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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 343301 matches for " James S Richardson-Bullock "
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Electrical isolation of dislocations in Ge layers on Si(001) substrates through CMOS-compatible suspended structures
Vishal Ajit Shah, Maksym Myronov, Chalermwat Wongwanitwatana, Lewis Bawden, Martin J Prest, James S Richardson-Bullock, Stephen Rhead, Evan H C Parker, Terrance E Whall and David R Leadley
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2012,
Abstract: Suspended crystalline Ge semiconductor structures are created on a Si(001) substrate by a combination of epitaxial growth and simple patterning from the front surface using anisotropic underetching. Geometric definition of the surface Ge layer gives access to a range of crystalline planes that have different etch resistance. The structures are aligned to avoid etch-resistive planes in making the suspended regions and to take advantage of these planes to retain the underlying Si to support the structures. The technique is demonstrated by forming suspended microwires, spiderwebs and van der Pauw cross structures. We finally report on the low-temperature electrical isolation of the undoped Ge layers. This novel isolation method increases the Ge resistivity to 280 Ω cm at 10 K, over two orders of magnitude above that of a bulk Ge on Si(001) layer, by removing material containing the underlying misfit dislocation network that otherwise provides the main source of electrical conduction.
Strain enhanced electron cooling in a degenerately doped semiconductor
M. J. Prest,J. T. Muhonen,M. Prunnila,D. Gunnarsson,V. A. Shah,J. S. Richardson-Bullock,A. Dobbie,M. Myronov,R. J. H. Morris,T. E. Whall,E. H. C. Parker,D. R. Leadley
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3670330
Abstract: Enhanced electron cooling is demonstrated in a strained-silicon/superconductor tunnel junction refrigerator of volume 40 um^3. The electron temperature is reduced from 300 mK to 174 mK, with the enhancement over an unstrained silicon control (300 mK to 258 mK) being attributed to the smaller electron-phonon coupling in the strained case. Modeling and the resulting predictions of silicon-based cooler performance are presented. Further reductions in the minimum temperature are expected if the junction sub-gap leakage and tunnel resistance can be reduced. However, if only tunnel resistance is reduced, Joule heating is predicted to dominate.
Superconducting platinum silicide for electron cooling in silicon
M J Prest,J S Richardson-Bullock,Q T Zhao,J T Muhonen,D Gunnarsson,M Prunnila,V A Shah,T E Whall,E H C Parker,D R Leadley
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2014.09.003
Abstract: We demonstrate electron cooling in silicon using platinum silicide as a superconductor contact to selectively remove the highest energy electrons. The superconducting critical temperature of bulk PtSi is reduced from around 1 K to 0.79 K using a thin film (10 nm) of PtSi, which enhances cooling performance at lower temperatures and enables electron cooling to be demonstrated from 100 mK to 50 mK.
Shapes of dark matter halos
James S. Bullock
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: I present an analysis of the density shapes of dark matter halos in LCDM and LWDM cosmologies. The main results are derived from a statistical sample of galaxy-mass halos drawn from a high resolution LCDM N-body simulation. Halo shapes show significant trends with mass and redshift: low-mass halos are rounder than high mass halos, and, for a fixed mass, halos are rounder at low z. Contrary to previous expectations, which were based on cluster-mass halos and non-COBE normalized simulations, LCDM galaxy-mass halos at z=0 are not strongly flattened, with short to long axis ratios of s = 0.70 +/- 0.17. I go on to study how the shapes of individual halos change when going from a LCDM simulation to a simulation with a warm dark matter power spectrum (LWDM). Four halos were compared, and, on average, the WDM halos are more spherical than their CDM counterparts (s =0.77 compared to s = 0.71). A larger sample of objects will be needed to test whether the trend is significant.
Notes on the Missing Satellites Problem
James S. Bullock
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The Missing Satellites Problem (MSP) broadly refers to the overabundance of predicted Cold Dark Matter (CDM) subhalos compared to satellite galaxies known to exist in the Local Group. The most popular interpretation of the MSP is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The question from that standpoint is to identify the feedback source that makes small halos dark and to identify any obvious mass scale where the truncation in the efficiency of galaxy formation occurs. Among the most exciting developments in near-field cosmology in recent years is the discovery of a new population satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way and M31. Wide field, resolved star surveys have more than doubled the dwarf satellite count in less than a decade, revealing a population of ultrafaint galaxies that are less luminous that some star clusters. For the first time, there are empirical reasons to believe that there really are missing satellite galaxies in the Local Group, lurking just beyond our ability to detect them, or simply inhabiting a region of the sky that has yet to have been surveyed. Both kinematic studies and completeness-correction studies seem to point to a characteristic potential well depth for satellite subhalos that is quite close to the mass scale where photoionization and atomic cooling should limit galaxy formation. Among the more pressing problems associated with this interpretation is to understand the selection biases that limit our ability to detect the lowest mass galaxies. The least massive satellite halos are likely to host stealth galaxies with very-low surface brightness and this may be an important limitation in the hunt for low-mass fossils from the epoch of reionization.
Tilted CDM versus WDM in the Subgalactic Scuffle
James S. Bullock
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Although the currently favored cold dark matter plus cosmological constant model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful on large scales, on subgalactic scales it faces some potentially fatal difficulties; these include over-producing dwarf satellite galaxies and predicting excessive central densities in dark halos. Among the most natural cosmological solutions to these problems is to replace cold dark matter with a warm species (LWDM). The warm component acts to reduce the small-scale power, resulting in fewer galactic subhalos and lower halo central densities. An alternative model with a mild ``tilt'' in the inflationary power spectrum (TLCDM; n =0.9) similarly reduces the central densities of dark halos, although the substructure abundance remains relatively high. Here I argue that because dwarf galaxy formation should be suppressed in the presence of a strong ionizing background, favored LWDM models will generally under-predict the observed abundance of dwarf galaxies. The satellite count for TLCDM fairs much better, as long as the photoionization effect is taken into account. TLCDM provides a more successful alternative to LWDM on subgalactic scales with the added attraction that it relies on only a minor, natural adjustment to the standard framework of CDM.
Faint AGN and the Ionizing Background
Michael Schirber,James S. Bullock
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345662
Abstract: We determine the evolution of the faint, high-redshift, optical luminosity function (LF) of AGN implied by several observationally-motivated models of the ionizing background. Our results depend crucially on whether we use the total ionizing rate measured by the proximity effect technique or the lower determination from the flux decrement distribution of Ly alpha forest lines. Assuming a faint-end LF slope of 1.58 and the SDSS estimates of the bright-end slope and normalization, we find that the LF must break at M_B*=-24.2,-22.3, -20.8 at z=3,4, 5 if we adopt the lower ionization rate and assume no stellar contribution to the background. The break must occur at M_B*=-20.6,-18.7, -18.7 for the proximity effect background estimate. These values brighten by as much as ~2 mag if high-z galaxies contribute to the background with an escape fraction of ionizing photons consistent with recent estimates: f_e=0.16. By comparing to faint AGN searches, we find that the typically-quoted proximity effect estimates of the background imply an over-abundance of faint AGN (even with f_e=1). Even adopting the lower bound on proximity effect measurements, the stellar escape fraction must be high: f_e>0.2. Conversely, the lower flux- decrement-derived background requires a limited stellar contribution: f_e<0.05. Our derived LFs together with the locally-estimated black hole density suggest that the efficiency of converting mass to light in optically-unobscured AGN is somewhat lower than expected, <0.05. Comparison with similar estimates based on X-ray counts suggests that more than half of all AGN are obscured in the UV/optical. We also derive lower limits on typical AGN lifetimes and obtain >10^7 yrs for favored cases.
Dark matter concentrations and a search for cores in Milky Way dwarf satellites
Joe Wolf,James S. Bullock
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We investigate the mass distributions within eight classical Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies (MW dSphs) using an equilibrium Jeans analysis and we compare our results to the mass distributions predicted for subhalos in dissipationless \Lambda CDM simulations. In order to match the dark matter density concentrations predicted, the stars in these galaxies must have a fairly significant tangential velocity dispersion anisotropy (\beta ~-1.5). For the limiting case of an isotropic velocity dispersion (\beta =0), the classical MW dSphs predominantly prefer to live in halos that are less concentrated than \Lambda CDM predictions. We also investigate whether the dSphs prefer to live in halos with constant density cores in the limit of isotropic velocity dispersion. Interestingly, even in this limit, not all of the dSphs prefer large constant-density cores: the Sculptor dSph prefers a cusp while Carina, Draco and Leo I prefer cores. The other four dSphs do not show a statistically significant preference for either cuspy or cored profiles. Finally, we re-examine the hypothesis that the density profiles of these eight MW dSphs can be quantified by a common dark matter halo.
Beacons In the Dark: Using Novae and Supernovae to Detect Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Universe
Charlie Conroy,James S. Bullock
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/805/1/L2
Abstract: We propose that luminous transients, including novae and supernovae, can be used to detect the faintest galaxies in the universe. Beyond a few Mpc, dwarf galaxies with stellar masses $<10^6 M_{\odot}$ will likely be too faint and/or too low in surface brightness to be directly detected in upcoming large area ground-based photometric surveys. However, single epoch LSST photometry will be able to detect novae to distances of $\sim30$ Mpc and SNe to Gpc-scale distances. Depending on the form of the stellar mass-halo mass relation and the underlying star formation histories of low mass dwarfs, the expected nova rates will be a few to $\sim100$ yr$^{-1}$ and the expected SN rates (including both type Ia and core-collapse) will be $\sim10^2-10^4$ within the observable ($4\pi$ sr) volume. The transient rate associated with intrahalo stars will be comparably large, but these transients will be located close to bright galaxies, in contrast to the dwarfs, which should trace the underlying large scale structure of the cosmic web. Aggressive follow-up of hostless transients has the potential to uncover the predicted enormous population of low mass field dwarf galaxies.
Halo Substructure And The Power Spectrum
Andrew R. Zentner,James S. Bullock
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378797
Abstract: (ABRIDGED) We present a semi-analytic model to explore merger histories, destruction rates, and survival probabilities of substructure in dark matter halos and use it to study the substructure populations of galaxy-sized halos as a function of the power spectrum. We successfully reproduce the subhalo velocity function and radial distribution seen in N-body simulations for standard LCDM. We explore the implications of spectra with normalizations and tilts spanning sigma_8 = 0.65-1 and n = 0.8-1. We also study a running index (RI) model with dn/dlnk=-0.03, as discussed in the first year WMAP report, and several WDM models with masses m_W = 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 keV. The substructure mass fraction is relatively insensitive to the tilt and overall normalization of the power spectrum. All CDM-type models yield projected substructure mass fractions that are consistent with, but on the low side of, estimates from strong lens systems: f = 0.4-1.5% (64 percentile) in systems M_sub < 10^9 Msun. Truncated models produce significantly smaller fractions and are disfavored by lensing results. We compare our predicted subhalo velocity functions to the dwarf satellite population of the Milky Way. Assuming isotropic velocity dispersions, we find the standard n=1 model overpredicts the number of MW satellites as expected. Models with less small-scale power are more successful because there are fewer subhalos of a given circular velocity and the mapping between observed velocity dispersion and halo circular velocity is markedly altered. The RI model, or a fixed tilt with sigma_8=0.75, can account for the MW dwarfs without the need for differential feedback; however, these comparisons depend sensitively on the assumption of isotropic velocities in satellite galaxies.
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