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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 236878 matches for " James C. Acton "
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Bioavailability of Soy Protein and Corn Zein Films  [PDF]
Laura B. Matthews, M. Elizabeth Kunkel, James C. Acton, Amod A. Ogale, Paul L. Dawson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210148
Abstract: The in vivo bioavailability of soy protein isolates and corn zein film material before and after film formation by heat/ pressure was determined. The In vitro digestibility of corn zein before and after film formation was also measured. Films were produced from anhydrous protein with 30% glycerol added using a heat-press method with no use of casting solvents or cross-linking agents. Corn zein raw and film material were ground under liquid nitrogen then digested in two enzyme-acid cocktails with free amino acid analysis before and after digestion. The protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio were determined for both zein and soy protein using a weanling Sprague-Dawley descended rat feeding study. The In vitro digestibility study indicated that the non-heat pressed corn zein was more digestible than the heat pressed zein. However, the in vivo results indicated that corn and soy protein were equally bioavailable whether they were derived from film mixture prior to or after film formation. Both corn zein and soy protein material had lower protein efficiency ratio than the control diet. Furthermore, soy protein films materials had a higher protein efficiency ratio than corn zein.
HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity in central Alabama
James C Barton, Ronald T Acton
BMC Medical Genetics , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-3-9
Abstract: Alleles were detected using DNA-based typing (probands) and microlymphocytotoxicity (controls).Alleles were determined in 139 probands (1,321 controls) and haplotypes in 118 probands (605 controls). In probands, A*03 positivity was 0.7482 (0.2739 controls; p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) 7.9); positivity for B*07, B*14, and B*56 was also increased. In probands, haplotypes A*03-B*07 and A*03-B*14 were more frequent (p < 0.0001, respectively; OR = 12.3 and 11.1, respectively). The haplotypes A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*35, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 were also significantly more frequent in probands. 37.3% of probands were HLA-haploidentical with other proband(s).A*03 and A*03-B*07 frequencies are increased in Alabama probands, as in other hemochromatosis cohorts. Increased absolute frequencies of A*03-B*35 have been reported only in the present Alabama probands and in hemochromatosis patients in Italy. Increased absolute frequencies of A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 in hemochromatosis cohorts have not been reported previously.Hemochromatosis is common among northwestern European peoples and their descendants. This disorder is typically associated with homozygosity for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene (exon 2, nt 845 G→A) on Ch6p [1]. C282Y lies within an ancestral haplotype which includes the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype A*03-B*07 [2-5]. The ancestral haplotype is the predominant hemochromatosis-associated haplotype in many northwestern European countries, including Ireland [6], Brittany [2], Denmark [7,8], Sweden [9], and Germany [10,11]. This is attributed to the origin of the C282Y mutation on an A*03-B*07 haplotype in northwestern Europe and its early dissemination by Vikings [3,12]. Modification of the ancestral chromosome by recombination and admixture as a result of geographic migration explains the occurrence of chromosomes bea
HFE C282Y and H63D in adults with malignancies in a community medical oncology practice
James C Barton, Luigi F Bertoli, Ronald T Acton
BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-6
Abstract: Data from patients with more than one malignancy were analyzed according to each primary malignancy. For the present study, OR ≥2.0 or ≤0.5 was defined to be increased or decreased, respectively.There were 110 primary malignancies (52 hematologic neoplasms, 58 carcinomas) in the 100 adult patients. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls (C282Y: 0.0850 vs. 0.0896, respectively (OR = 0.9); H63D: 0.1400 vs. 0.1447, respectively (OR = 0.9)). Two patients had hemochromatosis and C282Y homozygosity. With C282Y, increased OR occurred in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloproliferative disorders, and adenocarcinoma of prostate (2.0, 2.8, and 3.4, respectively); OR was decreased in myelodysplasia (0.4). With H63D, increased OR occurred in myeloproliferative disorders and adenocarcinomas of breast and prostate (2.4, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively); OR was decreased in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (0.5 and 0.4, respectively).In 100 consecutive adults with malignancy evaluated in a community medical oncology practice, frequencies of HFE C282Y or H63D were similar to those in the general population. This suggests that C282Y or H63D is not associated with an overall increase in cancer risk. However, odds ratios computed in the present study suggest that increased (or decreased) risk for developing specific types of malignancy may be associated with the inheritance of HFE C282Y or H63D. Study of more patients with these specific types of malignancies is needed to determine if trends described herein would remain and yield significant differences.An increased prevalence of certain types of malignancy has been reported in putative hemochromatosis heterozygotes characterized by iron phenotype criteria or family studies [1-4]. However, discovery of the HFE gene on Ch6p and two common hemochromatosis-associated HFE missense mutations C282Y (exon 4; nt 845G→A) and H63D (exon 2; nt 187 C→G) [5] permits definition of hemochromatosis heterozygosity using mo
Effect of Native American ancestry on iron-related phenotypes of Alabama hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity
James C Barton, Ellen H Barton, Ronald T Acton
BMC Medical Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-7-22
Abstract: We compiled observations in these 80 probands and used univariate and multivariate methods to analyze associations of age, sex, Native American ancestry (as a dichotomous variable), report of ethanol consumption (as a dichotomous variable), percentage transferrin saturation and loge serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, quantities of iron removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy.In a univariate analysis in which probands were grouped by sex, there were no significant differences in reports of ethanol consumption, transferrin saturation, loge serum ferritin concentration, quantities of iron removed to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy in probands who reported Native American ancestry than in those who did not. In multivariate analyses, transferrin saturation (as a dependent variable) was not significantly associated with any of the available variables, including reports of Native American ancestry and ethanol consumption. The independent variable quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy was significantly associated with loge serum ferritin used as a dependent variable (p < 0.0001), but not with reports of Native American ancestry or reports of ethanol consumption. Loge serum ferritin was the only independent variable significantly associated with quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy used as a dependent variable (p < 0.0001) (p < 0.0001; ANOVA of regression).We conclude that the iron-related phenotypes of hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity are similar in those with and without Native American ancestry reports.Hemochromatosis associated with homozygosity for HFE C282Y on Ch6p occurs predominantly in whites of western European descent, although the iron-related phenotypes of persons with this type of hemochromatosis are variable. Some C282Y homozygotes, especially those diagnosed in medical care, have serum ferritin >1000 ng/mL,
HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama
James C Barton, Luigi F Bertoli, Ronald T Acton
BMC Medical Genetics , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-4-3
Abstract: Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases) and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls).A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD) and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385), A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308), and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000), and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p < 0.0001, 0.0252, and 0.0011, respectively). After performing Bonferroni corrections, however, the frequency of A*02-B*44 alone was significantly increased in probands (p < 0.0085). Three other haplotypes were also significantly more frequent in index cases (A*03-B*14, A*31-B*40, and A*32-B*14). The combined frequencies of three latter haplotypes in index patients and control subjects were 0.0411 and 0.0126, respectively ("uncorrected" value of p < 0.0002; "corrected" value of p = 0.0166). Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the i
Total blood lymphocyte counts in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity: relationship to severity of iron overload and HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes
James C Barton, Howard W Wiener, Ronald T Acton, Rodney CP Go
BMC Blood Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2326-5-5
Abstract: We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total blood lymphocyte counts were evaluated using these variables: sex; age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis; units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion; and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B alleles and haplotypes.The mean age at diagnosis was 49 ± 14 years (range 18 – 80 years) in men and 50 ± 13 years (range 22 – 88 years) in women. The correlations of total blood lymphocyte counts with sex, age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, and units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion were not significant at the 0.05 level. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations between total blood lymphocyte counts and presence of the HLA-A*01, -B*08, and -B*14 alleles, and the A*01-B*08 haplotype. Presence of the A*01 allele, B*08 allele, or A*01-B*08 haplotype were associated with a lower total blood lymphocyte count, whereas presence of the B*14 allele was associated with a greater total blood lymphocyte count. There was an inverse association of total blood lymphocyte count with units of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, serum ferritin concentration, and with presence of the A*01-B*08 haplotype.We conclude that there is a significant inverse relationship of total blood lymphocyte counts and severity of iron overload in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity. The presence of the HLA-A*01 allele or the -B*08 allele was also associated with significantly lower total blood lymphocyte counts, whereas presence of the -B*14 allele was associated with significantly higher total blood lymphocyte counts. In univariate and multivariate analyses, total blood lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in probands w
Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner/medical examiner autopsy
James C Barton, Ronald T Acton, Asia K Richardson, Robert M Brissie
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-5-2
Abstract: We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron.There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255); gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade) and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes)) in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p < 0.01), and male sex with hepatocyte iron grade (p < 0.05). We also analyzed the relationship of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis/cirrhosis in 30 subjects with heavy iron staining using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. There were significant positive correlations of steatosis with inflammation (r = 0.5641; p < 0.01), and of inflammation with fibrosis/cirrhosis (r = 0.6124; p < 0.01).The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.Hepatic iron overload was detected by Perls'
Allele frequencies of hemojuvelin gene (HJV) I222N and G320V missense mutations in white and African American subjects from the general Alabama population
James C Barton, Charles A Rivers, Sandrine Niyongere, Sean B Bohannon, Ronald T Acton
BMC Medical Genetics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-5-29
Abstract: We evaluated the genomic DNA of 241 Alabama white and 124 African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload to detect HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Analysis for HJV I222N was performed in 240 whites and 124 African Americans. Analysis for HJV G320V was performed in 241 whites and 118 African Americans.One of 240 white control subjects was heterozygous for HJV I222N; she was also heterozygous for HFE C282Y, but had normal serum iron measures and bone marrow iron stores. HJV I222N was not detected in 124 African American subjects. HJV G320V was not detected in 241 white or 118 African American subjects.HJV I222N and G320V are probably uncommon causes or modifiers of primary iron overload in adult whites and African Americans in Alabama. Double heterozygosity for HJV I222N and HFE C282Y may not promote increased iron absorption.Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for coding region mutations of the hemojuvelin gene (HJV) in whites is a cause of early age-of-onset iron overload (juvenile hemochromatosis), and of hemochromatosis phenotypes in some young or middle-aged adults [1-4]. HJV coding region mutations have also been identified recently in African American primary iron overload and control subjects [5]. We estimated the frequency of the HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V in Alabama white and African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload, because primary iron overload unexplained by typical hemochromatosis-associated HFE genotypes is common in whites and blacks in Alabama [6-8], and HJV I222N and G320V were detected in an Alabama juvenile hemochromatosis index patient [3]. In addition, HJV I222N and G320V have been described in white adults with hemochromatosis phenotypes in other geographic areas [1,2,9].Performance of this study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the
Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama
Ronald T Acton, Ellen H Barton, William W Hollowell, Amy L Dreibelbis, Rodney CP Go, James C Barton
BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-47
Abstract: Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies.Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia.White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.The incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Alabama is high (16.9 and 8.6 per 100,000 men and women, respectively, in 1998) [1]. The average annual incidence rate in Alabama during 1996 was 15.5 per 100,000 for men and 8.8 per 100,000 for women, indicating that the incidence in men is increasing. This is consistent with reports that cutaneous melanoma is one of few cancers the incidence a
Effects of Highly Conserved Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Extended Haplotypes on Iron and Low CD8+ T Lymphocyte Phenotypes in HFE C282Y Homozygous Hemochromatosis Patients from Three Geographically Distant Areas
Mónica Costa, Eugénia Cruz, James C. Barton, Ketil Thorstensen, Sandra Morais, Berta M. da Silva, Jorge P. Pinto, Cristina P. Vieira, Jorge Vieira, Ronald T. Acton, Gra?a Porto
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079990
Abstract: Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Tr?ndelag, Norway 182), the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021), but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Tr?ndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Tr?ndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01–B*08 or A*03–B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci associated with the genetic transmission of CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers.
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