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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 237090 matches for " James C. Hannon "
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Physical activity and dietary behaviors of health clinic workers trying to lose weight  [PDF]
Tan Leng Goh, Trever Ball, Janet M. Shaw, James C. Hannon
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48079
Abstract: Health clinic workers are potential agents of change for weight loss to patients, yet their behaviors are not well known. This study examined physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits of health clinic workers who were and who were not trying to lose weight. Participants were 64 community health clinic workers (58 females and 6 males). Moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVI) time spent in PA was assessed by triaxial accelerometry over 7 consecutive days. Dietary habits and weight loss efforts were determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Differences in MVI and nutrition variables were assessed by One-way ANOVA, comparing those trying to lose weight and those not trying to lose weight. 48 out of 64 health clinic workers (approximately 75%) indicated that they were currently trying to lose weight. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in Body Mass Index (BMI), daily energy (Kcal) and fat (g) intake between those trying to lose weight and those not trying to lose weight. There were no significant differences in MVI, daily sugar intake (g), vegetable and fruit servings, and daily fiber intake (g) between groups. Health clinic workers trying to lose weight appear to be engaging in some appropriate dietary but not PA behaviors.
Youth Physical Activity and Enjoyment during Semi-Structured versus Unstructured School Recess  [PDF]
Jessyka N. Larson, Timothy A. Brusseau, Benjamin Chase, Angela Heinemann, James C. Hannon
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48072
Abstract:

Background: Physical activity throughout the school day may help reduce the risk of childhood obesity. Semi-structured recess is a unique approach to create more physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and enjoyment of urban school children during traditional unstructured recess and semi-structured recess. Method: Children from the Southwestern US (N = 165) wore a NL-1000 piezoelectric accelerometer during their 15-minute lunch recess. Children participated in both their traditional unstructured (no structure and no equipment) recess and semi-structured (organized games and equipment) recess. An enjoyment scale was completed after both types of recess formats. Results: During unstructured recess, children accumulated 1028 ± 356 steps and 4.59 ± 2.2 minutes of MVPA compared to 1156 ± 434 steps and 5.44 ± 2.76 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during semi-structured recess. Paired sample t-tests revealed that children took significantly more steps (t = 4.98; p < 0.001) and MVPA (t = 5.940; p < 0.001) during semi-structured recess. No significant differences were found for enjoyment (p = 0.847) between recesses. Conclusions: It is important for schools to consider creative, semi-structured recess opportunities to increase step counts and time in MVPA (while maintaining

Concurrent and Criterion-Referenced Validity of Trunk Muscular Fitness Tests in School-Aged Children  [PDF]
Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Gregory J. Welk
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.42007
Abstract:

A cause of limited physical activity levels in youth is the presence of low back pain (LBP), therefore proper assessment of low back function in physical education settings is needed to identify children who may be at risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent and criterion-referenced validity of field tests of low back and core muscular endurance in school-aged children. The sample consisted of 4th through 10th grade students (N = 370) who completed low back and core muscular fitness tests on four separate testing days during their physical education classes. Field measures related to low back function included the Box 90° Trunk Extension (Box 90°) and the FITNESSGRAM Trunk Extension (FG-TE). Field measures related to overall core function consisted of a Lateral Plank, Prone Plank, and a Static and Dynamic Curl-up. Criterion measures of low-back muscular endurance included the Parallel Roman Chair Dynamic Trunk Extension (PRC-DTE) and the Parallel Roman Chair Static Trunk Extension (PRC-STE). Multivariate analysis using canonical correlations showed moderate correlations between low back and core measures (P < .001). The Lateral Plank, Prone Plank, and Dynamic Curl-up had moderate-to-strong canonical cross-loadings with the low back measure variate. The FG-TE displayed an insignificant canonical coefficient, and weak canonical loadings and cross-loadings. Measures of overall core function also significantly agreed with the criterion measures in classifying students into ranked tertile groups (P < .001). These results suggest that assessment of specific low back muscular function can be easily evaluated using tests of overall core muscular endurance as an alternative to the FG-TE in physical education settings.

Associations between Health-Related Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Blood Profiles in Low-Income Children  [PDF]
Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau, You Fu, James C. Hannon
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.59041
Abstract: Children from low-income families have a higher incidence for developing early onset cardio-metabolic disease risk factors. Optimal levels of health-related fitness may attenuate risk, but little research has examined its relationships with individual cardio-metabolic blood markers in low-income children. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of unfavorable cardio-metabolic blood profiles in children from low-income families. Data were collected and analyzed on 124 children (mean age = 10.4 ± 0.9 years; 57 girls, 67 boys; 97% Hispanic) recruited from three urban Title I schools from the state of Utah in the US Health-related fitness. Measures were collected using the validated FITNESSGRAM fitness test battery. The Cholestech LDX system was used to analyze students’ total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TRI), and blood glucose (BG). Capillary blood samples via finger sticks were collected while each student was in a fasted state before school hours. Unfavorable measurements were defined as TC ≥ 200 mg/dL, LDL ≥ 130 mg/dL, HDL < 40 mg/dL, TRI > 150 mg/dL, and BG ≥ 100 mg/dL (pre-diabetes). Approximately 5.3% of the total sample had unfavorable TC, 16.7% had unfavorable HDL, 16.0% had unfavorable LDL, 15.2% had unfavorable TRI, and 25.4% had unfavorable BG (pre-diabetes). Pearson’s chi-square tests revealed no significant differences between sexes on any unfavorable classification after alpha level adjustment (p > 0.01). When all parameters were analyzed as continuous variables, Spearman’s rank correlation revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between aerobic fitness and LDL in boys (rs = -?0.65, p < 0.01), between BMI and HDL in girls (rs = - 0.46, p < 0.01), and between BMI and BG in girls (rs = 0.56, p < 0.01). Aerobic fitness relates to LDL cholesterol in low-income boys and BMI relates to HDL cholesterol and BG in low-income girls.
Fit “n” Cool Kids: Effects of Peer-Modeling and Goal Setting on Physical Activity  [PDF]
Jessyka N. Larson, Timothy A. Brusseau, Maria M. Newton, Stuart J. Fairclough, Heidi Wengreen, James C. Hannon
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2018.84008
Abstract: Background: Decreasing the risk of overweight and obesity from an early age is imperative and efforts should focus on fostering children’s physical activity (PA). Within school-based interventions, there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of the use of character peer-modeling and goal setting to increase physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a school-based intervention on PA and enjoyment of PA in grades 3 - 5 elementary school age children at two urban elementary schools. Methods: Participants were 95 students of 8 - 10 years old; activity monitors were used to assess physical activity. Daily physical activity and enjoyment was recorded at baseline, intervention, and at a 6-school-week follow-up. Results: PA significantly increased in the intervention school averaging 5549 steps at baseline, 5889 steps during the intervention, and 6515 during follow-up (p < 0.05). Participants significantly increased their moderate to vigorous physical activity from 28.54 min at baseline to 30.06 minutes at week 4 and 36.45 during follow-up (p < 0.05). There was no change in enjoyment levels from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: The Fit “n” Cool Kids intervention presents the potential of peer-modeling and goal setting for increasing PA at school. Continued interventions in schools may positively influence children’s healthy living patterns.
Future Intent to Run and Running Performance of Students Exposed to a Traditional versus an Autonomy Supportive Motivational Running Program
Andrea Silva,James C. Hannon,Barry Shultz,Leslie Podlog
Psychiatry Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/471657
Abstract: Background. The study's primary purpose was to investigate whether an autonomy supportive motivational climate in a running program would increase future running intent among high school students. A secondary purpose was to examine whether the program would increase individual performance in the Cooper 12-minute run. Methods. Students participated in a 4-month running intervention program which included four timed runs, one per month, and a future intent questionnaire prior to the start of the timed runs and following the last run. Results. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA revealed significance regarding future intent ( ) at both schools. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA indicated differences between the runs at both schools ( ). Paired samples -tests were conducted to look at significance with paired runs. Results revealed significance in two of the six pairs at the treatment school, notably between the first and last timed runs ( ). Only one pair was found to be significant ( ) with the control school. Conclusion. At both schools, the overall number of laps increased as well as future intent to run scores. The results do not support evidence of a greater effect from the autonomy supportive environment over a traditional environment. 1. Introduction Since the 1970s the prevalence of obesity among adolescents in the US has doubled and it has more than tripled among children aged 6–11 [1]. In fact, one out of every six individuals aged 2–19 are obese in the US [2]. Obesity in childhood and adolescence increases risks of developing cardiovascular disease, orthopedic issues, and psychosocial problems [3]. In an effort to reduce the prevalence of obesity and associated health problems among youth, many schools have begun implementing running programs [4]. Running has been recommended by governmental agencies, including the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as professional organizations such as the American Alliance for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance as an integral element in physical education (PE) curricula across all levels of schooling [5]. Running has many health enhancing benefits including the prevention and management of diabetes and heart attacks, lowering blood pressure, and enhancing weight loss. Running also improves bone health and coordination, while boosting the immune system and improving mood [6–8]. Several studies focusing on the outcomes of compulsory running programs at elementary and middle schools have been published [9–14]. However, there has been little research
Cerebral Fat Embolism Syndrome from Penetrating Trauma: A Rare Cause-and-Effect  [PDF]
Stephen J. Gleich,James D. Hannon
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.34052
Abstract: A 42 year-old male sustained an accidental rifle gunshot wound to his left foot, resulting in fracture deformities of the calcaneus, navicular, cuneiform, 1st and 2nd metatarsal bases, and talus. As he was transported to our trauma center, he developed progressive encephalopathy. Urgent external fixator placement under general anesthesia was postponed due to his encephalopathy of unknown etiology. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a “starfield” pattern of infarcts, consistent with cerebral fat embolism syndrome. Subsequently, he underwent uneventful general anesthesia. The patient was managed supportively and continued to have persistent neurologic dysfunction two months after injury.
Cerebral Fat Embolism Syndrome from Penetrating Trauma: A Rare Cause-and-Effect  [PDF]
Stephen J. Gleich, James D. Hannon
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.34052
Abstract:

A 42 year-old male sustained an accidental rifle gunshot wound to his left foot, resulting in fracture deformities of the calcaneus, navicular, cuneiform, 1st and 2nd metatarsal bases, and talus. As he was transported to our trauma center, he developed progressive encephalopathy. Urgent external fixator placement under general anesthesia was postponed due to his encephalopathy of unknown etiology. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a “starfield” pattern of infarcts, consistent with cerebral fat embolism syndrome. Subsequently, he underwent uneventful general anesthesia. The patient was managed supportively and continued to have persistent neurologic dysfunction two months after injury.

Indices of Abdominal Adiposity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Test Performance in Middle-School Students
Ryan Burns,James C. Hannon,Timothy A. Brusseau,Barry Shultz,Patricia Eisenman
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/912460
Abstract: Background. Previous research suggests that use of BMI as a screening tool to assess health in youth has limitations. Valid alternative measures to assess body composition are needed to accurately identify children who are aerobically fit, which is an indicator of health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between select anthropometric measures and cardiorespiratory fitness test performance in middle-school students. Methods. Participants included 134 students (65 boys and 69 girls) recruited from the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Anthropometric measures consisted of BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and percent body fat estimated from two-site skinfolds (%BF-SKF), as well as the hand-held OMRON BIA device (%BF-BIA). Cardiorespiratory fitness tests included the one-mile run and PACER test. Data were collected on four separate testing days during the students’ physical education classes. Results. There were statistically significant moderate correlations between the %BF estimations, WHtR, and cardiorespiratory fitness test scores in both genders . BMI at best only displayed weak correlations with the cardiorespiratory fitness test scores. Conclusions. The results suggest that alternative measures such as %BF-SKF, %BF-BIA, and WHtR may be more valid indicators of youth aerobic fitness lending to their preferred use over BMI. 1. Introduction The current pediatric obesity epidemic manifests concerns for adverse cardiovascular risk factors among overweight youth. However, Eisenmann et al. [1], using body mass index (BMI) as the marker of adiposity, found that youth in both the low- and high-BMI categories were associated with a more favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-factor profile than individuals whose BMIs were in the “healthy” range. This paradox leads to a significant issue in assessing health and fitness in youth when using BMI. Research has also suggested that along with body composition, aerobic fitness must also be considered to accurately assess health status in a population. Lee et al. [2] found that unfit lean men had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality than fit but overweight men. These findings suggest that fitness offers some protection against CVD risk even if the individual is overweight. Similar results have been reported for the female population [3]. Using skinfold thickness as the measure of body fatness and stratifying youth into high-fat/high-fitness, high-fat/low-fitness, low-fat/high-fitness, and low-fat/low-fitness groups, it was found that
Iatrogenic Left Main Bronchus Injury following Atraumatic Double Lumen Endotracheal Tube Placement
William R. Hartman,Michael Brown,James Hannon
Case Reports in Anesthesiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/524348
Abstract: Tracheobronchial disruption is an uncommon but severe complication of double lumen endotracheal tube placement. The physical properties of a double lumen tube (large external diameter and length) make tracheobronchial injury more common than that associated with smaller single lumen endotracheal tubes. Here we present the case of an iatrogenic left main bronchus injury caused by placement of a double lumen tube in an otherwise unremarkable airway. 1. Introduction Thoracic surgery procedures requiring lung isolation are often performed with the assistance of a double lumen endotracheal tube (DLT). While placement of DLTs is routine and safe in experienced hands, it is not without risk. A rare complication is airway rupture, perhaps due to DLTs having a larger external diameter compared to a single lumen tube and a stiff stylette used for ease of proper endotracheal tube placement [1, 2]. Early recognition of airway rupture, evaluation of the defect, and repair of the airway are critical to optimal patient outcome [3]. Here we present the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented to the operating room for removal of a right upper lobe mass via right thoracotomy. Despite a seemingly atraumatic intubation with a 35-French left double lumen endotracheal tube, a significant tear in her left main bronchus was identified intraoperatively. 2. Case Report A 158?cm, 93?kg (BMI 37.4), 52-year-old woman presented to a tertiary care center for evaluation of a Merkel cell tumor in her right forearm. Wide resection of this forearm tumor and an axillary lymph node dissection were successfully performed. During the course of her evaluation, however, a suspicious mass in her right upper lobe was identified on chest X-ray, and a 2.7 × 2.2 × 2.9?cm hypermetabolic solid nodule in the right apex was confirmed with CT imaging. The patient was asymptomatic. Preoperative pulmonary function tests were normal. Patient was deemed to be optimized for a thoracic surgical procedure and was brought to the operating room. After routine intravenous sedation with Midazolam and Fentanyl, an epidural was placed at the T6-7 vertebral interspace. Patient was returned to the supine position where general anesthesia was induced intravenously with fentanyl, lidocaine, propofol, and succinylcholine. Her airway was secured via direct laryngoscopy (grade one view) and placement of a styleted 35-French left double lumen endotracheal tube without difficulty. Once the tracheal cuff had passed through the cords, the stylette was removed and bilateral breath sounds were confirmed. Proper placement of
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