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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24143 matches for " JO Aina "
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Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes
CC Okoro, JO Aina
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Tropical hop substitute from utazi (UTZ) Gongronema latifolium, bitter cola (BTC), Garcinia kola, bitter leaf (BTL), Vernonia amygdalina and a blend (1:1.41:2.89) of the three (HSB) respectively, were produced. Stability studies were carried out to predict their suitability for brewing after one to six months storage at 5 ± 1oC and 27 ± 1oC, respectively. The level of reduction in their a-acid, iso-a-acid, soft resin, analytical bitterness and degree of utilization levels were determined. Result showed that there was a general reduction of between 10 to 30% in these parameters. However, the (HSB) recorded lower losses than BTC, BLF, and UTZ. Also the samples were more stable at 5 ± 1oC than at 27 ± 1oC. Samples treated with Ca(OH)2 had lower rate of decrease instability with percentage loses of between 5 to 15% recorded in all the samples. Pertinently, these levels of reduction were comparable to the level of losses reported in conventional temperate hops (Humulus lupulus) stored under similar conditions. Conclusively, tropical hop substitutes stored at 5 ± 1oC to 27 ± 1oC can still be used for brewing even after three to six months storage.
Chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus)
AK Oladele, JO Aina
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties (yellow and brown) of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) seeds were studied. The seeds were obtained in dried form, sorted, wet cleaned, dried, milled and sieved to produce flour. The flours were tagged YTF and BTF for yellow and brown varieties, respectively. The protein contents of YTF and BTF were 7.15 and 9.70%, respectively. BTF has higher fat, ash, potassium, magnesium, manganese and iron contents than YTF. On the other hand, YTF has higher carbohydrate, crude fibre, calcium, sodium and copper contents. The zinc and copper levels were low in both flours (0.01 - 0.02 mg/100 g). A low bulk density (0.55 - 0.62 g/cm3), setback viscosity (6.58 - 13.75 RVU) and breakdown viscosity (0.58 - 1.50 RVU) were recorded for the flours.
Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing
PE Ajebesone, JO Aina
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2004,
Abstract: The potential of four selected tropical vegetables, Grongonema latifolium (Utazi), Vernonia amigdalina (Bitter leaf), Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Garcinia cola (Bitter Kola) as substitutes for hops in tropical beer brewing were evaluated. The vegetables were processed into powder by drying at 50°C for 24 hours (such that they maintained their original colour) and then cooled in dessicator before milling in a hammer mill. Proximate analysis showed that these vegetables had protein and crude fibre values comparable to those of commercial hops. Fat content values were however much higher than those for hops with Grongonema latifolium having the highest values of 19.10%. Garcinia cola with a total resin value of 8.24% and an essential oils value of (1.16ml/ 100g) had values which were significantly different from those of hops. The other three had values comparable to those for hops. Bitterness levels were high when the vegetables were extracted with organic solvents, than with distilled water. These values however decreased, the longer the storage period. Losses in bitterness were more when the vegetables were stored at ambient temperature than when they were stored at refrigeration or freezing temperatures. Losses in bitterness were more for water extracts than for organic solvent extracts. Key Words: Hops, Resins, Essential Oils, Bitterness level Journal of Food Technology in Africa Vol.9(1) 2004: 13-16
Effect of drying methods on the rheological characteristics and colour of yam flours
KO Jimoh, TO Olurin, JO Aina
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The effect of drying methods (sun and oven-drying) on the rheological properties and colour of amala, a thick paste from yam flour, was investigated using two varieties of yam (Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata). The yam flour produced was later reconstituted to produce amala of different pasting characteristics, textural qualities and colour. D. rotundata produced amala of higher paste viscosities, and firmer gels were produced from D. rotundata than yam flour paste produced from D. alata. A higher water binding capacity (156.7%) was observed in yam flour paste produced from D. alata as compared with that of D. rotundata, while no significant difference was observed in the solubility index and swelling power of the two varieties. Blanching, a unit operation in yam flour processing, has a significant effect on the pasting characteristics of the reconstituted flour. It reduces the peak viscosity, holding strength, final viscosity, set back and elasticity but it has little or no significant effect on the adhesiveness, smoothness and cohesiveness of the paste. Sun and oven drying had no effect on the pasting characteristics or physicochemical properties. However, yam flour produced using sun drying method had a more elastic paste and a higher brown-index.
Physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation of jam made from black-plum fruit (vitex doniana)
SO Ajenifujah-Solebo, JO Aina
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: The potential of some wild-growing indigenous fruits such as black-plum (Vitex doniana) has remained largely untapped. Most tropical fruits can be processed and preserved in small-scale operations using simple techniques. Various uses have been reported for black-plum ranging from medicinal to dietary utilization. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing jam from black-plum and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of the product. Black-plum jam was produced using traditional openkettle method. The physico-chemical analyses of black-plum fruit and jam were determined. Physico-chemical analyses of black-plum fruit showed that it had soluble solids of 18.83 + 0.11 oBrix, pH 3.85 + 0.07 and ascorbic acid was 33.35 + 0.21 mg/100g. Na, K and Ca contents were (0.1 mg/100g); (1.33 mg/100g); and (0.765 mg/100g), respectively. Physico-chemical analyses of the jam showed that it had soluble solids of 68.0 + 0.71oBrix, 24.22 + 0.08% reducing sugar, pH of 3.42 + 0.03 and total acidity of 0.34 + 0.01%. Proximate analysis of the jam showed nutrient values of crude protein 4.23 + 0.03%, crude fibre 1.0 + 0.03%, ash 4.30 + 0.02%, crude lipid 2.43 + 0.03%, carbohydrate 68.1 + 0.28%, sodium (Na) 0.28 + 0.01 mg/100g, potassium (K) 1.42 + 0.01 mg/100g, calcium (Ca) 0.97 + 0.01 mg/100g, moisture 21.65 + 0.33%, dry matter 78.36+ 0.33%. Physico-chemical and proximate analyses of the fruit on wet and dry basis were also carried out. Sensory evaluation by untrained panelists indicated consumer acceptability. Statistical evaluation using simple-paired comparison between black-plum jam and commercial black currant jam on a nine-point hedonic scale showed a preference for the commercial jam, particularly in terms of colour. The differences in flavour and spreadability were not significant (P > 0.05) 5% level; while the differences in colour, taste and overall acceptability were significant (P < 0.05) 5% level. Some assessors, however, scored black-plum jam high for flavour and spreadability.
The Effect of Alpha Tocopherol on Body Organs of Neonatal Rats Exposed to Vanadium
JO Olopade, OR Owolabi, OO Aina, SK Onwuka
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of -Tocopherol (vitamin E) on the organs of neonatal rats exposed to Vanadium. Organ histology show that vanadium through lactation induced pathological changes including congestion and haemorrhages at the renal cortex, severe diffuse vacuolar degeneration of the hepatocytes, peribronchiolar hemorrhage, interstitial congestion and proliferation of pneumocytes. Also, the testes of the pups revealed slight reduction in germinal epithelium with the destruction of the spermatogenic cells although the interstitial connective tissue appeared relatively unaffected. The pups whose dams were treated with vanadium and -Tocopherol displayed morphology similar to control in these organs. In this study however, no striking distinguishing difference was observed in the heart, thymus and spleen of lactating pups exposed to vanadium when compared to controls. We conclude that -Tocopherol treatment of vanadium exposed mothers may also be beneficial at least in part in the protection of the organs of lactating offspring.
Maduabuchi Dukor and the Legacies of Ontological Practices in African Thought System  [PDF]
Adebayo Aina
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A028

A challenge human existence is confronted in contemporary society is the justification of a coherent social order. Most of these justifications have been grounded, over time, on natural approach to the neglect of the African ontological practice. This natural reference fails to account for the ontological practice premised on African belief system which reconciles the natural and spiritual aspects of human existence. The study adopts the analytic approach in philosophy which evolves a clarification of the ontological concept within the African context.The African ontological practice hinges on Dukor’s perspective which provides for a coherent interconnection among social structure, law and belief system towards the certitude and trust making for harmonious human well-being.Social order is enhanced by this African ontological practice and should, therefore, be incorporated into the public sphere.

In vitro and in vivo animal model antitrypanosomal evaluation of ten medicinal plant extracts from south west Nigeria
RE Antia, JO Olayemi, OO Aina, EO Ajaiyeoba
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The relative antitrypanosomal and haemolytic activities of the methanol extracts of 10 Nigerian medicinal plants extracts comprising of the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Afzelia africana, Khaya senegalensis and Terminalia superba as well as the leaf extract of Lannea welwistchii were investigated. All the extracts showed varying degrees of trypanocidal activity in vitro. The roots of T. superba and K. senegalensis, the stem of T. superba and the leaf of A. africana were the most effective with a minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of 3 mg/ml; compared to 5.4 mg/ml for diminazene aceturate (Berenil ), the reference drug. A. africana stem bark also had an MLC of 5.4 mg/ml in the study. The extracts were also analyzed for hemolytic activity, using washed bovine red blood cells in order to ascertain if any relationship between their hemolytic and antitrypanosomal activities. In the in vivo analysis, only the T. superba root bark extract totally inhibited the growth of parasites in both rats and mice; all the other root bark extracts resulted in parasite clearance in rats only. The duration of clearance in all cases was 48 h, with relapse parasitaemia occurring on the 3rd day post-administration of the extracts.
A Re-Interpretation of African Philosophical Idea of Man and the Universe: The Yoruba Example  [PDF]
Michael Aina Akande
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A023

The concern of this paper is to argue against Maduabuchi Dukor’s conception of African philosophical ideas of man, universe and God as“theistic humanism”. Dukor’s submission is an anti-thesis of the claims by many pioneer scholars in African philosophy who claimed that if Africans do not live in a religious universe perhaps one can affirm that their universe is theistic. But indeed the Africans’ perceptions and attitude to life in their various manifestations reveal an idealistic metaphysical orientation without an attenuation of humanistic elements. It is argued in this paper that Dukor’s philosophical idea of reality in the African context though contributes to knowledge, it is in sharp contrast to African metaphysical theories such as Placide Temple’s theory of vital forces, Olubi Sodipo’s theory of mystical causality, Dagogo Idoniboye’s theory of spiritism among others. Even Sophie Oluwole, who argues that the Yoruba idea of morality is humanistic, still concludes that in moral issues the gods act as agent of sanction. In situating the African idea of reality in context, the Yoruba example is used in this paper with a view to establishing, contrary to Dukor’s“theistic humanism”; that reality among the Yoruba is better construed as“humanistic theism”.

Oxidative Stress and Oxidative Damage in Male Rat Erythrocytes Associated with Prolonged Exposure to Smoke Pollution  [PDF]
Albert Cosmas Achudume, Funso Aina
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35051
Abstract: Exposure of animals to different duration of smoke can result in a wide range of adverse clinical conditions. Toxicological consequences arising from prolonged exposure may not be totally enumerated. The present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress-inducing potential of a short and long-time exposure of male rat erythrocytes to environmentally relevant to public health. Male Wistar rats were exposed to open municipal land-fill smoke for 30 and/or 60 days. The oxidative stress in erythrocytes was evaluated by assessing the magnitude of malondialdehyde production and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (C) and glutathione reductase (GR) after 30 and/or 60 days of exposure. After 30 days there was no change in SOD, catalase and GR activities and no alterations in GSH and lipid peroxidation (LPO). After 60 days, the levels and activities of SOD (23.62%), catalase (5.24%), GR (14.87%) decreased. Overall, the study demonstrates that the chronic exposure of male rats to smoke results in induction of oxidative stress and simultaneous reduction in antioxidative defense system in erythrocytes at 60 days of exposure.
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