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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23906 matches for " JO Igene "
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Effect of groundnut flour substitution on yield, quality and storage stability of kilishii – a Nigerian indigenous dried meat product
VN Mgbemere, MA Akpapunam, JO Igene
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Kilishi, a traditionally sun-dried roasted meat product usually produced using raw meat, Tunkusa (a locally defatted groundnut cake paste), in combination with spices and condiments in the mix was produced after substitution with conventional defatted groundnut flour. This study was undertaken to establish the potential use of conventional defatted groundnut flour in place of Tunkusa in making a better quality and shelf - stable Kilishi. The yield, quality and storage stability of the product were evaluated using standard assay techniques. Yield was estimated as the ratio of weight of Kilishi over the fresh beef. Quality was measured in terms of proximate composition which included protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and ash contents, and the amount of calorie obtained from the Kilishi was calculated based on these constituents. Sensory quality attributes were also measured in terms of colour/appearance, flavour, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability. Microbial counts such as total plate, yeast and mould and coliform were measured. Storage stability was evaluated in terms of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), free fatty acid (FFA) and Peroxide value (PV) values prior and following storage in ambient (25-32°C) or refrigerator (7±1°C) for 12 weeks. Yield of the Kilishi (GFK) produced from conventional defatted groundnut flour ingredients was 87.3% compared to 83.7% of traditionally defatted groundnut cake (Tunkusa) Kilishi (TK) (control). The GFK had 12.1% moisture, 51.8% protein, 13.4% fat, 5.1% ash, 2.8% crude fibre and 14.8% carbohydrate compared to TK 11.6%, 49.8%, 11.4%, 5.2%, 3.1%, and 18.9% for these constituents, respectively. GFK also had 387.0 Kcal/100g energy value compared to 377.4 for TK. Both GFK and TK were highly rated in sensory attributes, however, TK had lesser acceptability. Microbial counts were non detectable in the fresh Kilishi products until week 12 and were within standard safe limits (106 CFU/g aerobic and 107 anaerobic counts) thereafter. At week 12, microbial counts were 2.1x101 CFU/g bacteria and 3.0x100 moulds for GFK stored at ambient (25-32°C) condition and 4.5x101 CFU/g bacteria for GFK stored at refrigerator (7±1°C) conditions, whereas TK had 1.6x101 CFU/g bacteria, 1.0x101 moulds and 1.1x101 CFU/g bacteria. Storage for 12 weeks slightly decreased sensory scores, protein and fat contents and also TBA, FFA, PV but moisture increased slightly. It is possible to produce high quality and yield as well as acceptable and shelf stable Kilishi using conventional defatted groundnut flour. Also GFK Kilishi had better quality attributes when compared with TK, Tunkusa Kilishi.
The Effect of Preservative Methods on the Yield, Water Content and Microbial Stability of Dairy Products
PA Ebabhamiegbebho, JO Igene, SE Evivie
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2011,
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of various methods of processing on the yield and microbial stability of smoke-dried beef. Five different production treatments were considered for evaluation in this study- raw smoke-dried meat (RSD), raw salted smoke-dried meat (RSSD), salted cooked smoke-dried meat (SCSD), cooked smoke-dried meat (CSD) and cured smoke-dried meat (CUSD) respectively. The water content (water activity) of the treatments in relation to storage life of the dairy products was determined. All samples were smoke-dried for five hours and each was equilibrated to water activities of 0.11, 0.33 and 0.75 for two weeks undisturbed. A control experiment was also prepared. Analysis of variance was carried out on all data generated and the difference among the means were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results showed that cured smoke-dried beef was the most acceptable organoleptically and most shelf stable because there was insignificant microbial activity after twelve weeks of storage (p>0.05). It also had the highest yield of 56.35% while raw, smoke-dried beef had the lowest yield of 32.1%. Significant microbial activities were recorded in other samples at twelve weeks of storage due to treatment effects (p<0.05). The organisms isolated in smoke-dried beef were Aspergillus flavipes, A.flavus, A.niger, A.aureous and Fusarium spp. A. flavipes was isolated from samples of water activity at 0.33 while A.niger was isolated from samples of water activity at 0.11. It was recommended that the reduction in moisture content of smoke-dried beef into water activities of 0.11 and 0.33 be vigorously pursued to ensure a safe and shelf-stable product for effective quality retention and distribution. This work will help local communities realize the importance of how the combined effects of using preservatives and how moisture content significantly (p<0.05) extended the shelf life of smoked and stored dairy products.
Influence of Ocimum gratissium Leaves Supplement on Growth Indices and Blood Constituents of Goats Fed Sweet Potato Peels with Cashew Nut Shell  [PDF]
M. I. Okoruwa, C. A. Igene
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54041
Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the influence of sweet potato peels and cashew nut shell supplemented with Ocimum gratissium leaves, using growth indices and blood constituents by goats. Eighteen goats with an average weight of 8.11 kg and aged between 8 and 9 months old were allotted to three dietary treatments with six animals per treatment in a complete randomized design. The compared diets which comprised combination of sweet potato peels and cashew nut shell with concentrate respectively were in different ratios which included diet I (30:25:45), diet II (25:30:45) and diet III (20:35:45). Each goat also received 8 grams of Ocimum gratissium leaves as supplement in the diet. The results showed that average feed intake (6.42 kg) and fed conversion ratio (2.15) were highest in diet I and significantly different from other diets. Diet II had the highest significant (P < 0.05) values in final body weight (12.01 kg), average total weight gain (3.89 kg), packed cell volume (29.46%), haemoglobin (10.96%), red blood cell (9.84 × 103/L), lymphocytes (56.01%), monocytes (1.06%), total protein (7.65 g/dl), albumin (3.58 g/dl), globulin (4.07 g/dl) and triglyceride (2.29 mmol/L). White blood cell (7.01 × 103/L), neutrophils (49.82%), cholesterol (42.34 mmol/L), creatnine (1.59 mg/dl) and urea (18.29 mg/dl) were (P < 0.05) best in diet III, whereas initial bodyweight, average daily weight gain, eosinophils and basophils were not significantly different (P < 0.05). It is concluded that diet II has the potential to enhance growth rate and blood constituents of goats.
Effect of Diet Types and Slaughter Ages on Carcass Characteristics of the Domestic Rabbits in Humid Southern Nigeria
I.T. Oteku,J.O. Igene
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed types (rabbit grower’s mash, chicken grower’s mash and chicken layer’s mash) and age at slaughter (10wks, 13wks and 16wks) on the characteristics of rabbit fresh meat. The parameters evaluated were the pH change during slaughtering (during rigor mortis development) and carcass characteristics in terms of dressed weights, dressing percentage, organ weights, physical cuts and meat/bone ratio to establish practice viability. On the average, it took the rabbit meat 4.76 hours to attain the ultimate pH of 5.69 at 2 2 C. The dressed carcass weight, on o the average was 47.9% of live weight. Dressed carcass percentage was significantly influenced by slaughter age with rabbit slaughtered at 10 weeks having lower value than that of 13 and 16 weeks slaughter ages. Slaughter age influenced the absolute weight of each physical cut. As the slaughter age increased, the average meat/bone ratio of 3.46 increased significantly. Diets did not have significant effect on meat/bone ratio and on the relative organ weights. Moistened chicken feeds (Layers and Growers mash) could be fed to rabbits with heavy forage supplementation for optimal rabbit meat production.
Replacement Value of Cassava Peels with Rice Husk for Guinea Grass in the Diet of West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep
M. I. Okoruwa,F. U. Igene,M. A. Isika
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n7p254
Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the replacement value of cassava peels and rice husk combination for guinea grass, using nutrient digestibility, energy utilization and in vitro gas production characteristics by West African Dwarf Sheep. Fifteen (15) growing WAD Sheep with an average weight of 9.00 ± 0.01kg and aged between 9 and 10 months old were randomly assigned to three (3) dietary treatments with five (5) animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The compared diets were A (guinea grass), B (cassava peels with rice husk in a ratio of 60:10) and C (cassava peels with rice husk in a ratio of 55:15). The results showed that parameters observed under digestibility, energy and in vitro gas production characteristics were significantly affected (P<0.05) with the exception of dry matter digestibility, gas produced from the soluble fraction (a), gas production rate constant (c)and incubation time(t1/2) (P>0.05). CP (74.37%) , EE (62.49%), CF (47.08%), ash (70.89%), NDF (48.62%), ADF (49.68%), ADL (54.83%) digestibility, GE intake (2229.74kcal/g/day), DE (95.45kcal/g/day), CH4 (13ml), ME (8.31MJ/kg/DM), OMD (56.10%) and SCFA (0.09uM) were significantly (P<0.05) better for diet A. Gas production from the insoluble fraction (38.75ml) and potential gas production (41.00ml) were highest in diet B, whereas NFE digestibility (79.38%), total energy output (197.21kcal/g/day) and metabolizable energy BW 0.75 (15.11kcal/g/day) were higher for diet C. It is concluded that cassava peels with rice husk in a ratio of 60:10 has a potential to replace guinea grass in the diet of WAD sheep.
An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria
I.T. Oteku,J.O. Igene,I.M. Yessuf
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken meats as well as motivational and preferred methods of preparation of the meat. Duck meat was nevertheless acceptable and rated fairly by most of the respondents. Consumption of duck meat was however constrained by non-availability, non-familiarity, inability to slaughter the live duck and some traditional and religious taboos associated with the meat. There was a significant indication that consumption level of the meat will improve considerably when established duck meat shop and processed meat products are available.
Commemorative Practices in the Humanities around 1900  [PDF]
Jo Tollebeek
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.43017
Abstract: Around 1900, the humanities underwent a metamorphosis which led to the emergence of modern disciplines. This transformation was accompanied by another process, the building of scientific communities. The central question addressed in this essay was how these new disciplinary communities in the humanities were strengthened by commemorative practices. Those practices could be highly diverse, ranging from the dedication of a book and the circulation and collection of photographs to the organisation of tribute events, attending of funerals and writing of obituaries. The forms that these practices could take were mapped out in this essay using material drawn from the archives of three prominent (literary) historians from Belgium and the Netherlands: Paul Fredericq, Robert Fruin and Jan te Winkel.
Teacher Education and the Targeting of Disadvantage  [PDF]
Bruce Burnett, Jo Lampert
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.25064
Abstract: This paper outlines the Exceptional Teachers for Disadvantaged Schools (ETDS) project which began in June 2010 with the aim of developing and documenting an Australian university-based teacher education program specifically focusing on the preparation of high quality teachers for the disadvantaged school sector. ETDS constitutes a novel model of teacher education targeting disadvantaged schooling in that the selection of participating pre-service teachers has been based on their proven academic performance over the first 2 years of their 4-year Bachelor of Education degree. ETDS has established a modified curriculum that better supports the on-campus training of this cohort while also targeting the role of field experience within partner disadvantaged school settings. This paper offers a rationale for the model, unpacks its various phases and provides a justification of the model’s selection criteria based on high academic achievement.
Application of a Computational Tool to Study the Influence of Worn Wheels on Railway Vehicle Dynamics  [PDF]
Jo?o Pombo
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.52009
Abstract: The search for fast, reliable and cost effective means of transport that presents better energy efficiency and less impact on the environment has resulted in renewed interest and rapid development in railway technology. To improve its efficiency and competitiveness, modern trains are required to travel faster, with high levels of safety and comfort and with reduced Life Cycle Costs (LCC). These increasing demands for vehicle requirements imposed by railway operators and infrastructure companies include maintaining the top operational speeds of trainsets during their life cycle, having low LCC and being track friendly. This is a key issue in vehicle design and in train operation since it has a significant impact on the safety and comfort of railway systems and on the maintenance costs of vehicles and infrastructures. The purpose of this work is to analyze how the wear progression on the wheelsets affects the dynamic behavior of railways vehicles and its interaction with the track. For this purpose a vehicle, assembled with new and worn wheels, is studied in realistic operation scenarios. The influence of the wheel profile wear on the vehicle dynamic response is assessed here based on several indicators used by the railway industry. The running stability of the railway vehicles is also emphasized in this study.
Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Vegetables: A Review  [PDF]
Jo?o Silva Dias
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.310179
Abstract: Vegetables are considered essential for well-balanced diets since they supply vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Each vegetable group contains an unique combination and amount of these phytonutriceuticals, which distinguishes them from other groups and vegetables whithin their own group. In the daily diet vegetables have been strongly associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Some phytochemicals of vegetables are strong antioxidants and are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease by protecting against free radical damage, by modifying metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, or even by influencing processes that alter the course of tumor cells. All the vegetables may offer protection to humans against chronic diseases. Nutrition is both a quantity and a quality issue, and vegetables in all their many forms ensure an adequate intake of most vitamins and nutrients, dietary fibers, and phytochemicals which can bring a much-needed measure of balance back to diets contributing to solve many of these nutrition problems. The promotion of healthy vegetable products has coincided with a surging consumer interested in the healthy functionality of food. Because each vegetable contains a unique combination of phytonutriceuticals, a great diversity of vegetables should be eaten to ensure that individual’s diet includes a combination of phytonutriceuticals and to get all the health benefits. This article make a review and discusses the nutritional quality and health benefits of the major groups of vegetables. More interdisciplinary work is required that involves nutritional and food scientists as well as others from biomedical fields to ascertain the thrue function of specific phytonutriceuticals.
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