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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 308200 matches for " Jacobus J la Grange "
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Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa
Marlize Booman, Brian L Sharp, Carrin L Martin, Bonifacio Manjate, Jacobus J la Grange, David N Durrheim
Malaria Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-2-13
Abstract: Successful development and application of a computerised spraying operations management system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 1998 resulted in its adaptation and introduction in neighbouring Maputo Province, southern Mozambique during 2000. The structure and components of this computerised management system are described, and its' operational benefit in southern Mozambique, where community-based spray operators apply intradomiciliary insecticide, are reviewed.The computerised management system allowed malaria programme management and field supervisors to monitor spraying coverage, insecticide consumption and application rates on an ongoing basis. The system supported a successful transition to community-based spraying, while assuring correct insecticide application and spraying completion according to schedule.In 1946, South Africa introduced intradomiciliary spraying with residual insecticides, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and BHC (Benzene hexachloride), to kill indoor-resting vector mosquitoes and thereby control malaria [1]. This resulted in a 75 percent reduction in the geographic extent of the malaria-affected area, with malaria occurrence limited to summer epidemics in the low-lying northern and eastern border areas with Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique [2,3]. Similar malaria control programmes were initiated in other southern African countries. In Mozambique, spraying operations for malaria control collapsed during the 1970s due to the protracted civil war with a resulting high burden of endemic malaria throughout the country [4].Recently there has been a resurgence of malaria in southern Africa, attributed to a number of factors, including parasite drug-resistance, mosquito insecticide-resistance, climate changes and large-scale population migration [3,5]. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has resulted in a simultaneous dwindling of resources available for public health programmes, thus placing an onus on programme managers to ensure optimal effic
A new approach to tubal re-anastomosis in South Africa
J la Grange, T Kruger, K van der Merwe, I Siebert, M Viola, T Matsaseng
South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2011,
Abstract:
Personality and cognitive ability as predictors of the job performance of insurance sales people
L. la Grange,G. Roodt
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2001, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v27i3.23
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether personality and a measure of cognitive ability (’verbal reasoning ability’) would significantly predict the job performance (’managerial ratings’) of sales people in a large South African insurance company.The Customer Contact Styles Questionnaire (CCSQ 5.2) and the Verbal Evaluation Test (VCC 3)were administered to 170 broker consultants, and their managers rated their job performance on the Customer Contact Competency Inventory (CCCI). By making use of multiple regression analysis it was found that certain personality dimensions significantly predict job performance, and that ’verbal reasoning ability’ did not have any significant predictive power. These findings, the implications thereof and suggestions for possible further research are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of persoonlikheid en ’n meting van kognitiewe vermoe (’verbale redeneervermoe ’) beduidende voorspellings van die werksprestasie (’bestuursbeoordelings’) van verkoopsmense in ’n groot Suid-Afrikaanse versekeringsmaatskappy, kan maak. Die ’Customer Contact Styles Questionnaire’ (CCSQ 5.2) en die ’Verbal EvaluationTest’ (VCC 3) was op 170 makelaarskonsultante afgeneem, en is deur hul bestuurders,met behulp van die ’Customer Contact Competency Inventory’ (CCCI), beoordeel. Deur gebruik te maak van meervoudige regressie analises is daar bevind dat werksprestasie beduidend deur sekere persoonlikheidsdimensies voorspelword.Ook is bevind dat ’verbale redeneervermoe ’niewerksprestasie beduidend voorspel nie. Hierdie bevindinge, die implikasies daarvan en voorstelle vir moontlike verdere navorsing, word bespreek.
Contrasting predictors of poor antiretroviral therapy outcomes in two South African HIV programmes: a cohort study
Mison Dahab, Salome Charalambous, Alan S Karstaedt, Katherine L Fielding, Robin Hamilton, Lettie La Grange, Gavin J Churchyard, Alison D Grant
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-430
Abstract: Treatment-na?ve patients starting ART were enrolled from a community and a workplace ART programme. Potential baseline predictors associated with poor treatment outcomes (defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml or having discontinued treatment by six months) were assessed using logistic regression. Exposure variables were organised for regression analysis using a hierarchical framework.38/227 (17%) of participants in the community had poor treatment outcomes compared to 47/117 (40%) in the workplace. In the community, predictors of worse outcomes included: drinking more than 20 units of alcohol per week, having no prior experience of chronic medications, and consulting a traditional healer in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 15.36, 95% CI 3.22-73.27; aOR 2.30, 95%CI 1.00-5.30; aOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.00-5.19 respectively). Being male and knowing someone on ART were associated with better outcomes (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.74; aOR 0.44, 95%CI 0.19-1.01 respectively). In the workplace, predictors of poor treatment outcomes included being uncertain about the health effects of ART and a traditional healer's ability to treat HIV (aOR 7.53, 95%CI 2.02-27.98; aOR 4.40, 95%CI 1.41-13.75 respectively). Longer pre-ART waiting time (2-12 weeks compared to <2 weeks) predicted better treatment outcomes (aOR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.56).Baseline predictors of poor treatment outcomes were largely unique to each programme, likely reflecting different populations and pathways to HIV care. In the workplace, active promotion of HIV testing may have extended ART to individuals who, without provider initiation, would not have spontaneously sought care. As provider-initiated testing makes ART available to individuals less motivated to seek care, patients may need additional adherence support, especially addressing uncertainty about the health benefits of ART.The global burden of HIV is heaviest in lower-income countries where the majority of adults with HIV live [1]. However by 2008 only 42% o
Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin
Nicol Moreland, Linda La Grange, Rebecca Montoya
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-2-10
Abstract: We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC) throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction.We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring.The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) children do not display the normal hemispheric dominance patterns observed in non-FAS children [1]. Dominance has been disrupted or is, in some cases, completely absent, depending on the amount of tissue loss in the corpus callosum. Morphological abnormalities, one of which is corpus callosum hypoplasia, has been observed in children with FAS [2]. Archibald et al. [3], using structural magnetic imaging (sMRI), also noted that there were corpus callosum abnormalities in children who had experienced prenatal exposure to ethanol. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of adult FAS males, callosal morphological data, when compared with landmark data, differed significantly from that of control males [4].Agenesis of the corpus callosum occurs as a consequence of early embryonic insult. The exact time of the insult usually determines the extent of commissural agenesis. Jeeves et al. [5] reported a timetable in which, if the insult occurs before the tenth embryonic week (in humans), all forebrain commissures will be absent. Miller [6] observed that in utero exposu
Algunos aspectos de la estructura de la Zona Subbética (Cordilleras Béticas. Espa a meridional)
Hermes, Jacobus J.
Estudios Geologicos , 1985,
Abstract: Analysis of sedimentation and tectonics of the Subbetic zone of the Betic Cordilleras leads to the conclusion that sedimentation and subsequent deformation are largely governed by a Wilson cycle (Wilson, 1966, 1968) that began the opening of the Tethyan rift in the Pangaea continent during the Pliensbachian, 180 Ma ago. The resulting ocean began to close again in the Cretaceous, a process that led to a collision between Iberia and African elements in the Burdigalian, which was followed by strike-slip movement along a shear zone between the two plates which continues to this day. It is argued that the collision led to general uplift of the Subbetic zone as shown by the termination of deep water pelagic and hemipelagic sedimentation in the entire zone, and that the subsequent strike-slip movements along a system of anastomosing faults loo to very intense deformation localized along separate fault zones, and to the opening of pull-apart basins with characteristic sedimentation sequences. El análisis de la sedimentación y la tectónica de la Zona Subbética (Cordilleras Béticas) conduce a la conclusión de que la sedimentación y la deformación posterior han sido ampliamente determinadas por un ciclo de Wilson (Wilson, 1966, 1968; Mitchell y Reading, 1978) que comenzó con la apertura del Tethys en el continente de Pangaea durante el Pliensbaquiense, hace 180 ID. a. El océano resultante empezó a cerrarse de nuevo en el Cretácico. Este proceso condujo a la colisión entre Iberia y elementos africanos en el Burdigaliense y fue seguido por un movimiento de salto en dirección a favor de una zona de cizalla que aún continúa en la actualidad. La colisión provocó el levantamiento general del la Zona Subbética, como lo demuestra el cese de la sedimentación pelágica y hemipelágica profundas por toda ella. Los movimientos subsiguientes de salto en 'dirección a favor de un sistema de fallas anastomosadas produjeron una deformación muy intensa localizada entre diferentes zonas de falla, así como la apertura de cuencas de desgarre con secuencias sedimentarias características.
Old soldiers never die ....
Jacobus J Boomsma, Sanne Nygaard
Genome Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-2-144
Abstract: There is something truly intriguing about soldiers, individuals that specialize in the defense of the society they are part of. Small societies do not have specialized soldiers, because their enemies are invariably stronger, so keeping a low profile after abandoning camp is likely to be a survival strategy that is superior to fighting. Standing armies tend to arise when states become large and stratified, so that cities and territories are vast and precious enough to justify the expenses incurred. This logic appears to apply also in the advanced insect societies, in which most individuals are sterile workers that have lost the ability to reproduce. Ants are more likely to have a specialized soldier caste when they have large nests in the middle of defendable territories [1]. This so-called central-place foraging closely resembles the classic human city states, which originated as walled fortresses surrounded by their hinterlands [2].The same logic seems to explain why advanced social wasps and bees have only normal workers and no specialized soldier-morphs. Their workers are powerful defenders by default as they have both wings and stings and they operate in overlapping three-dimensional territories where competitors may dilute food intake but rarely eliminate neighboring colonies. The very first bee species that has a specialized soldier caste has just been discovered [3], an exception that proves the rule because it has an unusually large robber-bee enemy that can exterminate entire colonies. Thus, the costs and benefits of having a standing army seem straightforward, but the set of mechanisms by which individuals commit to a soldier career is poorly understood. Ant soldier caste differentiation is molded by natural selection at the colony level, but realized by individual development pathways that have rarely been studied in detail. A recent article by Rajakumar et al. [4] sheds intriguing light on the molecular mechanisms of caste development, and on the evoluti
A new advance in alternative splicing databases: from catalogue to detailed analysis of regulation of expression and function of human alternative splicing variants
Pierre de la Grange, Martin Dutertre, Margot Correa, Didier Auboeuf
BMC Bioinformatics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-180
Abstract: After setting up a database in which human and mouse splicing variants were compiled, we developed tools (1) to predict the production of protein isoforms from these transcripts, taking account of the presence of open reading frames and mechanisms that could potentially eliminate transcripts and/or inhibit their translation, i.e. nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and microRNAs; (2) to support studies of the regulation of transcript expression at multiple levels, including transcription and splicing, particularly in terms of tissue specificity; and (3) to assist in experimental analysis of the expression of splicing variants. Importantly, analyses of all features from transcript metabolism to functional protein domains were integrated in a highly interactive, user-friendly web interface that allows the functional and regulatory features of gene transcripts to be assessed rapidly and accurately.In addition to identifying the transcripts produced by human and mouse genes, fast DB http://www.fast-db.com webcite provides tools for analyzing the putative functions of these transcripts and the regulation of their expression. Therefore, fast DB has achieved an advance in alternative splicing databases by providing resources for the functional interpretation of splicing variants for the human and mouse genomes. Because gene expression studies are increasingly employed in clinical analyses, our web interface has been designed to be as user-friendly as possible and to be readily searchable and intelligible at a glance by the whole biomedical community.Human genes are transcribed as messenger RNA precursor molecules (pre-mRNAs), which are composed of short exons separated by much longer introns. The introns are removed during the splicing process, which gives rise to mature mRNAs containing only exons. Genome-wide analyses indicates that most (up to 70%) human genes generate different transcripts with different exon contents by using alternative promoters, alternative polyadenylatio
The effects of ethanol and silymarin treatment during gestation on spatial working memory.
Steven Neese, Linda La Grange, Elisharose Trujillo, David Romero
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-4-4
Abstract: We provided pregnant Fischer/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% EtOH derived calories (EDC) during specific weeks of the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin co-administered with EtOH was also administered during specific weeks of the gestational period. We tested SWM of the offspring with a radial arm maze on postnatal day (PND) 60. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later analysis.We observed SWM deficits, as well as a significantly lower brain weight in female offspring born of mothers treated with EtOH during the third week of gestation in comparison to mothers treated during either the first or second weeks of gestation. Rats from any group receiving EtOH in co-administration with SY showed no significant deficits in SWM.EtOH treatment during the last week of gestation had the greatest impact on SWM. The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet appeared to ameliorate the EtOH-induced learning deficits.Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) produces a variety of physical and neuropsychological disorders in humans and animals [1]. In humans, FAS children tend to have a lower average IQ and also display a propensity for hyperactivity [2]. In rats, exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during gestation produces a cascade of neuroanatomical abnormalities. In particular, EtOH treatment during the later part of gestation produces increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats [3], which leads to subsequent neurobehavioral deficits.Olton and Papas [4], through testing on the radial arm maze (RAM), found the hippocampus to be the primary brain region involved in spatial working memory (SWM). Prior to testing, the fimbria-fornix (the major input-output source of the hippocampus) of rats was lesioned. Reference memory (memory for a response set that is the same on every trial) and working memory (memory that included proactive interference and involves procedures that require memory for events consistent in all t
A case of vulval schistosomiasis
D O'Mahony, L Banach, L L La Grange
South African Family Practice , 2007,
Abstract: While schistosomiasis is endemic in South Africa, cutaneous manifestations are relatively uncommon. This case report describes the clinical findings in a patient with vulval schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of genital lesions in residents in endemic areas or visitors to these areas. South African Family Practice Vol. 49 (9) 2007: pp. 42-43
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