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The cotton leafworm is an
important defoliating pest of cotton in Brazil, and occurs in all regions where
the crop is cultivated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of
larval densities of A. argillacea after different infestation periods on the yield components of four cotton
cultivars. The experiment was carried out in Pindorama, SP, Brazil, in the
2008/2009 growing season. The cultivars IAC-25, DeltaOPAL, Fibermax 966 and
Fibermax 993 were artificially infested with A. argillacea larvae at three times (30, 60 and 90 DAE) and four
densities (0, 2, 4, and 6 larvae per plant). The average boll weight (g), fiber
percentage (%), 100-seed weight (g) and yield (kg·ha-1)
were evaluated. With increasing infestation density of A. argillacea, the cotton yield of the cultivars decreased. The
presence of larvae significantly reduced the weight of 100 seeds of cultivar
Fibermax 966. Initial infestations reduced the boll weight of IAC-25 and
DeltaOPAL, while cultivars Fibermax 966 and Fibermax 993 were most affected by
late infestations. Early infestation compromised fiber percentage of cultivar
DeltaOPAL and late infestations were most harmful to cultivar Fibermax 966.
Early A. argillacea infestation
reduced the yield of DeltaOPAL, while infestations 60 DAE caused the most
damage to IAC-25, and the other cultivars were not affected by the moment of
This paper discusses the European Marshall Plan in three subsections: the impetus for its creation, its logistical implementation, and the results to both Europe as a whole and theUnited States. The consequences of the Marshall Plan are further broken down into three pieces: direct economic effects, indirect economic effects, and political effects. I argue that there is little evidence that direct economic effects account for the Marshall Plan’s success. Instead, the indirect economic effects, particularly in the implementation of liberal capitalistic policies, and the political effects, particularly the ideal of European integration and government-business partnerships, are the major reasons for Europe’s unsurpassed growth.
Carbon steel cantilever beams are widely used in many applications
in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Pitting corrosion is a
phenomenon which places severe limitations on the design of such applications.
As such, understanding this phenomenon and the methods to deal with it, are of
a great importance. This paper presents numerical investigation by using F. E.
(Finite Element) simulation on the load carrying capacity of corroded
cantilever beams with pitting corrosion damage. The pitting corrosion hole
shape has been modeled using ASTM G46 Standard Guide. Several different cases
of pitting corrosion, represented by hemispherical holes, were modeled and
examined by using ANSYS computer program. Clamped edge constraint was used on
one end, while the other end was free. In these F. E. models, element
of Solid95 was used and comparison to Bernoulli-Euler theory was made. The
effect of the radius of the pitting corrosion holes on the stresses in the beam
was examined in comparison to yield stress. It has been found that the M. S.
(Margin of Safety) has been reduced gradually with increasing radii. Agreement
with Bernoulli-Euler theory has been achieved only for small radii. Moreover,
three methods of pitting corrosion repairs were examined, together with Bernoulli-Euler
theory comparison: 1) Regular surface repair; 2) Extension
surface repair; and 3) “Handy Removal”. It was found that extension surface repair
has the highest M. S. value.
The present work breaks the endless impasse of the current theories with space and gravitation, proposing a completely new conception in which the quantum space, ruling the propagarion of light and the inertial motion of matter, moves according to a velocity field consistent with the local main astronomical motions. This solution is clearly suggested by recent clear-cut experimental observations, achieved with the help of the GPS and also is implicit in the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) underlying the Standard Elementary Particle Model (SEPM). In a first part (Section II) it is shown that these recent experimental observations demonstrate that real space, the one that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter, is moving round each gravitational source according to a Keplerian velocity field consistent with the local main astronomical motions. This is the crucial experimental fundamentation of the spacedynamics that appropriately produces the observed gravitational dynamics on earth, in the solar system and also the galactic gravitational dynamics without the need of dark matter as well as all the observed effects of the gravitational fields on the propagation of light and on the rate of clocks. In a second part (Section III) it is shown how this spacedynamics arises within the context of the QFT underlying the SEPM. The QFT entails the idea that space is filled up with a scalar quantum field, a Bose-Einstein condensate of Higgs bosons. This Higgs condensate is a quantum fluid, responsible for giving mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism providing them with mechanical properties. This lets clear that the Higgs condensate plays the role of real quantum space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter and is the ultimate reference for rest and for motion of matter and light. Therefore, on moving according to a Keplerian velocity field, this condensate causes the observed gravitational dynamics as well as all the other observed effects caused by the gravitational fields.