.In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from the affected breast or to discontinue breastfeeding altogether.Approximately one in six women is likely to experience one or more episodes of mastitis whilst breastfeeding. A small but clinically important proportion of women continue to receive inappropriate management advice from health professionals which, if followed, could lead them to unnecessarily deprive their infants prematurely of the known nutritional and immunological benefits of breast milk.Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that can adversely affect mothers in their efforts to breastfeed their babies [1,2]. Despite being a relatively common complication of lactation, surprisingly few studies documenting the incidence of, and risk factors for, the condition have been reported. To our knowledge no large longitudinal study of mastitis has been conducted in the UK in recent times. Observational studies conducted in the USA [3], Finland [4] New Zealand [5] and Australia [6,7] suggest however, that up to 20–25% of breastfeeding women will develop mastitis during the course of lactation and approximately 20–35% of women who develop mastitis will experience recurrent episodes [5-8].In some studies, mastitis has been associated with the premature cessation of breas
Breastfeeding duration in mothers who express breast milk: a cohort study
Nwet N Win, Colin W Binns, Yun Zhao, Jane A Scott, Wendy H Oddy
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-1-28
Abstract: A cohort study of 12 months duration. The mothers were recruited from two public maternity hospitals in Perth, Australia between mid-September 2002 and mid-July 2003. While in hospital, participating mothers completed a questionnaire that included questions on how they were feeding their newborn. Telephone interviews conducted at regular periods monitored changes in infant feeding practices, including expression of breast milk. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to explore the association between breast milk expression and the duration of any breastfeeding.A total of 587 mothers, or 55% of those eligible, participated in the study. Of these 93.5% were breastfeeding at discharge from hospital. Mothers who expressed breast milk (at one or more time periods) were less likely to discontinue any breastfeeding before six months (Relative Risk 0.71, 95% CI 0.52, 0.98) than those who had never expressed milk.This study found that mothers who express breast milk are more likely to breastfeed to six months (any breastfeeding). While further research is required in different cultures to confirm these results, the appropriate use of expressed breast milk may be a means to help mothers to achieve six months of full breastfeeding while giving more lifestyle options.Breastfeeding is the preferred way to feed all infants and expressing breast milk allows mothers to be away intermittently from their infants to exercise lifestyle choices while continuing to breastfeed. A recent cohort study from Perth, Western Australia showed that while the breastfeeding initiation rate was 93%, by six months only 46% of mothers were still breastfeeding [1,2].As in most industrial countries the trend in Australia is for mothers to return to work after having children. The participation rate of women in the Australian work force has increased from 51 to 54% in the decade to year 2000 [3]. The percentage of females in the workforce with children aged 0–4 years increased from 46 to 49% durin
Chips for everyone – developing creativity in engineering and initial teacher education
Jane Magill,Scott Roy
Engineering Education , 2007,
Abstract: This paper reports on a novel method to encourage creative participation in engineering for undergraduate students by involving them in the development of public engagement activities. It presents and evaluates workshops undertaken as part of ‘Chips for everyone’ and its successor ‘Chips with relish’, two projects funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under their Partnerships for Public Engagement (PPE) funding programme. The projects have developed workshops and drop-in events for diverse audiences ranging from school groups to shopping centre customers. The subject focus of the projects is semiconductor technology - a technology that influences the daily lives of everyone and yet is largely unseen. The activities sought to engage, engender interest and promote informed discussion about this technology and about engineering in general. The development method for the activities was innovative and creative, using the complementary skills of research academics and students in both electronic engineering and technology initial teacher education (ITE). Recent developments using this method with external partners in other subjects have also been successful.
A Two-Dimensional Model of the Colonic Crypt Accounting for the Role of the Basement Membrane and Pericryptal Fibroblast Sheath
Sara-Jane Dunn ,Paul L. Appleton,Scott A. Nelson,Inke S. N?thke,David J. Gavaghan,James M. Osborne
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002515
Abstract: The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.
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