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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 218551 matches for " James P. Gilmour "
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A Comparison of Shiga-Toxin 2 Bacteriophage from Classical Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Serotypes and the German E. coli O104:H4 Outbreak Strain
Chad R. Laing, Yongxiang Zhang, Matthew W. Gilmour, Vanessa Allen, Roger Johnson, James E. Thomas, Victor P. J. Gannon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037362
Abstract: Escherichia coli O104:H4 was associated with a severe foodborne disease outbreak originating in Germany in May 2011. More than 4000 illnesses and 50 deaths were reported. The outbreak strain was a typical enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) that acquired an antibiotic resistance plasmid and a Shiga-toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophage. Based on whole-genome phylogenies, the O104:H4 strain was most closely related to other EAEC strains; however, Stx2-bacteriophage are mobile, and do not necessarily share an evolutionary history with their bacterial host. In this study, we analyzed Stx2-bacteriophage from the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak isolates and compared them to all available Stx2-bacteriophage sequences. We also compared Stx2 production by an E. coli O104:H4 outbreak-associated isolate (ON-2011) to that of E. coli O157:H7 strains EDL933 and Sakai. Among the E. coli Stx2-phage sequences studied, that from O111:H- strain JB1-95 was most closely related phylogenetically to the Stx2-phage from the O104:H4 outbreak isolates. The phylogeny of most other Stx2-phage was largely concordant with their bacterial host genomes. Finally, O104:H4 strain ON-2011 produced less Stx2 than E. coli O157:H7 strains EDL933 and Sakai in culture; however, when mitomycin C was added, ON-2011 produced significantly more toxin than the E. coli O157:H7 strains. The Stx2-phage from the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain and the Stx2-phage from O111:H- strain JB1-95 likely share a common ancestor. Incongruence between the phylogenies of the Stx2-phage and their host genomes suggest the recent Stx2-phage acquisition by E. coli O104:H4. The increase in Stx2-production by ON-2011 following mitomycin C treatment may or may not be related to the high rates of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the German outbreak strain. Further studies are required to determine whether the elevated Stx2-production levels are due to bacteriophage or E. coli O104:H4 host related factors.
Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies
Alistair Gilmour,Greg Walkerden,James Scandol
Ecology and Society , 1999,
Abstract: Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1) to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2) to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3) to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water catchments. These projects are examined to evaluate the contribution of the adaptive management approach to water cycle management on the urban fringe in New South Wales. The role of the adaptive management approach in education, as a negotiation process, and in policy formulation and evaluation, is presented. The importance of community participation, the role of an "institutional champion," and the need to manage the lead-up phase and the postworkshop phase with as much attention to detail as the workshop phase is underlined. Proposed prerequisites for a successful adaptive management project are developed along these lines.
Enhanced Mass Transfer in Microbubble Driven Airlift Bioreactor for Microalgal Culture  [PDF]
Kezhen Ying, Mahmood K. H. Al-Mashhadani, James O. Hanotu, William B. Zimmerman, Daniel J. Gilmour
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.59088
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of microfluidic microbubbles on overall gas-liquid mass transfer (CO2 dissolution and O2 removal) was investigated under five different flow rates. The effect of different liquid substrate on CO2 mass transfer properties was also tested. The results showed that the KLa can be enhanced by either increasing the dosing flowrate or reducing the bubble size; however, increasing the flow rate to achieve a higher KLa would ultimately lower the CO2 capture efficiency. In order to achieve both higher CO2 mass transfer rate and capture efficiency, reducing bubble size (e.g. using microbubbles) has been proved more promising than increasing flow rate. Microbubble dosing with 5% CO2 gas showed improved KLa by 30% - 100% across different flow rates, compared to fine-bubble dosing. In the real algal culture medium, there appears to be two distinct stages in terms of KLa, divided by the pH of 8.4.

The distribution of AGN in a large sample of galaxy clusters
R. Gilmour,P. Best,O. Almaini
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14161.x
Abstract: We present an analysis of the X-ray point source populations in 182 Chandra images of galaxy clusters at z>0.1 with exposure time >10 ksec, as well as 44 non-cluster fields. Analysis of the number and flux of these sources, using a detailed pipeline to predict the distribution of non-cluster sources in each field, reveals an excess of X-ray point sources associated with the galaxy clusters. A sample of 148 galaxy clusters at 0.1
Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast
Conrad W. Speed, Russ C. Babcock, Kevin P. Bancroft, Lynnath E. Beckley, Lynda M. Bellchambers, Martial Depczynski, Stuart N. Field, Kim J. Friedman, James P. Gilmour, Jean-Paul A. Hobbs, Halina T. Kobryn, James A. Y. Moore, Christopher D. Nutt, George Shedrawi, Damian P. Thomson, Shaun K. Wilson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069863
Abstract: Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (~28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.
Unprecedented Mass Bleaching and Loss of Coral across 12° of Latitude in Western Australia in 2010–11
James A. Y. Moore, Lynda M. Bellchambers, Martial R. Depczynski, Richard D. Evans, Scott N. Evans, Stuart N. Field, Kim J. Friedman, James P. Gilmour, Thomas H. Holmes, Rachael Middlebrook, Ben T. Radford, Tyrone Ridgway, George Shedrawi, Heather Taylor, Damian P. Thomson, Shaun K. Wilson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051807
Abstract: Background Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010–11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA). Methodology/Principal Findings Extreme La-Ni?a conditions caused extensive warming of waters and drove considerable storminess and cyclonic activity across WA from October 2010 to May 2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature measurements recorded anomalies of up to 5°C above long-term averages. Benthic surveys quantified the extent of bleaching at 10 locations across four regions from tropical to temperate waters. Bleaching was recorded in all locations across regions and ranged between 17% (±5.5) in the temperate Perth region, to 95% (±3.5) in the Exmouth Gulf of the tropical Ningaloo region. Coincident with high levels of bleaching, three cyclones passed in close proximity to study locations around the time of peak temperatures. Follow-up surveys revealed spatial heterogeneity in coral cover change with four of ten locations recording significant loss of coral cover. Relative decreases ranged between 22%–83.9% of total coral cover, with the greatest losses in the Exmouth Gulf. Conclusions/Significance The anomalous thermal stress of 2010–11 induced mass bleaching of corals along central and southern WA coral reefs. Significant coral bleaching was observed at multiple locations across the tropical-temperate divide spanning more than 1200 km of coastline. Resultant spatially patchy loss of coral cover under widespread and high levels of bleaching and cyclonic activity, suggests a degree of resilience for WA coral communities. However, the spatial extent of bleaching casts some doubt over hypotheses suggesting that future impacts to coral reefs under forecast warming regimes may in part be mitigated by southern thermal refugia.
Multiscale Autoregressive Identification of Neuroelectrophysiological Systems
Timothy P. Gilmour,Thyagarajan Subramanian,Constantino Lagoa,W. Kenneth Jenkins
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/580795
Abstract: Electrical signals between connected neural nuclei are difficult to model because of the complexity and high number of paths within the brain. Simple parametric models are therefore often used. A multiscale version of the autoregressive with exogenous input (MS-ARX) model has recently been developed which allows selection of the optimal amount of filtering and decimation depending on the signal-to-noise ratio and degree of predictability. In this paper, we apply the MS-ARX model to cortical electroencephalograms and subthalamic local field potentials simultaneously recorded from anesthetized rodent brains. We demonstrate that the MS-ARX model produces better predictions than traditional ARX modeling. We also adapt the MS-ARX results to show differences in internuclei predictability between normal rats and rats with 6OHDA-induced parkinsonism, indicating that this method may have broad applicability to other neuroelectrophysiological studies.
Inhibition of NFκB by the natural product Withaferin A in cellular models of Cystic Fibrosis inflammation
Rangan Maitra, Melissa A Porter, Shan Huang, Brian P Gilmour
Journal of Inflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-6-15
Abstract: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common lethal autosomal recessive diseases in humans. It is caused by mutations within a single gene, coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein (reviewed in [1]). Loss of lung function causes over 90% of all CF deaths [2,3], which is brought about by chronic bacterial infections involving drug-resistant pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus [3-5] among others. Chronic and uncontrolled stimulation of cellular signaling by bacterial products through toll-like receptors (TLRs) lead to hyper-activation of the transcription factor NFκB and over-expression of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines [6-8]. Consequently, an overwhelming number of neutrophils and macrophages are attracted to the site of infection and these cells release proteases and other agents that cause structural damage to the airways. Anti-inflammatory agents are used to manage lung inflammation in CF, but have adverse effects [9] that limit their use. Thus, there is a need to identify drugs with limited toxicity to treat lung inflammation in CF [10].Screening of natural products with purported anti-inflammatory activity led us to Withaferin A (WFA), a steroidal lactone isolated from the herb Withania somnifera (also known as Indian Ginseng and Ashwagandha), which is widely used in traditional Indian medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent [11]. Recent reports indicate that this natural product is an inhibitor of NFκB activity [12,13]. The overall goal of this study was to characterize the effect of this compound on NFκB in cellular models of CF-related inflammation. In our studies, filtrates of PA isolated from a CF patient were used. This is an established method to experimentally induce inflammation in the field of CF research and is relevant to airway inflammation noted in patients [14,15]. Inflammation in CF is caused by a complex mixture of bacterial products
In Profile - John E Gerich
Martin Gilmour
Diabetic Hypoglycemia , 2009,
Abstract:
Webwatch - Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), www.jdrf.org.uk
Martin Gilmour
Diabetic Hypoglycemia , 2009,
Abstract:
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