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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20593 matches for " James Abugri "
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Profiles of HIV-Affected Households in Ghana  [PDF]
Amos Laar, Daniel Fiaveh, Matilda Laar, Sandra Boatemaa, James Abugri, Richard Amenyah, Kyeremeh Atuahene, Andrew Anthony Adjei, Isabella Quakyi, Angela El-Adas
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615235
Abstract: Background: To contribute to a fuller appreciation of Ghana’s HIV epidemic, this paper presents various profiles of the Ghanaian HIV-affected household. To comprehensively tackle the HIV epidemic in Ghana, the profiles would provide stakeholders with ready information for policy formulation. Methods: We used data from a nationally representative survey that measured livelihood activities, household asset wealth, household composition, health, and nutrition variables of 1745 HIV-affected households. From these emerged various profiles. Results: About 50% of the households are headed by females. Households headed by men have an average size of three members, compared to two for female-headed households. There are far more AIDS widows than widowers. The annual death rate among the surveyed households was about 1000 per 100,000-households. Relatively more deaths occurred in male-headed households. Two-thirds of the households were asset poor. Various coping strategies were instituted by the households in reaction to threat of food insecurity. The national prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is 16%. Conclusions: Our data show that age of household head, hosting of a chronically ill member, and average size of household differed by sex of household head. The annual death rate of 1000 per 100,000 households is very high.
Investigation of a Simple and Cheap Source of a Natural Indicator for Acid-Base Titration: Effects of System Conditions on Natural Indicators  [PDF]
Daniel A. Abugri, Ohene B. Apea, Gregory Pritchett
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2012.23017
Abstract: This study investigated a natural indicator for acid-base titration which is extracted from guinea corn leaves popularly called “waakye leaves” in Ghana. Four types of acid-base titration were studied: strong acid versus (v/s) strong base, strong acid versus weak base, weak acid versus strong base, and weak acid versus weak base. The indicator color change, pH range and the average titre values were determined for each type of acid-base titration. These values were comparable to those obtained from three standard indicators: methyl orange, methyl red and phenolphthalein. Total flavonoids (TF) and condensed tannin (CT) from the crude leaves extract were determined which might be the major reasons for the activity of the extract as an indicator for simple acid-base titration. The authors suggest that the natural indicator is cheap, available, simple to extract, user and environmentally friendly and could be an excellent replacement for standard indicators.
Assessment of fluoride content in tropical surface soils used for crop cultivation
DA Abugri, KB Pelig-Ba
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Bongo district of the Upper East Region of Ghana relies on groundwater as the main source of potable water supply for domestic purposes. However, available literature indicated that groundwater in the area has elevated fluoride levels. Little work is done on fluoride contents in the soils of the area and its implication to plants and other living organisms. Hence the objectives of this study were to determine the level of fluoride (F) in cultivated soils and its implication to crops, since the soils form the essential medium for crops growth. Also to document fluoride concentrations in cropland soils in Ghana. Samples of selected cropland soils were collected at a depth ranged 1.0 cm to 30.0 cm and digested with aqua-regia, and analyzed for fluoride and calcium content using spectrophotometer DR/2000 and EDTA complexometric titration respectively. The mean pH of most of the soil samples ranged from 5.7 to 6.2, while the specific electrical conductivity ranged from 420.0 to 1735.0 μs/cm of soils used. The F content in the soils ranged from 219.26 to 1163.01 mgkg-1 DW. The ions bioavailability is controlled by physical and chemical characteristics of the soils. Although, this was the first study of its kind in the district it depicted that excess fluoride in water reported in the area has a relationship with the trend reported in this paper.
Application of SWAT to Assess the Effects of Land Use Change in the Murchison Bay Catchment in Uganda  [PDF]
Listowel Abugri Anaba, Noble Banadda, Nicholas Kiggundu, Joshua Wanyama, Bernie Engel, Daniel Moriasi
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2017.61003
Abstract: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a versatile model presently used worldwide to evaluate water quality and hydrological concerns under varying land use and environmental conditions. In this study, SWAT was used to simulate streamflow and to estimate sediment yield and nutrients loss from the Murchison Bay catchment as a result of land use changes. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated for streamflow for extended periods. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) global sensitivity method within SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Procedures (SWAT-CUP) was used to identify the most sensitive streamflow parameters. The model satisfactorily simulated stream discharge from the catchment. The model performance was determined with different statistical methods. The results showed a satisfactory model streamflow simulation performance. The results of runoff and average upland sediment yield estimated from the catchment showed that, both have increased over the period of study. The increasing rate of runoff can lead to severe and frequent flooding, lower water quality and reduce crop yield in the catchment. Therefore, comprehensive water management steps should be taken to reduce surface runoff in the catchment. This is the first time the SWAT model has been used in the Murchison Bay catchment. The results showed that, if all uncertainties are minimised, a well calibrated SWAT model can generate reasonable hydrologic simulation results in relation to land use, which is useful to water and environmental resources managers and policy and decision makers.
Pilot study of the use of community volunteers to distribute azithromycin for trachoma control in Ghana
Solomon Anthony W.,Akudibillah Joseph,Abugri Peter,Hagan Maria
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the skills of community health volunteers in diagnosing active trachoma and distributing azithromycin in the Northern Region of Ghana. METHODS: Six community health volunteers from Daboya were trained to diagnose trachoma and to treat the disease using azithromycin. They were also informed of the drug?s possible side-effects. Under supervision, each volunteer then examined, and if necessary treated, 15 households. The dose of azithromycin was determined by weight; height was also measured. Tablets were given in preference to suspension when possible. RESULTS: The volunteers? diagnostic sensitivity for active trachoma was 63%; their specificity was 96%. At the household level, their ??decision to treat?? was correct in 83% of households. In 344 treatment episodes, volunteers planned a dose of azithromycin outside the range 15-30 mg/kg on only seven occasions (2.0% of all planned treatments). The volunteers? drug management skills were good, the response of the community was excellent, and adverse reactions were infrequent. Diagnosis of active trachoma, record-keeping skills, and knowledge of side-effects were found to need greater emphasis in any future education programme. Most people aged four years or older were able to swallow tablets. For those taking tablets, the correlation between the data gathered for height and weight shows that calculating azithromycin doses by height is a valid alternative to calculating it by weight. CONCLUSION: Trained community health volunteers have a potential role in identifying active trachoma and distributing azithromycin. To simplify training and logistics, it may be better to base dosage schedules on height rather than weight for those taking tablets, which included most people aged four years or more in the population studied.
Heterogeneous Catalysis of C–O Bond Cleavage for Cellulose Deconstruction: A Potential Pathway for Ethanol Production
Kristy Crews,Crystal Reeves,Porsha Thomas,Daniel Abugri,Albert Russell,Michael L. Curry
ISRN Nanotechnology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/634679
Abstract: Due to difficulty deconstructing the linkages between lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose during the conversion of cellulose to sugar, the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is limited. This can be overcome by using a high surface-area metal catalyst. In this study, high surface-area metal NPs were synthesized using 20 mM of chloroplatinic acid and cobalt chloride prepared in THF with 0.1 mM of generation four poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) terminated dendrimer (G4-NH2) prepared in methanol and stirred for 2 hours under nitrogen. Subsequently, Pt+2 and Co+2 ions were reduced to metal zero via introduction of sodium borohydride and centrifuged for complete separation. The resulting product was heated for 2.5 hours at ~200°C. After cooling, 2.0 grams of crushed peanut shells was added to 40?mL of distilled tert-butyl methyl ether along with the separated metal nanocatalyst and refluxed on condenser at 20% for 24 hours. UV-Vis and XRD analyses show the formation of Pt and Co nanoparticles using dendrimer templating methodology. Both TLC and HPLC show that, upon introduction of the metal catalyst into the suspension of “cellulose” in TBME, separation of the cellulose into small molecules is evident. That is, release of sugar molecules via C–O bond cleavage is facilitated by the formed nanocatalysts. 1. Introduction The anticipated decline in oil production, increased demand on energy usage, and depletion of worldwide petroleum oil reserves have renewed interests in developing alternative energy sources, in particular biofuels. Currently in the United States, 97% of nonrenewable petroleum is used as a source of fuel for vehicles and other gas burning systems [1]. According to the 2012 Consumer Energy Report, the USA imports about 58% of its petroleum, crude and refined, from the western hemisphere, and consumed 20.7 million barrels of petroleum products in 2007 [2]. One logical solution to this growing energy pandemonium is the development of a sustainable energy alternative, biofuels, that eliminates the United States (and other countries) from the dependency on foreign petroleum imports and the negative impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the environment. In essence, biofuels use less fossil fuel and, thus, eliminate the fuels formed by natural resources such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms: coal, petroleum, and natural gases with high percentages of carbon. Since the 1970s, there have been many types of biomass explored, ranging from agricultural wastes (straw, olive pits, sweet potato roots, and nut shells) to energy crops (Miscanthus
Pilot study of the use of community volunteers to distribute azithromycin for trachoma control in Ghana
Solomon,Anthony W.; Akudibillah,Joseph; Abugri,Peter; Hagan,Maria; Foster,Allen; Bailey,Robin L.; Mabey,David C.W.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000100004
Abstract: objective: to assess the skills of community health volunteers in diagnosing active trachoma and distributing azithromycin in the northern region of ghana. methods: six community health volunteers from daboya were trained to diagnose trachoma and to treat the disease using azithromycin. they were also informed of the drug?s possible side-effects. under supervision, each volunteer then examined, and if necessary treated, 15 households. the dose of azithromycin was determined by weight; height was also measured. tablets were given in preference to suspension when possible. results: the volunteers? diagnostic sensitivity for active trachoma was 63%; their specificity was 96%. at the household level, their ??decision to treat?? was correct in 83% of households. in 344 treatment episodes, volunteers planned a dose of azithromycin outside the range 15-30 mg/kg on only seven occasions (2.0% of all planned treatments). the volunteers? drug management skills were good, the response of the community was excellent, and adverse reactions were infrequent. diagnosis of active trachoma, record-keeping skills, and knowledge of side-effects were found to need greater emphasis in any future education programme. most people aged four years or older were able to swallow tablets. for those taking tablets, the correlation between the data gathered for height and weight shows that calculating azithromycin doses by height is a valid alternative to calculating it by weight. conclusion: trained community health volunteers have a potential role in identifying active trachoma and distributing azithromycin. to simplify training and logistics, it may be better to base dosage schedules on height rather than weight for those taking tablets, which included most people aged four years or more in the population studied.
Beijing’s Policies for Managing Han and Ethnic-Minority Chinese Communities Abroad
James To
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: The overseas Chinese (OC) form a vast network of powerful interest groups and important political actors capable of shaping the future of China from abroad by transmitting values back to their ancestral homeland (Tu 1991). While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) welcomes and actively seeks to foster relations with the OC in order to advance China’s national interests, some cohorts may be hostile to the regime. In accordance with their distinct demographic and ethnic pro-files, the CCP’s qiaowu (侨务, OC affairs) infrastructure serves to entice, co-opt, or isolate various OC groupings. This article summarises the policies for managing different subsets of OC over the past three dec-ades, and argues that through qiaowu, the CCP has successfully unified cooperative groups for China’s benefit, while preventing discordant ones from eroding its grip on power.
The Program Assessment and Improvement Cycle Today: A New and Simple Taxonomy of General Types and Levels of Program Evaluation  [PDF]
James Carifio
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326145
Abstract: There has been strong pressure from just about every quarter in the last twenty years for higher education institutions to evaluate and improve their programs. This pressure is being exerted by several different stake holder groups simultaneously, and also represents the growing cumulative impact of four somewhat contradictory but powerful evaluation and improvement movements, models and advocacy groups. Consequently, the program assessment, evaluation and improvement cycle today is much different and far more complex than it was fifty years ago, or even two decades ago, and it is actually a highly diversified and confusing landscape from both the practitioner’s and consumer’s view of such evaluative and improvement information relative to seemingly different and competing advocacies, standards, foci, findings and asserted claims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present and begin to elucidate a relatively simple general taxonomy that helps practitioners, consumers, and professionals to make better sense of competing evaluation and improvement models, methodologies and results today, which should help to improve communication and understanding and to have a broad, simple and useful framework or schema to help guide their more detailed learning.
An antibody present in everybody that attacks malaria infected erythrocytes  [PDF]
James Kennedy
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.67A1001
Abstract: These malaria targeting antibodies are band 3 antibodies and they recognize a special configuration of a molecule called band 3 that is present on erythrocytes. The special band 3 configuration is present on the surface of senescent erythrocytes, malaria infected erythrocytes, the erythrocytes of certain hemoglobinnopathies such as sickle cell disease and on the erythrocytes of some metabolic disorders such as G6PD. Note that these hemoglobinopathies and metabolic disorders all aid in the survival of falciparum malaria to such an extent that their incidence is increased in falciparum endemic areas [1-3]. Though there are many adhesive molecules involved in the pathology of falciparum malaria and sickle cell anemia, the focus here is on the band 3 molecules.
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