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Management for Pediatric Pleural Empyema in Resource-Poor Country: Is Chest Tube Drainage with Antiseptic Lavage-Irrigation Better than Tube Thoracostomy Alone?  [PDF]
Seydou Togo, Moussa Abdoulaye Ouattara, Ibrahim Sangaré, Jacque Saye, Cheik Amed Sékou Touré, Ibrahim Boubacar Maiga, Dokore Jerome Dakouo, Liang Guo, Sékou Koumaré, Adama Konoba Koita, Zimogo Zié Sanogo, Sadio Yéna
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.612077
Abstract: Drainage by chest tube thoracostomy is widely used in treatment of early empyema thoracis in children, but drainage with antiseptic lavage-irrigation is more frequent in our context since the last 20 years. This study was to determine which was more effective in our experience comparing chest tube drainage with catheter antiseptic lavage-irrigation versus drainage by chest tube thoracostomy alone in the management of empyema thoracis in children. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and microbiological data on children with thoracic empyema undergoing drainage by chest tube thoracostomy alone or with antiseptic lavage-irrigation were obtained from 2 thoracic surgical centers from September 2008 to December 2014. It was a retrospective study included 246 children (137 boys and 109 girls) who were managed for empyema thoracis at the author’s different department of surgery. Outcomes analysis with respect to treatment efficacy, hospital duration, chest tube duration, hospital costs, and need for subsequent procedures was analyzed and compared in the 2 groups. Results: Drainage of pus and antiseptic irrigation resulted in resolution of pyrexia with improvement in general condition in 85.82% of patients in group 1 and by tube thoracostomy alone in 73.95% in group 2. There are a significant difference in the length of hospital stay (p = 0.022), duration of chest tubes in situ (p = 0.040), treatment coast (p = 0.015) and outcome of stage 2 empyema disease (p = 0.037) between the 2 groups. Conclusion: it seems that chest tube drainage with antiseptic lavage-irrigation method is associated with a higher efficacy, shorter length of hospital stay, shorter duration of chest tube in situ, less cost and better outcome of stage 2 empyema diseases than a treatment strategy that utilizes chest tube thoracostomy alone.
Interactions of Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Abacavir and Didanosine in Primary Human Cells
Omar Janneh,Saye H. Khoo
Pharmaceutics , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics3020326
Abstract: Certain triple nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimens containing tenofovir (TDF) have been associated with rapid early treatment failure. The mechanism is unknown, but may be at the level of drug transport. We measured the lipophilicity of the drugs [ 3H]-lamivudine (3TC), -didanosine (ddI), -TDF and -ABC. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to evaluate drug–drug interactions at the level of drug transport. PBMCs were measured for the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) by flow cytometry. The rank order of the lipophilicity of the drugs were ABC>>>3TC3ddI>TDF. The accumulation of [ 3H]-3TC, -ddI and -TDF were temperature sensitive (suggesting facilitated transport), in contrast to [ 3H]-ABC. ABC reduced the accumulation of [ 3H]-3TC, and cell fractionation experiments suggested this was mainly in membrane-bound [ 3H]-3TC. ABC/TDF and ABC/ddI increased the accumulation of [ 3H]-3TC and 3TC/TDF also increased the accumulation of [ 3H]-TDF. In contrast, none of the NRTI/NtRTI incubations (alone or in combination) altered the accumulation of [ 3H]-ABC and -ddI. PBMC expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP were detected, but none correlated with the accumulation of the drugs. The high failure rates seen with TDF, ABC and 3TC are not fully explained by an interaction at transporter level.
Wanted: an efficient and user friendly library catalogue
Jerry D. Saye,Alenka ?auperl
Knji?nica : Revija za Podro?je Bibliotekarstva in Informacijske Znanosti , 2002,
Abstract: Many people find great challenges in using library catalogues. Current OPACs have developed from the traditional card catalogue structure while the MARC formats have primarily provided coding conventions for the traditional bibliographic description.Cataloguers invest significant effort in preparing catalogue records. Yet some studies show that the product of their work is not as useful as it could be. OPACs and their users efficiently use only a fraction of data present in catalogue records. We will explore which parts of the catalogue record are useful and which are not. We will analyze how an alternative catalogue record, based on Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, would aid in maximizing the catalogue record’s usefulness.
Physicochemical Characterization and Valorization of Clay from Lobo and Ngoya in Cameroon Central Region  [PDF]
Nchare Mominou, Mache Jacque Richard, Sabo Ina Aicha
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2019.93003
Abstract: Two samples clayed materials, LO and NG from central region in Cameroon were characterized for their valorization in the manufacture of refractory bricks and ceramics. In order to assess the technological properties of these clays, cooking tests were carried out on the test specimens at different temperatures. From particle size analysis, clayed materials studied have a spreading particle size and their plasticity index is between 18 and 47. The mineralogical study reveals the presence of Quartz, illite, kaolin, hematite and feldspars. High level of silica content explains the sandy nature of these clays. Linear shrinkage and density increase with temperature while compressive strength decreases with temperature. Analyses performed on the ceramic specimens after firing show that clay materials studied are suitable for the manufacture of refractory bricks.
Alper CABUK,Hakan SENEL,Halil POLAT,Saye Nihan ?ABUK
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2009,
Abstract: Today, in every field of our lives, an efficient information access and mobility has become a prerequisite for the sustainability of all systems. Considering this fact, Internet technology is the fastest and the most proper media to access the required information worldwide, from our daily questions to scientific researches. Within this rapid development, many Internet compatible applications have been specialized to ease information access and sharing. Hence, internet inevitably becomes the top asset for obtaining the inputs, sharing the information and marketing goods and services. Increasing demand for web based education services is also one of the reflections of this rapid development. Internet based education models integrated with computer technologies provide the best and most efficient conclusions for mass education. To meet the mentioned demands and needs, Anadolu University, has been providing higher education opportunities through distance education since 1982. The University, with over 1.2 million distant students, is one of the leading universities in Turkey and the world. ANAPOD application is a new education model within University’s distance education process, which is highly applicable for many disciplines. In this paper, ANAPOD experiences for the architecture education will be discussed.
Total Thyroidectomy in Multinodular Goiter: An African Experience  [PDF]
Moussa Abdoulaye Ouattara, Seydou Togo, Ibrahima Sankaré, Kadiatou Singaré, Sekou Koumaré, Issa Maiga, Allaye Ombotibé, Jacques Saye, Assa Traoré, Nouhoum Diani, Zimogo Ziè Sanogo, Sadio Yena
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.612075
Abstract: Introduction: Total thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of the whole thyroid gland, with the preservation of the parathyroid glands. The aim of the present study was to assess the complication rates of total thyroidectomy on benign indication and first-time thyroid surgery and investigate the early outcome after opotherapy. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goiter in the department of thoracic surgery in our Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. In postoperative time, we evaluated surgical complication, histopathological examination and opotherapy. Results: A total 53 patients underwent total thyroidectomy for multmodular goiter; they were 49 (92.45%) bilateral and 4 (7.55%) unilateral (recurrence). The mean age was 47 years and mean diameter of goiter was 10.75 cm. Among the patients 88.68% were females and 11.32% were male. Preoperative hormonal statuses were (70%) in euthyroid and (30%) hyperthyroid following surgery complications like transient laryngeal nerve palsy (3.77%), transient hypocalcemia (7.55%), hematoma (1.9%) and wound infection (1.9%). On histopathological examination of the surgical specimen, 5.7% were reported to be malignant. Six month following surgery 92.45% of patients was a good hormonal balance. Conclusion: Total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter has a low morbidity and mortality; this procedure olves both the problem of recurrence of disease and reintervention. The opotherapy is doable with a good hormonal balance.
IRAK-2 Regulates IL-1-Mediated Pathogenic Th17 Cell Development in Helminthic Infection
Patrick M. Smith,Berri Jacque,James R. Conner,Alexander Poltorak ,Miguel J. Stadecker
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002272
Abstract: Infection with the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni results in distinct heterogeneity of disease severity both in humans and in mice. In the experimental mouse model, severe disease is characterized by pronounced hepatic egg-induced granulomatous inflammation mediated by CD4 Th17 cells, whereas mild disease is associated with reduced hepatic inflammation in a Th2-skewed cytokine environment. Even though the host’s genetic background significantly impacts the clinical outcome of schistosomiasis, specific gene(s) that contribute to disease severity remain elusive. We investigated the schistosome infection in wild-derived mice, which possess a more diverse gene pool than classically inbred mouse strains and thus makes them more likely to reveal novel mechanisms of immune regulation. We now show that inbred wild-derived MOLF mice develop severe hepatic inflammation with high levels of IL-17. Congenic mice with a MOLF locus in chromosome 6, designated Why1, revealed high pathology and enabled the identification of Irak2 as the pathogenic gene. Although IRAK-2 is classically associated with TLR signaling, adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells revealed that IRAK-2 mediates pathology in a CD4 T cell specific manner by promoting Th17 cell development through enhancement of IL-1β-induced activation of transcription factors RORγt and BATF. The use of wild-derived mice unravels IRAK-2 as a novel regulator of IL-1-induced pathogenic Th17 cells in schistosomiasis, which likely has wide-ranging implications for other chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Lipocalin 2 in the central nervous system host response to systemic lipopolysaccharide administration
Jacque PK Ip, Aline L No?on, Markus J Hofer, Sue Lim, Marcus Müller, Iain L Campbell
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-124
Abstract: A murine model for systemic endotoxemia was used in this study. Wild type or Lcn2 KO mice (both genotypes C57BL/6 strain) were given either a single or dual, staggered intraperitoneal injections of purified E. coli LPS or vehicle alone. The brain was examined for the expression and location of Lcn2 mRNA and protein and various markers for neuroinflammation were analyzed.Although undetectable under physiological conditions, both Lcn2 mRNA and protein were induced to high levels in the brain after LPS injection. By contrast, RNA corresponding to the putative Lcn2 (termed 24p3R) receptor was present at high levels in the normal brain and remained unaltered by LPS injection. Differences between Lcn2 and 24p3R mRNA expression were found at the anatomic and cellular level. Endothelial cells, microglia and the choroid plexus but not neurons were identified as the main cellular sources for Lcn2 mRNA in the CNS. By contrast, 24p3R mRNA was detected in neurons and the choroid plexus only. Lcn2 protein was found to have a similar cellular localization as the corresponding RNA transcripts with the exception that subsets of neurons were also strongly positive. Various inflammatory, glial, and iron handling markers were analyzed and found to have similar alterations between WT and Lcn2 KO animals.1) Lcn2 production is strongly induced in the CNS by systemic LPS injection, 2) in addition to Lcn2 production at key gateways of bacterial entry to the CNS, neurons may be a target for the actions of Lcn2, which is apparently taken up by these cells, and 3) the cellular functions of Lcn2 in the CNS remain enigmatic.Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; also known in humans as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) [1] and in the mouse as 24p3 [2]) is a small, secreted protein that belongs to the lipocalin family which comprises over 20 members [3]. Despite the low sequence homology (around 20%), all lipocalin family members share a common tertiary structure, namely an eight-stranded, continuous
The SU.FOL.OM3 Study: a secondary prevention trial testing the impact of supplementation with folate and B-vitamins and/or Omega-3 PUFA on fatal and non fatal cardiovascular events, design, methods and participants characteristics
Pilar Galan, Serge Briancon, Jacque Blacher, Sébastien Czernichow, Serge Hercberg
Trials , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-9-35
Abstract: The SU.FOL.OM3 (SUpplementation with FOlate, vitamin B6 and B12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids) trial is a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, secondary-prevention trial designed to test the efficacy of 5-methyl tetra-hydro-folates (5-MTHF) supplementation, in combination with vitamin B6 and B12 and/or n-3 fatty acids, at nutritional doses, on fatal and non fatal ischemic CVD in a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 2501 patients aged between 45 and 80 years who had a past history, in the previous year, of myocardial infarction (n = 1151) or instable angina pectoris (n = 711) or an ischemic stroke (n = 639) were included. Subjects have to be supplemented and followed up for five years. Daily supplementation comprised nutritional doses of 5-MTHF (560 μg), vitamin B6 (3 mg) and B12 (20 μg) and/or n-3 fatty acids (600 mg with an EPA:DHA ratio of 2:1). A factorial design 2 × 2 has been applied to investigate the separate effects of the B-vitamins, and the n-3 fatty acids, as well as their interaction as compared to the placebo.The primary endpoint is a combination of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are events of the composite endpoint taken separately, total mortality, and other cardiovascular events such as acute coronary syndromes, coronary revascularization, cardiac failure, arrhythmia...Baseline socio-demographic and medical characteristics of participants are totally comparable in the four randomized groups.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41926726During the last decades, many basic and clinical research have pointed to the role of B vitamins (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and n-3 fatty acids as nutritional factors that they might have a protective effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases.The interest for B-vitamins is linked to the "homocysteine-hypothesis" of vascular disease [1,2]. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been related to a higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke,
科学通报 , 1996,
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