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As the area of visual rhetoric develops and evolves, the approaches that critics take in evaluating images must be scrutinized for the overall exploration of the discipline. Incorporating areas of analytical criticism from rhetoric to aesthetics to design should be combined to create the best possible way of evaluating imagery. By expanding on the traditional analytical approach to rhetorical criticism, this paper explores how the additional understanding of aesthetic and design theory will help the critic to reach a fuller understanding of the image. The twelve major principles of design being line, shape and form, space, texture, value, color, repetition, variety, rhythm, balance, emphasis, and economy are combined to create the strategy of the visual aesthetic that works to compliment the existing rhetorical strategies. The more complete understanding of how visuals are created and how people interpret them will allow for a more complete development of the visual rhetorical approach to communication.
Monthly mean summer (DJF) temperature and precipitation from Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN-V3) for the period of 1870-2011, are analyzed to assess the role of teleconnections on climate of Darwin, Australia. Indices of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and Pacific North American Oscillation (PNA) are extracted from monthly means and compared with climatic data of Darwin. Most of these climate modes are shown to have a strong influence on the monthly mean summer temperature and precipitation. ENSO is shown to have a positive relationship with the amount of precipitation received and a negative relationship with the temperature. Where an El Nino event produces warmer drier conditions and a La Nina event produces colder wetter conditions. The AAO is shown to cause cold and dry conditions during the positive phase and warm and wet conditions during the negative phase. The PDO is shown to cause El Nino like condition during the positive phase causing warmer, drier weather, and La Nina like conditions during the negative phase causing cooler, wetter weather. Through the analysis it is also shown that the NAO, AO, and PNA have little effect on the temperature and precipitation patterns of Darwin.
To study the impact of climate change on Godthab(Greenland), temperature and precipitation gathered from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed for patterns within 1866-2011. Both temperature and precipitation have experienced an overall increase throughout the past 146 years. Precipitation, however, has experienced a declining trend since 1985. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices showed strong correlations with average annual temperature (R = ?0.6) and smaller correlations with annual total precipitation (R = ?0.2). There are moderate correlations between temperature, precipitation, and Southern-Oscillation Index (SOI). The positive phases of Pacific-North American (PNA) led to increased winter and spring precipitation. The climate mode’s influential strength on Godthab’s temperature and precipitation, vary seasonally. In contrast with global average temperatures, Greenland has not experienced a continual warming trend since the 1950s; 30- and 10-year trends show a cooling period between 1965 and 1995. From 1866 to 2011, Godthab’s average annual temperature has increased by 1.9?C, and is anticipated to continue to warm in accordance with the global warming trend and the Arctic’s associated feedback mechanisms.
The aim of
this study is to investigate how ostensive cues modify infants’ visual
attention to task demonstration, and the extent to which this enhances the
performance in an imitative learning task. We hypothesized that ostensive cues
would help orient infants’ attention toward relevant parts of the demonstration.
We investigated the looking behavior of 41 10-month-old infants while observing
an adult demonstrating a novel target action after having either provided
ostensive cues or not. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye
tracker. Two areas of interest were analyzed: the targeted object and the
adult’s face. Infants’ performance after demonstration was also analyzed. The
results show that infants’ looking behavior varied across groups. When
ostensive cues were not provided, infants looked mainly at the experimenter’s
face. However, when ostensive cues were provided, infants oriented their
attention toward the targeted object. These results suggest that ostensive cues
help infants orient their attention toward task-relevant parts of the scene.
Surprisingly, infants in the non-ostensive group improved their performance
faster after demonstration than infants in the ostensive group. These results
are discussed in terms of a video effect and dissociation between separate
cognitive systems for social and non-social cognition.
Estimation of natural recharge and potential for seawater intrusion are critical considerations for management of coastal freshwater aquifers. We show hydrochemical signatures of groundwater to identify the influence of geological control on chemical processes in a coastal groundwater system. We used dominant hydrochemical facies, salinity and magnesium ions to determine two main groundwater flow paths with different origins and ages. Mixing of groundwater with different origins and ages results in unreliable recharge estimates using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and chloride mass balance (CMB) methods, thus limiting available methods for recharge assessment. Interpretation of hydrochemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, ion exchange processes and mixing with sea aerosol in coastal zones are the main influencing factors on groundwater chemistry. Restricted groundwater flows due to occurrence of a basement high at the southern side of the basin boundary influence the distance to the toe of the saline wedge. Thus, knowledge of geological control over groundwater systems forms an important part of characterising basins and contributes toward effective management of groundwater resources.
Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN-V3), monthly mean summer (DJF)
temperature (1856-2012) and total precipitation (1861-2012) are analyzed in
correlation with four climate modes and sunspot number to better understand the
role of teleconnections on Buenos Aires’ (Argentina) climate. A general
increase in temperature and precipitation was observed. Temperature has
increased by about 1.8°C and precipitation has increased by about 300 mm in the
past century and a half. Indices of Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific North
American (PNA), Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), and El Nino-Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) are evaluated to study their effects on wheat and corn production and
export. AO and PNA show strong relationships with precipitation and temperature
received. AAO and ENSO show strong negative correlations with precipitation
patterns and weak correlations with temperature. Sunspot Number shows a
positive correlation with temperature. ENSO phases are strongly linked with the
wheat and corn production and export; during El Nino Buenos Aires tends to
experience extremely wet summer weather, causing soggy fields and extremely dry
summer weather during La Nina causing drought. Both of these conditions result
in reducing wheat and corn production and export.
The correlation of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Pacific North American Oscillation (PNA), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and Scandinavia (SCAND) indices with winter (DJF) temperature and precipitation for the period of 1943 to 2011 was analyzed to study climate change and variability of Yellowknife, NWT. SOI correlated negatively with both temperature (r = -0.14) and precipitation (r = -0.06) causing colder, drier conditions during La Nina and warmer, wetter conditions during El Nino. PDO was shown to have a strong positive correlation with both temperature (r = 0.60) and precipitation (r = 0.33) causing warmer, wetter weather in the positive phase and colder, drier weather in the negative phase. PNA showed the strongest positive correlation for both temperature (r = 0.69) and precipitation (r = 0.37) causing very warm and wet conditions in the positive phase and very cold and dry conditions during the negative phase. AO correlated negatively with temperature (r = -0.04) and positively with precipitation (r = 0.24) causing colder, wetter conditions in the positive phase and warmer, drier conditions in the negative phase. Finally SCAND was shown to have a weak negative correlation with both temperature (r = -0.10) and precipitation (r = -0.18). Sunspot area showed a strong negative correlation (r = -0.30) with temperature and a very weak positive correlation (r = 0.07) with total annual precipitation. Yellowknife’s average annual temperature and precipitation has increased by 2.5°C and 120 mm, respectively throughout the past 69 years.