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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2199 matches for " Jacqueline Binyamin "
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The Impact of Climate Modes on Summer Temperature and Precipitation of Darwin, Australia, 1870-2011  [PDF]
Cameron Hunter, Jacqueline Binyamin
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.24051

Monthly mean summer (DJF) temperature and precipitation from Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN-V3) for the period of 1870-2011, are analyzed to assess the role of teleconnections on climate of Darwin, Australia. Indices of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and Pacific North American Oscillation (PNA) are extracted from monthly means and compared with climatic data of Darwin. Most of these climate modes are shown to have a strong influence on the monthly mean summer temperature and precipitation. ENSO is shown to have a positive relationship with the amount of precipitation received and a negative relationship with the temperature. Where an El Nino event produces warmer drier conditions and a La Nina event produces colder wetter conditions. The AAO is shown to cause cold and dry conditions during the positive phase and warm and wet conditions during the negative phase. The PDO is shown to cause El Nino like condition during the positive phase causing warmer, drier weather, and La Nina like conditions during the negative phase causing cooler, wetter weather. Through the analysis it is also shown that the NAO, AO, and PNA have little effect on the temperature and precipitation patterns of Darwin.

Climate Change Associated with Global Teleconnections, Volcanic Eruptions, and the Arctic’s Snow-Ice Albedo in Godthab, Greenland  [PDF]
Amber Penner, Jacqueline Binyamin
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31005

To study the impact of climate change on Godthab(Greenland), temperature and precipitation gathered from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed for patterns within 1866-2011. Both temperature and precipitation have experienced an overall increase throughout the past 146 years. Precipitation, however, has experienced a declining trend since 1985. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) indices showed strong correlations with average annual temperature (R = ?0.6) and smaller correlations with annual total precipitation (R = ?0.2). There are moderate correlations between temperature, precipitation, and Southern-Oscillation Index (SOI). The positive phases of Pacific-North American (PNA) led to increased winter and spring precipitation. The climate mode’s influential strength on Godthab’s temperature and precipitation, vary seasonally. In contrast with global average temperatures, Greenland has not experienced a continual warming trend since the 1950s; 30- and 10-year trends show a cooling period between 1965 and 1995. From 1866 to 2011, Godthab’s average annual temperature has increased by 1.9?C, and is anticipated to continue to warm in accordance with the global warming trend and the Arctic’s associated feedback mechanisms.

Impact of Climate Change and Variability on Wheat and Corn Production in Buenos Aires, Argentina  [PDF]
Maria Pol, Jacqueline Binyamin
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.32013

From the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN-V3), monthly mean summer (DJF) temperature (1856-2012) and total precipitation (1861-2012) are analyzed in correlation with four climate modes and sunspot number to better understand the role of teleconnections on Buenos Aires’ (Argentina) climate. A general increase in temperature and precipitation was observed. Temperature has increased by about 1.8°C and precipitation has increased by about 300 mm in the past century and a half. Indices of Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific North American (PNA), Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are evaluated to study their effects on wheat and corn production and export. AO and PNA show strong relationships with precipitation and temperature received. AAO and ENSO show strong negative correlations with precipitation patterns and weak correlations with temperature. Sunspot Number shows a positive correlation with temperature. ENSO phases are strongly linked with the wheat and corn production and export; during El Nino Buenos Aires tends to experience extremely wet summer weather, causing soggy fields and extremely dry summer weather during La Nina causing drought. Both of these conditions result in reducing wheat and corn production and export.

Climate Change Effect on Winter Temperature and Precipitation of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada from 1943 to 2011  [PDF]
Janelle Laing, Jacqueline Binyamin
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.24027

The correlation of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Pacific North American Oscillation (PNA), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and Scandinavia (SCAND) indices with winter (DJF) temperature and precipitation for the period of 1943 to 2011 was analyzed to study climate change and variability of Yellowknife, NWT. SOI correlated negatively with both temperature (r = -0.14) and precipitation (r = -0.06) causing colder, drier conditions during La Nina and warmer, wetter conditions during El Nino. PDO was shown to have a strong positive correlation with both temperature (r = 0.60) and precipitation (r = 0.33) causing warmer, wetter weather in the positive phase and colder, drier weather in the negative phase. PNA showed the strongest positive correlation for both temperature (r = 0.69) and precipitation (r = 0.37) causing very warm and wet conditions in the positive phase and very cold and dry conditions during the negative phase. AO correlated negatively with temperature (r = -0.04) and positively with precipitation (r = 0.24) causing colder, wetter conditions in the positive phase and warmer, drier conditions in the negative phase. Finally SCAND was shown to have a weak negative correlation with both temperature (r = -0.10) and precipitation (r = -0.18). Sunspot area showed a strong negative correlation (r = -0.30) with temperature and a very weak positive correlation (r = 0.07) with total annual precipitation. Yellowknife’s average annual temperature and precipitation has increased by 2.5°C and 120 mm, respectively throughout the past 69 years.

Validation of Spectral and Broadband UV-B (290 - 325 nm) Irradiance for Canada  [PDF]
Jacqueline Binyamin, John Davies, Bruce McArthur
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.13008
Abstract: Stratospheric ozone depletion, as a result of increasing chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere, allows more UV-B irradiance (290 - 325 nm) to reach the earth’s surface with possible detrimental biological effects. Be-cause there are few UV-B radiation stations, irradiance models are useful tools for estimating irradiances where measurements are not made. Estimates of spectral and broadband irradiances from a numerical model are compared with Brewer spectrophotometer measurements at nine Canadian stations (Alert, Resolute Bay, Churchill, Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax and Toronto) and 26 years of data. The model uses either the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) or the delta-Eddington algorithms to solve the radiative transfer equation for a 49-layer, vertically inhomogeneous, plane-parallel atmosphere, with cloud inserted between the 2 and 3 km heights. Spectral calculations are made at 1 nm intervals. The model uses extraterrestrial spectral irradiance, spectral optical properties for each atmospheric layer for ozone, air mole-cules, and aerosol and surface albedo. A fixed broadband cloud optical depth of 27 was satisfactory for cal-culating cloudy sky irradiances at all stations except in the arctic. Comparisons are made both for daily totals and for monthly averaged spectral and broadband irradiances. The delta-Eddington method is shown to be unsuitable for calculating spectral irradiances under clear skies, at wavelengths less than 305 nm where absorption by ozone is high, and at large solar zenith angles. The er-rors are smaller for overcast conditions. The method is adequate for daily total and monthly averaged spec-tral (? 305 nm) and broadband calculations for all sky conditions, although consistently overestimating ir-radiances. There is a good agreement between broadband measurements and calculations for both daily totals and monthly averages with mean bias error mainly less than 5% of the mean measured daily irradiance and root mean square error less than 25%, decreasing to below 15% for monthly averages.
Comparison of UV-B Broadband Brewer Measurements with Irradiances from Surface-Based and Satellite-Based Models  [PDF]
Jacqueline Binyamin, John Davies, Bruce McArthur
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.13016
Abstract: UV-B irradiance can be estimated from surface meteorological data or from satellite measurements. This paper compares irradiance estimates from the Davies surface-based radiation model and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) satellite model with Brewer spectrophotometer measurements for all sky conditions at six Canadian stations (Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax and Toronto). The Davies model is applied with both the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) and the delta-Eddington algorithms to solve the radiative transfer equation. Both models’ estimates are compared with instantaneous Brewer measurements. Both perform similarly with mean bias errors within 6% of the mean measured irradiance for the measurement period and root mean square errors between 25% and 30%.
Ibn al- Arabī and Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmī
Abrahamov, Binyamin
Al-Qantara : Revista de Estudios Arabes , 2011,
Abstract: Many Sufis appear in Ibn al- Arabī’s al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, a treatise in which the author puts forward his principal ideas. Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmī is mentioned in this work 143 times, more than any other Sufi. The present article seeks to examine Ibn al- Arabī’s attitude toward his Sufi predecessor by considering al-Bistāmi’s personality as it appears in Ibn al- Arabī, as well as Ibn al- Arabī’s views on al-Bistāmī’s Sufi practice, his presence as a model of moral conduct and his mystical philosophical notions. Ibn al- Arabī does not accept all the notions and statements expressed by al-Bistāmī. Sometimes he mitigates al-Bistāmi’s daring assertions and thus reveals his unfavorable attitude toward shatahāt. However, in some cases al-Bistāmī’s statements serve as corroboration for Ibn al- Arabī’s theses. Aparecen muchos sufíes en la obra de Ibn al- Arabī al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, un tratado en el que el autor presenta sus ideas principales. En esta obra se menciona a Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmi un total de 143 veces, más que a cualquier otro sufí. Este artículo tiene el propósito de examinar la actitud de Ibn al- Arabī hacia su predecesor sufí considerando la personalidad de al-Bistāmī tal y como aparece en la obra de Ibn al- Arabī, además de analizar las ideas de Ibn al- Arabī sobre las prácticas al-Futūhāt sufíes de al-Bistāmī, su presencia como modelo de conducta moral y sus ideas filosóficas místicas. Ibn al- Arabī no acepta todas las ideas y declaraciones de al-Bistāmi. A veces suaviza sus afirmaciones más atrevidas y de esta manera revela su actitud negativa hacia atahāt. Sin embargo, en algunos casos Ibn al- Arabī se sirve de las afirmaciones de al-Bistāmi para corroborar sus tesis.
How Do Firing Costs Affect Innovation and Growth when Workers' Ability is Unknown? Employment Protection as a Burden on a Firm's Screening Process
Berdugo, Binyamin,Sharon Hadad
The European Journal of Comparative Economics , 2012,
Supernovae from direct collisions of white dwarfs and the role of helium shell ignition
Oded Papish,Hagai Binyamin Perets
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Models for supernovae (SNe) arising from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs (WDs) have been extensively studied over the last few decades, mostly focusing on the single degenerate (accretion of material of a WD) and double degenerate (WD-WD merger) scenarios. In recent years it was suggested that WD-WD direct collisions provide an additional channel for such explosions. Here we extend the studies of such explosions, and explore the role of Helium-shells in affecting the thermonuclear explosions. We study both the impact of low-mass helium ($\sim0.01$ M$_{\odot})$ shells, as well as high mass shells ($\ge0.1$ M$_{\odot}$). We find that detonation of the massive helium layers precede the detonation of the WD Carbon-Oxygen (CO) bulk during the collision and can change the explosive evolution and outcomes for the cases of high mass He-shells. In particular, the He-shell detonation propagates on the WD surface and inefficiently burns material prior to the CO detonation that later follows in the central parts of the WD. Such evolution leads to larger production of intermediate elements, producing large yields of $^{44}{\rm Ti}$ and $^{48}{\rm Cr}$ relative to the pure CO-CO WD collisions. Collisions of WDs with a low-mass He-shell do not give rise to helium detonation, but helium burning does precede the CO bulk detonation. Such collisions produce a high velocity, low-mass of ejected burned material enriched with intermediate elements, with smaller changes to the overall explosion outcomes. The various effects arising from the contribution of low/high mass He layers change the kinematics and the morphological structure of collision-induced SNe and may thereby provide unique observational signatures for such SNe, and play a role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies and the production of intermediate elements and positrons from their longer-term decay.
The Pedagogy of Visual Discourse: An Analytical Approach to Teaching and Evaluating the Rhetorical Image  [PDF]
Jacqueline Irwin
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2014.22003

As the area of visual rhetoric develops and evolves, the approaches that critics take in evaluating images must be scrutinized for the overall exploration of the discipline. Incorporating areas of analytical criticism from rhetoric to aesthetics to design should be combined to create the best possible way of evaluating imagery. By expanding on the traditional analytical approach to rhetorical criticism, this paper explores how the additional understanding of aesthetic and design theory will help the critic to reach a fuller understanding of the image. The twelve major principles of design being line, shape and form, space, texture, value, color, repetition, variety, rhythm, balance, emphasis, and economy are combined to create the strategy of the visual aesthetic that works to compliment the existing rhetorical strategies. The more complete understanding of how visuals are created and how people interpret them will allow for a more complete development of the visual rhetorical approach to communication.

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